Solid State

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solid state electronics



Solid state (electronics)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Solid state (disambiguation). Solid-state electronics are those circuits or devices built entirely from solid materials and in which the electrons, or other charge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material.[1] The term is often used to contrast with the earlier technologies of vacuum and gas-discharge tube devices and it is also conventional to exclude electro-mechanical devices (relays, switches, hard drives and other devices with moving parts) from the term solid state.[2][3] While solid-state can include crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solids and refer to electrical conductors, insulators andsemiconductors, the building material is most often crystalline semiconductor.[4][5] Common solid-state devices include transistors, microprocessor chips, and DRAM. DRAM devices are used incomputers, flash drives and more recently, solid state drives to replace mechanically rotating magnetic disc hard drives. A considerable amount of electromagnetic and quantummechanical action takes place within the device. The expression became prevalent in the 1950s and the 1960s, during the transition from vacuum tube technology to semiconductor diodes and transistors. More recently, the integrated circuit (IC), the light-emitting diode (LED), and the liquid-crystal display (LCD) have evolved as further examples of solid-state devices. In a solid-state component, the current is confined to solid elements and compounds engineered specifically to switch and amplify it. Current flow can be understood in two forms: as negativelychargedelectrons, and as positively-charged electron deficiencies called electron holes or just "holes". In some semiconductors, the current consists mostly of electrons; in other semiconductors, it consists mostly of "holes". Both the electron and the hole are called charge carriers. For data storage, solid-state devices are much faster and more reliable but are usually more expensive. Although solid-state costs continually drop, disks, tapes, and optical disks also continue to improve their cost/performance ratio. The first solid-state device was the "cat's whisker" detector, first used in 1930s radio receivers. A whiskerlike wire was moved around on a solid crystal (such as a germanium crystal) in order to detect a radio signal.[6] The solid-state device came into its own with the invention of the transistor in 1947.

Solid-state electronic devices are part of our everyday lives. The transistor, invented in 1947 by Bell Labs, was the first solid-state device to come into commercial use in the 1960s. Solid-state electronic devices have replacedvacuum tubes in just about all electronics devices. Vacuum tubes are still used in the transmitters of radio stations you listen to, many guitar amplifiers and some audiophile equipment. Vacuum tubes are the opposite of "solid-state" because tubes burnout, break, etc. One of the first solid-state devices was a crystal radio. In a crystal radio, a piece of wire positioned on a crystal's surface is able to separate the lower-frequency audio from the higher-frequency transmitted radio carrier wave. This form of signal detection is due to the crystal's ability to pass a current in only one direction. For more details, see How Radio Works. Solid-state gets its name from the path that electrical signals take through solid pieces of semi-conductor material. Prior to the use of solid-state devices, such as the common transistor, electricity passed through the various elements inside of a heated vacuum tube. Solid-state devices, such as a transistor, use conductors to control the flow of signals through a circuit.

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In a transistor amplifier, a small change on the input signal's amplitude is immediately reflected in larger amplitude in the output within a transistor.

In a vacuum tube amplifier, after the tube warms up, a signal is applied to the "grid" of a tube and the resultant output of the same frequency is at a much higher amplitude. In the sandwich-like construction of a transistor, the emitter, base, and collector do a similar task at much lower DC voltages, with no "warm-up" time! In digital circuits, an integrated circuit chip is nothing more that a collection of transistors and wires that hook them together. Solid state devices called diodes have a replaced rectifier vacuum tubes, used to transform alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Cool-running light-emitting diodes (LEDs), another solid-state device used for indicators on the front panel of your computer and monitor, have replaced the earlier incandescent bulbs. Multiple bright LEDs are also used for the third stoplight on many U.S. vehicles and for traffic signals.

When we discuss them with respect to the type of signal, we can say "electrical" instruments deal with 'Analog' signals mostly defined by the equations of classical physics. They certainly obey Ohm's Law. Term 'Electrical' is associated with the typical conception of Electric Field(E) which exerts electric Force(F) on a charge particle(q) and it produces electricity, Where F=qE. But 'Electronic' instruments are made to deal with 'Digital' signals. Analog electrical signal is changed to Digital signals ( 0, 1). They are semiconductors devices which never obey Ohm's Law and implemented with logic gates. ------ Prepared by Md. Nazmul Hasan, 2nd Semester (Spring 2008) Deptt. of Electrical & Electronics Engg. , NWFP University of Engg. & Tech., Peshawar, Pakistan.== Answer == I generally draw the distinction between electronics and electrical by whether or not the electricity controls something physical (a motor, illumination, arc welding), which i consider electrical, and electronic if the electrical use is dealing with information like a radio signal or digital computing. It's really a hazy line of distinction, it's more important to be aware that people will have their own definitions than it is to make an absolute distinction. In electronics you have amplification. In electricity you have only loss. No transformers do not amplify they step up or down with always a power loss. by Mike St. Angelo, RCDD, A+, Network+

I've also heard that 20 watts of power is a delination. Not unreasonable. ANSWER ELECRICAL means flow of electrons. ELECTRONICS means study of electrons.

ELECTRICAL mean it consist with only pure conductive material and electronics mean consist semiconductive materials .... and the meaning of electronics is to control the electrons. (harshit d ,[email protected]) Read more:

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