South Africa

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SOUTH AFRICA INTRODUCTION South Africa (or the Republic of South Africa) is a state located in Southern Africa. The country came into being in the Act of Union 1910 that united two British colonies and two independent republics into the Union of South Africa. It is the only nation-state named after its location (the tip of Africa). It is divided into 9 provinces, it has the coastline of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. To the north the neighbouring countries are: Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east, Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is in the middle of the South African territory. The country is multi-ethnic and has diverse cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognized in the constitution. IsiZulu and English are the mother tongues. All ethnic and language groups have their representation in the country’s constitutional democracy comprising a parliamentary republic; unlike most parliamentary republics, the positions of head of state and head of government are merged in a parliament-dependant President. A 79,5% of the South African population is of black ancestry; about a quarter of the population is unemployed and lives on a very low income. NATIONAL SYMBOLS NATIONAL FLAG It was adopted on Freedom Day, 27 April 1994; and was flown for the first time on 10 May 1994 – the day Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as President. Although the colors have no official meaning attached to them, they represent a synopsis of the country's vexillological history and current political realities. Black, green and yellow are the colors of Nelson Mandela's political party. Moreover, the flag incorporates also the colors of the African National Congress and the former Boer republics flags (red, white, and blue). The Y shape represents the convergence of South Africa's diverse society and unity. The South African flag is basically made up of former South African flags and the past meanings of the colors were that red stands for bloodshed, blue for open blue skies, green for the land, black for the black people, white for the European people and yellow for the natural resources such as gold. NATIONAL COAT OF ARMS The first coat of arms (also, state emblem) was known in 1910, and then replaced by this new one in Freedom Day 2000. It represents the harmony of all cultures and the country flowering as a nation. The secretary bird with uplifted wings: protection and ascendance of the nation Rising sun: symbol of source of life and light King protea: national flower, represents integration of cultures. Ears of wheat: fertility Elephant tusks: wisdom, strength, and eternity Shield: defence of peace Human figures: Khoisan people, first inhabitants of the land Spear and Knobkierie: they are lying down in sign of peace; represent defence and authority Motto: written in Khoisan “diverse people unite” NATIONAL ORDERS They are the highest awards that a country gives to its citizens and eminent foreign nationals, trough its President. a) Order of Mapungubwe: highest honour; awarded for excellence and exceptional achievement; can be Platinum, Gold, Silver or Bronze. b) Order of Baobab: awarded for distinguished service in business, economy, science, medicine, technological innovation or community service; can be Supreme Counsellor, Grand Counsellor or Counsellor. c) Order of Companions: awarded to Heads of State and other dignataries for promoting peace, cooperation and friendship towards South Africa. d) Order of Luthuli: awarded to South Africans who have made a meaningful contribution to the struggle for democracy, human rights, justice and peace. e) Order of Ikhamanga: awarded for excellence in arts, culture, literature, music or sports. f) Order of Mendi for Bravery: named after World War I troop called SS Mendi; it is awarded to citizens who have performed acts of bravery. NATIONAL ANIMAL The spring box – named the rugby team, “the Boks” NATIONAL BIRD The blue crane

NATIONAL FLOWER The giant/king protea – gives name to the cricket team NATIONAL FISH The galjoen. It was chosen because of its endemism – it is found along the coast from Namibia to Durban and nowhere else in the world. NATIONAL TREE The real yellowwood. LANGUAGE South Africa has 11 official languages, together with others spoken in the country such as African, European or Asian. This linguistics diversity means all languages have had a profund effect with each other. a) b) c) d) e) f) Nguni languages: Isizulu, Isixhosa, Siswati and Isindebele. Sotho languages: Setswana, Sesotho sa Leboa and Sesotho Afrikaans English Venda groupīƒ  Tshivenda Xitsonga

The Isizulu is the mother tongue; it’s the most common language in SA; the most spoken and probably the most understood. It’s the language of the largest ethnic group: the Zulu people. It’s a tonal language. The Isixhosa is the second largest language. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun which dominates in the sentence. Shares much words and grammar with Isizulu. Afrikaans is a west Germanic language; it is the third most spoken. It has Dutch roots with influences from English, Malay, German, Portuguese, French and other African languages. It was initially known as Cape Dutch. It has an important tole in minority white rule in Apartheid. Sesotho sa Leboa is the fourth common language. English is generally understood across the country. It is the language of business, politics and media. It is now the official language of Cape Colony, replacing Dutch and the other mother tongue of the country. It is compulsory in all schools. Croels (mother tongue formed from the contact of an European language with a local language): Tsotsi Taal: “gangster language”; it is a mixture of Afrikaan, English and African language; it is spoken in SA urban areas, mainly by males Pidgin (grammatically simplified form of a language): Fangalo: grew up in mines to allow communication between white supervisors and African labourers during the colonial and Aprtheid era. It was a simplified version of Isizulu and Isixhosa, it incorporated elements from English, Dutch, Afrikaans and Portuguese. • GLOSSARY OF SLANG WORDS

Ag ('A*g') A multi-purpose word, pronounced like the ach in German. "Ag, no man" (sign of irritation). Can precede any sentence for various effects, such as the more neutral, "Ag, I don't know." Used by some people as a stand-alone expletive. Ahoy (Greeting) "Ahoy!" Alot of younger surfers use this old mariner's greeting. Not sure why. Also aweh, howzit, yooit, hoesit, yo. It is also to get someones attention. Aikona (Aikõna) (No way, absolutely not). From indigenous Nguni language meaning “No”. Sometimes pronounced “Haikõna” Aita! ('Ay-tah') (Greeting) "Aita brah!" Originated in the townships among the youth, and still used. It's common among politically correct (PC) people. Rabid racists in the past have miraculously become PC people. Avo (Abbreviation for Avocado) Aweh ('Ah-wear') (Greeting) "Aweh my bru" (Hello my friend) Also howzit, yooit, hoesit, yo. Babalaas ('Bub-ba-lars')

The hangover from hell, fondly called a "Barbie". The Babalas is no mythical beast. But look at yourself in the mirror and you'll wonder as you examine that furry tongue slithering in a mumbling, parched mouth, puffy eyelids scraping bloodshot eyeballs. Comes from the Zulu word ibhabhalazi. Bakkie (Like “lucky”) (Pickup truck in US, "Ute" in Australia) Many people own bakkies in South Africa, particularly in the rural areas. "That bokkie and her ballie parked off on the back of the bakkie." (That pretty girl and her father sat on the back of the pickup truck) Bergie (bêr*gee) (Alcoholic hobo who hangs out on the streets of Cape Town) The word Bergie comes from the Afrikaans “Berg” (Mountain) of Table Mountain, where they used to live. Some still do, in bushes or caves. Many stay in the city these days. You seem them huddled in corners at night, wrapped in a blanket, wrapped around a bottle of booze. Biltong Afrikaans – from original “bul tong” – bull’s tongue. Known as beef jerky in the US. This is specially prepared dried raw meat, made from beef, venison or Ostrich. Biscuit (Cookie, twit) Only in South Africa, where a word can mean a small crunchy cake or an insult aimed at a twit or a fool. In America, a biscuit is a scone with no sugar. In South Africa, a biscuit is actually a cookie. Some favourites are Marie, Romany Creams and Eet Sum Mor. "John, you biscuit!" Blaps (Blups) (Afrikaans – “Mistake”) "Oops, I made a blaps." Bobotie Malay dish, but has become “traditionally Afrikaans”. Made with spicy mince, raisins, spices and yellow rice. It is baked in the oven with a couple of eggs broken on top. Delicious. Try it some time. Boer Afrikaans – “farmer”. Used to refer to any (conservative) Afrikaans speaking person. Boerewors (vorse) Farmstyle sausage or "wors". (Literally, "Farmers Sausage"). It is a spicy sausage made from hundreds of secret recipes all over the Platteland and beyond. It is consumed in vast quantities on braais all over the country. Boerewors is even sold in places like Australia, Canada and New Zealand to homesick expats who have done the "chicken run", ie, emigrated for fear of compromised lifestyle. (The) Boerewors Curtain Any Afrikaans speaking district, usually rural. See “Boerewors”. (Usually not the most flattering reference, although all South Africans love to eat Boerewors! Benoni & Pretoria. Braai (as in “High”) (Afrikaans - Barbecue (US) or Barbie (Aus))Probably the biggest semantic gift given to the world by South Africa. You make a braai with wood in a metal drum or between bricks. You cook your boerewors, steak, lamb chops and sosaties on it. With your meal you eat mielie pap, salads, rolls and other stuff. You drink a beer & be "gesellig". Broekskeur Afrikaans for when money are tight. "Dit gaan maar Broekskeur" Brollie Afrikaans slang for "sambreel" or the English Umbrella Bunny Chow Indian or Malay curry inside a hollowed out loaf of white bread. Surfers from Durban grew up on this food. You get served the curry in the bread, with a square chunk taken from the inside, which you can use to dunk in the curry. Best when the bread is fresh. Bunny chow can also refer to "slap" (soft) chips in bread. Cape Doctor The southeaster howls across the Cape Peninsula in summer, often forming a wispy, creamy white cloud that rolls over Table Mountain in the shape of a "table cloth". The name is self explanatory. Because it blows for up to a week or more at a time, often at gale-force strength, the wind blows all the pollution away. The air is beautifully clear and crisp in the wake of a southeaster. Chips 1. Warning. "Look out!" or "keep a look out" warning 2. French Fries (also referred to as “slap chips” (with “slap” as in “pup” – Afrikaans for “soft”, “not stiff”.3. Potato Crisps Tjommie (“chômmy”) (Originally Afrikaans - Mate, friend, bru) Slightly old fashioned Afrikaans word that originates from the quaint Victorian word "Chum". Not to be confused with chumming, when you throw gore into the water to attract sharks. "tjommies" are great friends. Dik (as in “dirk”) (Afrikaans – Thick, beefy, big, full) A person can be dik or you can get dik after a big meal. "That rugby player is lank dik" (That rugby player is especially big) You can also feel "dik" after a tasty meal Dinges ('Ding-us') (Afrikaans - Thingamabob, wotzit, whatchamacallit) In any town in South Africa, you might overhear the mechanic say to his colleague, "Johannes, pass me the dinges to fix the pipe". Dof ('Dorf') (Afrikaans – “not bright”, “dull”) Stupid. Dunce. Someone who is dof, is not necessarily that way all the time. It is often used to describe a temporary loss of brain cells. Dorp ('Dorrrp') (Afrikaans - small town) Don’t be confused when someone says, "Let’s go for a dop in that dorp." Dwaal ('Dwarl') (Afrikaans - Dreamlike state, confused) This word describes that vacuous, blank state a person gets into sometimes. Eina (Ay-nah)

(Afrikaans - Ouch) Widely used. You can shout "Eina!" when you see someone get hurt or when you get hurt yourself Eish ('Aysh') (Zulu expression) Surprise, bewilderment, shock. "Eish. Voetsek! leave me alone " "Eish! you gave me a fright" Gesellig Afrikaans for being sociable with friends Gesuip ('G*esayp') (Afrikaans - Drunk). Humans “drink”, animals “suip” – to be gesuip is to be drunk to the point of aversion. Goose (Girlfriend, women) The Goose is also a reference to SA Pro Golfer Reief Goosen Hey Used for emphasis. "So you're a surfer, hey?" or on its own as a way of saying "excuse me?" or "pardon?" Hose (Laugh) "He was hosing himself when he fell in the pool." How's your mind? (Are you mad?!) This question, often in exasperation or irritation, refers to the mental stability of the subject, who has probably done something stupid, idiotic or irritating. Howzit The famous South African greeting. Short for "How is it?" Try and refrain from saying, "It's fine, thanks". This will only lead to a funny look. A suitable reply is: "No, fine", which actually means "Yes, I am fine". The word "no" is often taken to mean "yes". A real Afrikaner might reply to a "Howzit", with this bewildering response: "Ja, well, no fine". This is merely a more emphatic but longwinded version of "No, fine". Also ahoy, aweh, yooit, hoesit, yo. Isit? (Izzit?) This conversational word is used widely and in response to just about anything. Derived perhaps from the English way of saying "Is it really?" or the Afrikaans for "Is dit so" Can be used as a questioning "really?". Jislaaik (Afrikaans exclamation) Gee whizz! Just now (In a little bit) Universally used in South Africa, it means that the action will get done "eventually", but it might mean "never". If someone says he will do it "just now", be warned. It might be in 10 minutes, 10 hours or never. "I'll clean my room just now, Ma." If someone says "now now", you're making progress. It won't be done immediately, or instantly, but probably less than 10 minutes, barring distractions that relegate it back to "just now". Klippies and coke (Brandy and Coke) Named after Klipdrift, a popular, cheap brandy. Larny (Fancy, designer clothes, snob, friend) A number of variations on a word denoting someone who is well-dressed, or designer clothes, or a well-to-do function. Also a Cape Colored meaning "friend" "Hoesit my larnie!" (Hello there my friend!) Lekker (Afrikaans - Nice, pleasant, stoned, fun, lovely, good, pretty) It is used by all language groups to express approval, often to cover up a limited vocab. If you see someone of the opposite sex who is good-looking, you can exclaim: "Lekkerrr!" while drawing out the last syllable. Cars can be lekker. You can have a lekker time. You can feel lekker. Holidays are lekker. It's lekker when the Springboks win a match. And of course, you can have a lekker boerie on the braai. Lightey ('laai-tie') (Young Male) "That lightey is a pretty good surfer. (That boy surfs well. Also spelled laaitie Loskop (Afrikaans: "Loose Head") Absent minded, forgetful. Madiba The name for former President Mandela that has become universally used as an affectionate nickname. His full name is Nelson Rolihlahla (Roli-shla-shla) Mandela. His clan name is used widely, even by the press. Mal (Afrikaans - Crazy/mad) "Daai ou is mal". When you do something really stupid, your friends will ask "Is jy Mal" Marmite Marmite is a salty yeast and vegetable extract resembling crude oil. The Brits were the first to make it commercially viable. Padkos ('put-koss') (Afrikaans – lit. “road food”) Food to eat on a journey. Padkos is usually a few sarmies (sandwiches), some cooldrinks, chips, fruit and maybe a lekker stukkie biltong. Traditionally tea, home baked bread with meatballs "frikadelle" and cold chicken were packed Pap ('Pup') (Afrikaans – porridge) Boiled corn meal. It is the staple diet of many South Africans. Eaten mostly in the townships, it is often found at braai`s. It has the appearance of wet plaster or drying cement, but is delicious when scooped through gravy (known as “Pap-enSous”. Pap is versatile. It's eaten as sweet porridge, or as part of a main course. The consistency varies between cultural and regional backgrounds Pavement What Americans call a sidewalk, we call a pavement. Platteland (Afrikaans – lit. “flat land”) The Platteland is rural South Africa. Although it means literally "flat land", it also applies to mountainous and hilly regions.

Robot (Traffic light) Only in South Africa can a traffic light be called "robot" in all languages. But then, we only got TV in the mid 1970s. Rooibos (Red bush tea) This tannin-free herb tea comes mostly from theWest Coast - Clanwilliam area of the Western Cape. It is made from the Aspalathus linearis bush. Homesick South Africans buy it from gourmet stores around the world, even if they don't like it. An aray of skin products is now also available. Samoosa (Deep-fried triangular curried pie) Made to a Malay recipe, samoosas can be found in cafes around the country. The best are in Cape Town, cultural home of the Malay community. This rich culture has had an enormous influence on the country's culinary tradition. Samp An African food made from rough corn. It is starchy and is often dunked in gravy stew. Sarmie (Sandwich) Kids sometimes take a sarmie to school in the morning. Also known in Afrisaans as a "Toebie" - "toebroodjie" Sis ('Sus') Expression of discust Sjoe ('Shoe') (Afrikaans expletive) "Sjoe but now Im hungry." Also shew and shewee. Skaam (Afrikaans - Shy, embarassed) Breaking up with a girlfriend in fornt of friends "That guy has no skaam" Skebenga (Zulu - Gangster, crook, ruffian) See skollie and skelm Skinner (Afrikaans – “skiner” - Gossip, news) The kind of gossip that goes on behind your back. Can mean news. Skrik ('Skruk') (Afrikaans - A fright) When someone kreeps up behind you, you might get a bit of a "skrik". Slap chips ('Slup chips') When French Fries are thick and long and don’t go crispy in the oil. They are soft and stodgy, ideal for mixing in mounds of tomato sauce or vinegar, or both. Slap is Afrikaans for limp. Perfect fish & chips Slip Slops Mostly called "slops", they are what Australians call thongs, or sandals. The proper slops are made from rubber and have a strap between your big toe and its partner. Also known in Afrikaans as "Plakkies" Smaak (Afrikaans – lit. “taste of”) "Smaak lekker" - tast great. Also Like, enjoy, have hots for. "I smaak john stukkend." (I have the total hots for John.) Snoek (Sea pike) This is a fierce fish found in the sea off Cape Town. It has sharp teeth and is long and narrow like a barracuda. It is the staple diet and source of income for many Malay fisherman on the west coast. It is pronounced "snook", as in "look". It tastes great when fresh. Smoked snoek can be eaten as is, or served in a stew called "smoor-vis". It tastes better than it sounds. Sorry Although used as an apology, it is also used as "Excuse me". South Africans have managed to mutate it further. "Sorry, can I just get past." Southeaster (SE trade wind) This strong trade wind blows from the southeast in summer in Cape Town. Also known as the "Cape Doctor" clearing polutioned air Sosatie Afrikaans (Kebab) Made from either chicken, lamb or beef, this is often interspersed with pieces of green pepper, onion and sometimes fruit, especially apricot. Van Der Merwe Like Paddy in Ireland, Van der Merwe is the butt of South African jokes. Lacking in the social graces, "Van" is usually a "plaas japie" (farm boy) or from a mining community. Woes ('V-oos') (Afrikaans – vicious, wild) Wound which up, aggressive, feeling strong. "Sy lyk woes vandag " (She looks upset today) This is the Afrikaans pronunciation of the word, turns "W" into "V". HISTORY THE EARLIEST PEOPLE IN SOUTH AFRICA The earliest representatives of South Africa’s diversity were the San and Khoekhoe. Both were resident in the southern tip of the continent for thousands of years. Both tribes spoke Khoisan and subsisted by hunting and gathering. The Bantu-speaking people, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoekhoe and San. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain features of the Khoisan. Another major indigenous group of great importance is the Zulu, who still nowadays exist. COLONIZATION

In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape Sea Route, Jan van Riebeeck established a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town), on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch transported slaves from Indonesia, Madagascar and India as labour for the colonists in Cape Town. As they expanded east, they encountered the Xhosa people which ended in a series of wars, called the Cape Frontier Wars, caused by their conflicting land and livestock. Great Britain took control over the Cape of Good Hope area in 1795, to prevent it from falling under control of the French, which had invaded the Dutch Republic. In 1803, the British returned Cape Town to the Dutch, but soon afterwards the Dutch Company declared bankruptcy and Britain annexed the Cape Colony in 1806. In 1833, Great Britain abolished slavery in all its colonies with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. During the 1830s, approximately 1200 Boers (farmers of Dutch origin) migrated to the east and north founding the Boer Republics: the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. This series of migrations is known as the Great Trek. The Mineral Revolution (discovery of diamonds and later gold in the 19 th century) triggered the conflict known as the Boer Wars, as the Boers (original Dutch, Flemish, German and French settlers) fought for the control of the South African mineral wealth. The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880-1881) using guerrilla tactics. Nevertheless, in 1899-1902 the British returned with greater numbers and new strategy in the Second Boer War, which they won. 20TH CENTURY The South Africa Act created the Union of South Africa from Cape and natal colonies, as well as the Boer republics, on May 1910, only eight years after the Second Boer War. The newly created Union of South Africa was a dominion of the British Empire. The Natives’ Land Act of 193 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks. At the same time, the legislature of the Boer republics passed legally institutionalized segregation, later known as apartheid. The government established three racial classes: white, coloured (people of Asian or mixed racial ancestry) and blacks, with rights and restrictions for each. In 1931 the union was effectively granted independence from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster. APARTHEID In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. The white minority controlled the vastly larger black majority. The system of segregation became known as apartheid. The government segregated education, medical care, beaches and other public services, and provided black people with inferior services compared to those of white people. Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence as well as long trade embargo against South Africa. Since the 1950s, a series of popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders. The system of legal racial segregation continued until 1994. PRESIDENCY OF FREDERIK WILLEM DE KLERK In 1989, President Botha suffered a stroke and was succeeded by F. de Klerk. Despite his initial reputation as conservative, in his opening address to Parliament he announced that he would repeal discriminatory laws and lift the 30-year ban on leading antiapartheid groups, such as the African National Congress. He also made his fists public commitment to release the jailed ANC leader nelson Mandela. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison and apartheid was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in elections in 1994, the first in South Africa with universal suffrage. 1994 ELECTIONS The election was held on 27 April 1994 and more than 20 million South Africans cast their votes. The African National Congress won the election and couple of days later Nelson Mandela was sworn in as South Africa’s president. The anniversary of the election, April 27th, is celebrated as a public holiday in South Africa known as Freedom Day. NELSON MANDELA Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in 1918, served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of the armed wing of the ANC. He was arrested in 1962 and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison in 1990, Mandela lead his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. In South Africa, Mandela is often known as Madiba, his Xhosa clan name. He has received more than 250 awards, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. In the Rivonia trial in 1964, he closed his statement with these words: “During my life I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.” GOVERNMENT South Africa is a Parliamentary Republic. The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament it they are unconstitutional. South

Africa has three capital cities: Cape Town, as the seat of Parliament, is the legislative capital; Pretoria, as the seat of the president and Cabinet, is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein, as the seat of the Supreme Court of Appeal, is the judicial capital. LEGISLATURE The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years. The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provinces electing ten members. Both chambers are mainly divided in representatives of the African National Congress and the Democratic Alliance. EXECUTIVE After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as President; therefore, the president serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. No President may serve more than two terms in office. The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who formed the Cabinet. The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence. JUDICIAL The judicial system consists of the magistrates’ courts, which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases. The High Courts have general jurisdiction for specific areas. The Supreme Court of Appeal is the highest court in all but constitutional matters. The Constitutional Court hears only constitutional matters. Demographics South Africa is a nation of about 50 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2001 and the next will be in 2011. Statistics South Africa provided five racial categories by which people could classify themselves, the last of which, "unspecified/other" drew negligible responses, and these results were omitted. The 2010 midyear estimated figures for the other categories were Black African at 79.4%, White at 9.2%, Coloured at 8.8%, and Indian or Asian at 2.6%. The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980. By far the major part of the population classified itself as African or black, but it is not culturally or linguistically homogeneous. Major ethnic groups include the Zulu, Xhosa, Basotho (South Sotho), Bapedi (North Sotho), Venda, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi and Ndebele, all of which speak Bantu languages. The white population is not ethnically homogeneous and descends from many ethnic groups: Dutch, Flemish, Portuguese, Norwegian, German, Greek, French Huguenot, English, Polish, Irish, Italian, Scottish, and Welsh. Culturally and linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaners, who speak Afrikaans, and English-speaking groups, many of whom are descended from British and Irish immigrants (see Anglo-African). Many small communities that have immigrated over the last century retain the use of other languages. There is also a substantial (though decreased) Jewish population, the majority of whom came from Lithuania at the turn of the 20th century; though others came then and later from Great Britain, the former Soviet Union and IsraeL. The term "coloured" is still used for the people of mixed race descended from slaves brought in from East and Central Africa, the indigenous Khoisan who lived in the Cape at the time, Bantus, Whites (mostly the Dutch/Afrikaner and British settlers) as well as an admixture of Javanese, Malay, Indian, Malagasy and Asian blood (such as Burmese). The major part of the South African Asian population is Indian in origin (see Indian South Africans); many of them descended from indentured workers brought in the nineteenth century to work on the sugar plantations of the eastern coastal area then known as Natal. Religion Almost all South Africans profess some religious affiliation, according to the official census in 1991. Attitudes toward religion and religious beliefs vary widely, however. The government has actively encouraged specific Christian beliefs during much of the twentieth century, but South Africa has never had an official state religion nor any significant government prohibition regarding religious beliefs. About 80 percent of all South Africans are Christians, and most are Protestants. AFRICAN RELIGIONS The earliest southern African religions, those of the Khoisan peoples, were more complex than early missionaries often recorded. Their beliefs and practices were substantially eroded by contacts with Europeans. Exceptional records of Khoisan rituals were made by a German linguist, Wilhelm Bleek, during the 1870s and the 1880s. Some traditional Khoisan beliefs have been preserved through oral histories, and some religious practices are still observed in remote areas of Botswana and Namibia. Many Khoisan peoples believe in a supreme being who presides over daily life and controls elements of the environment. In some Khoisan belief systems, this god is worshiped through rituals or small sacrifices. A second, evil deity brings illness and misfortune to earth. This dualism between good and evil pervades other areas of Khoisan thought about the nature of the universe. Some Khoisan belief systems maintain that a person should never attempt to communicate with the beneficent deity, for fear of provoking his evil counterpart, and some believe that spiritual beings simply ignore humanity most of the time. Traditional Khoisan religion also included numerous mythic tales of gods and ancestor-heroes, whose lives provided examples of ways to cope with social conflicts and personal problems. Also important was the use of dance and altered states of consciousness to gain knowledge for healing an individual or remedying a social evil. Healing dances are still among the most widely practiced religious rituals in South Africa, even in the 1990s, and are used in some African Independent churches to heal the sick or eradicate evil. For many Khoisan peoples, the sun and the moon were gods, or aspects of a supreme deity. The cycle of religious observance was, therefore, carefully adjusted according to the cycles of the moon. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century observers in the Cape Colony

noted the importance of ritual dances and prayers during the full moon each month. Khoisan legends and myths also refer to a "trickster" god, who could transform himself into animal or human forms, and who could die and be reborn many times over. The praying mantis, a predatory insect with large eyes and other features characteristic of animal predators, figures in San myths and folktales in a role similar to the clever fox in European folktales. Khoisan herdboys still use mantises to "divine" the location of lost animals, and in Afrikaans, the mantis is referred to as "the Hottentot's god." Christianity The London Missionary Society sent large numbers of missionaries to the Cape Colony in 1799, and soon after that, the Glasgow Missionary Society and the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society arrived, along with missionaries from the United States, France, Germany, and Scandinavia. Most missions placed a high priority on literacy and Biblical instruction, but as the Industrial Revolution swept through Europe and the United States, the evangelical message increasingly emphasized the spiritual benefits of productive labor. Missionaries also promoted European values and occupations as well as the possession of material goods unrelated to spiritual salvation, such as European clothing, houses, and tools. Many Western missionaries mistakenly believed that southern Africans had no religion because of the differences in their faiths. Africans often denied the existence of a single, supreme being who could be influenced by prayer on behalf of humans. They appeared to confirm the missionaries' suspicions that they were "godless" by performing ritual oblations to lesser spiritual beings and ancestors. The absence of a priest or minister, or any type of church, was interpreted as further proof of the lack of spiritual beliefs, even among those who had strong beliefs in an array of spiritual beings and forces. DUTCH REFORMED CHURCHES Christianity became a powerful influence in South Africa, often uniting large numbers of people in a common faith. In the twentieth century, however, several Christian churches actively promoted racial divisions through the political philosophy of apartheid. The largest of these denominations was the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk--NGK), which came to be known as the "official religion" of the National Party during the apartheid era. Its four main branches had more than 3 million members in 1,263 congregations in the 1990s. The Dutch Reformed Church arrived in South Africa in the seventeenth century, after Calvinist reforms in Europe had entrenched the idea of predestination, and the Synod of Dort in the Netherlands had proclaimed this church as the "community of the elect" in 1619. The church gained recognition as the state religion in 1651, and the Dutch East India Company, as an extension of the state in southern Africa, established the first Dutch Reformed Church at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. As the system of apartheid was called into question throughout the country in the 1970s and the 1980s, church leaders were, in general, more committed to apartheid than many of their followers, and the church became an impediment to political reform. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. The best known of these, Reverend Beyers Naude, left his whites-only church in the late 1970s and joined a black parish within the Dutch Reformed church. The efforts of other church leaders who worked to reduce the church's racist image were often constrained by the fact that parish finances were controlled by the church's highest authorities, who supported apartheid. CULTURE South Africa is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity. Therefore, there is no single culture of South Africa. The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. It is among these people, however, that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. Urban blacks usually speak English or Afrikaans in addition to their native tongue. There are smaller but still significant groups of speakers of Khoisan languages who are not included in the eleven official languages, but are one of the eight other officially recognised languages. There are small groups of speakers of endangered languages, most of which are from the Khoi-San family, that receive no official status; however, some groups within South Africa are attempting to promote their use and revival. Members of middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people, have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. Members of the middle class often study and work abroad for greater exposure to the markets of the world. Indian South Africans preserve their cultural heritage, languages and religious beliefs, being either Christian, Hindu or Sunni Muslim and speaking English, with Indian languages like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil or Gujarati being spoken less frequently as second languages. ARCHITECTURE The architecture of South Africa mirrors the vast ethnic and cultural diversity of the country and its historical colonial period. In addition, influences from other, distant, countries, have contributed to the variety of the South African architectural landscape. LITERATURE South Africa's unique social and political history have generated a strong group of local writers, which themes that span the days of apartheid to the lives of people in the "new South Africa". Notable white South African authors include Nadine Gordimer who was, in Seamus Heaney's words, one of "the guerrillas of the imagination", and who became the first South African and the seventh woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1991. Her most famous novel, July's People, was released in 1981, depicting the collapse of white-minority rule. CINEMA While many foreign films have been produced about South Africa (usually involving race relations), few local productions are known outside South Africa itself. One exception was the film The Gods Must Be Crazy in 1980, set in the Kalahari. This is about how life in a traditional community of Bushmen is changed when a Coke bottle, thrown out of an aeroplane, suddenly lands from the sky. The late Jamie Uys, who wrote and directed The Gods Must Be Crazy, also had success overseas in the 1970s with his films Funny People and Funny People II, similar to the TV series Candid Camera in the US. Leon Schuster's You Must Be Joking! films are in the same genre, and hugely popular among South Africans.

MUSIC The South African music scene includes Kwaito, a new music genre that had developed in the mid 80s and has since developed to become the most popular social economical form of representation among the populous. Though some may argue that the political aspects of Kwaito has since diminished after Apartheid, and the relative interest in politics has become a minor aspect of daily life. Some argue that in a sense, Kwaito is in fact a political force that shows activism in its apolitical actions. CUISINE South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as a braai, or barbecue. Braai is widely popular, especially with whites, and includes meat, especially boerewors or spicy sausages, and mielies (maize) or Mielie-meal, often as a porridge, or pearl millet, a staple food of black South Africans. Pastries such like koeksisters and desserts like melktert (milk tart) are also universally popular. Vegetarianism is becoming widely accepted. Indian food like curry is also popular, especially in Durban with its large Indian population. Another local Indian Durban speciality is the 'bunny' or bunny chow, which consists of a hollowed-out loaf of white bread filled with curry. The Portuguese community has also made its mark, with spicy peri-peri chicken being a favourite. The South African Portuguesethemed restaurant chain Nando's now has restaurants in the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Kenya. EDUCATION All South Africans have the right to a basic education, including adult basic education and further education. According to the Bill of Rights of the country's Constitution, the state has an obligation, through reasonable measures, to progressively make this education available and accessible. At about 5.3% of gross domestic product (GDP) and 20% of total state expenditure, South Africa has one of the highest rates of public investment in education in the world Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to 12. Grade R is a pre-primary foundation year. Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling. High School education spans a further five years. The Senior Certificate examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university. Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology ("Technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. Public institutions are usually English medium, although instruction may take place in Afrikaans as well. There are also a large number of other educational institutions in South Africa – some are local campuses of foreign universities, some conduct classes for students who write their exams at the distance-education University of South Africa and some offer unaccredited or non-accredited diplomas. Under Apartheid, schools for blacks were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers. Redressing these imbalances has been a focus of recent education policy GENDER ROLES In general, all racial and ethnic groups in South Africa have long-standing beliefs concerning gender roles, and most are based on the premise that women are less important, or less deserving of power, than men. Most African traditional social organisations are male centred and male dominated. Even in the 1990s, in some rural areas of South Africa, for example, wives walk a few paces behind their husbands in keeping with traditional practices. A minority of ultra-conservative Afrikaner's religious beliefs, too, include a strong emphasis on the theoretically biblically based notion that women's contributions to society should normally be approved by, or be on behalf of, men. English speaking whites tend to be the most liberal group, including on issues pertaining to gender roles. 20th century economic and political developments presented South African women with both new obstacles and new opportunities to wield influence. For example, labour force requirements in cities and mining areas have often drawn men away from their homes for months at a time, and, as a result, women have borne many traditionally male responsibilities in the village and home. Women have had to guarantee the day-to-day survival of their families and to carry out financial and legal transactions that otherwise would have been reserved for men. RECENT HISTORY In South Africa, education plays a huge role compared to other countries. The government spends 20% of the central budget on education. Black Africans were perceived to have the role of labourers and servants. During the 1980s the young population was committed to destroying the education system due the apartheid. There were strikes and violence which firmly restricted its ability to function in an orderly manner. Despite the huge budget allocated to education since democracy, the effects of apartheid could still be felt 16 years after its demise. Among the South African population, only 14% of blacks have an education of high school or higher, whereas 40% of Indians and 65% of Whites have an education of high school or highe After 1994 when South Africa became a true constitutional democracy, the government of the day formed by the majority party in Parliament (the ANC) instituted their "GEAR" plan and "OBE" (outcomes Based Education). These did not produce the results that were hoped for. There was a single department of education represented in parliament by a single minister. In 2006, the same government implemented the current system of two departments and ministers and a new set of policies. Technology has become an increasingly important lever, especially in the Western Cape and Gauteng. Khanya has led the way in bringing the formerly disadvantaged schools into the global classroom, sometimes with the support of the UK based, Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Technology facilitates affordable access to international education. INDEPENDENCE OF APARTHEID Following the British victory in the South African War, the new representative of the Crown, Sir Alfred Milner, brought thousands of teachers from Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to instill the English language and British cultural values, especially in the

two former Afrikaner republics. To counter the British influence, a group of Afrikaner churches proposed an education program, Christian National Education, to serve as the core of the school curriculum. The government initially refused to fund schools adopting this program, but Jan C. Smuts, the Transvaal leader who later became prime minister, was strongly committed to reconciliation between Afrikaners and English speakers, and he favoured local control over many aspects of education. Provincial autonomy in education was strengthened in the early twentieth century, and all four provincial governments used government funds primarily to educate whites. The National Party (NP) was able to capitalise on the fear of racial integration in the schools to build its support. The NP's narrow election victory in 1948 gave Afrikaans new standing in the schools, and after that, all high-school graduates were required to be proficient in both Afrikaans and English. The NP government also reintroduced Christian National Education as the guiding philosophy of education. EDUCATION UNDER APARTHEID - THE BANTU EDUCATION ACT The Bantu Education Act (No. 47) of 1953 widened the gaps in educational opportunities for different racial groups. Two of the architects of Bantu education, Dr. W.M. Eiselen and Dr. Hendrik F. Verwoerd, had studied in Germany and had adopted many elements of National Socialist (Nazi) philosophy. The concept of racial "purity," in particular, provided a rationalisation for keeping black education inferior. Verwoerd, then minister of native affairs, said black Africans "should be educated for their opportunities in life," and that there was no place for them "above the level of certain forms of labour." The government also tightened its control over religious high schools by eliminating almost all financial aid, forcing many churches to sell their schools to the government or close them entirely. Christian National Education supported the NP program of apartheid by calling on educators to reinforce cultural diversity and to rely on "mother-tongue" instruction in the first years of primary school. This philosophy also espoused the idea that a person's social responsibilities and political opportunities are defined, in large part, by that person's ethnic identity. The government also gave strong management control to the school boards, who were elected by the parents in each district. Official attitudes toward African education were paternalistic, based on trusteeship and segregation. Black education was not supposed to drain government resources away from white education. The number of schools for blacks increased during the 1960s, but their curriculum was designed to prepare children for menial jobs. Per-capita government spending on black education slipped to one-tenth of spending on whites in the 1970s. Black schools had inferior facilities, teachers, and textbooks. SOWETO AND ITS AFTERMATH Tensions over language in education erupted into violence on 16 June 1976, when students took to the streets in the Johannesburg township of Soweto. Their action was prompted by the decision of Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd, the architect of the Bantu education system, to enforce a regulation requiring that one-half of all high-school classes must be taught in Afrikaans. A harsh police response resulted in the deaths of several children, some as young as eight or nine years old. In the violence that followed, more than 575 people died, at least 134 of them under the age of eighteen. Youthful ANC supporters abandoned school in droves; some vowed to "make South Africa ungovernable" to protest against apartheid education. Others left the country for military training camps run by the ANC or other liberation armies, mostly in Angola, Tanzania, or Eastern Europe. "Liberation before education" became their battle cry. The schools suffered further damage as a result of the unrest of 1976. Vandals and arsonists damaged or destroyed many schools and school property. Students who tried to attend school and their teachers were sometimes attacked, and administrators found it increasingly difficult to maintain normal school activities. Some teachers and administrators joined in the protests. The National Policy for General Affairs Act (No. 76) of 1984 provided some improvements in black education but maintained the overall separation called for by the Bantu education system. This act gave the minister of national education authority to determine general policy for syllabuses, examinations, and certification qualifications in all institutions of formal and informal education. But responsibility for implementing these policies was divided among numerous government departments and offices, resulting in a bewildering array of educational authorities: For example, the Department of Education and Training was responsible for black education outside the homelands. Each of the three houses of parliament—for whites, coloureds, and Indians—had an education department for one racial group, and each of the ten homelands had its own education department. In addition, several other government departments managed specific aspects of education. Education was compulsory for all racial groups, but at different ages, and the law was enforced differently. Whites were required to attend school between the ages of seven and sixteen. Black children were required to attend school from age seven until the equivalent of seventh grade or the age of sixteen, but this law was enforced only weakly, and not at all in areas where schools were unavailable. For Asians and coloured children, education was compulsory between the ages of seven and fifteen. The discrepancies in education among racial groups were glaring. Teacher: pupil ratios in primary schools averaged 1:18 in white schools, 1:24 in Asian schools, 1:27 in coloured schools, and 1:39 in black schools. Moreover, whereas 96 percent of all teachers in white schools had teaching certificates, only 15 percent of teachers in black schools were certified. Secondary-school pass rates for black pupils in the nationwide, standardised high-school graduation exams were less than one-half the pass rate for whites. As the government implemented the 1984 legislation, new violence flared up in response to the limited constitutional reforms that continued to exclude blacks. Finally, the government began to signal its awareness that apartheid could not endure. By 1986 President P.W. Botha (1984–89) had stated that the concept of apartheid was "outdated," and behind-the-scenes negotiations had begun between government officials and imprisoned ANC leader Nelson Mandela. The gap between government spending on education for different racial groups slowly began to narrow, and penalties for defying apartheid rules in education began to ease. Restructuring The apartheid regime created different universities for different race groups, often in close proximity and offering the same courses, but neglected the development of historically black institutions. Economically, with institutions of uneven capacity, there was an urgent need to cut down on costly duplication and improve quality. After several years of investigation and consultation, the government announced plans to radically restructure higher education through mergers and incorporations. This was completed by January 2005 and created 22 institutions out of an existing 36 universities

and technikons. Out of the 36 institutions: 22 were selected for mergers; 4 for major incorporations (or loss of facilities); 1 was being dismantled and its multi-sites slotted into other institutions; and there are 10 new university names. ECONOMY The economy of South Africa is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank, which makes the country one of only four countries in Africa represented in this category (the others being Botswana, Gabon and Mauritius). About a quarter of the population is unemployed, and lives on less than US $1.25 a day. Advanced development is significantly localised around four areas: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pretoria–Johannesburg. Beyond these four economic centres, development is marginal and poverty is still prevalent. Consequently, the vast majority of South Africans are poor. However, key marginal areas have experienced rapid growth recently. Such areas include Mossel Bay to Plettenberg Bay; Rustenburg area; Nelspruit area; Bloemfontein; Cape West Coast; and the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast. History The formal economy of South Africa has its beginnings in the arrival of Dutch settlers in 1652, originally sent by the Dutch East India Company to establish a provisioning station for passing ships. As the colony increased in size, with the arrival of French Huguenots and German citizens, some of the colonists were set free to pursue commercial farming, leading to the dominance of agriculture in the economy. At the end of the 18th century, the British gained control of the colony, imposing the English language on the colonists, who were now developing a culture of their own. This in turn lead to the Great Trek, spreading farming deeper into the mainland, as well as the establishment of the independent Boer Republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1870 diamonds were discovered in Kimberley, while in 1886 some of the world's largest gold deposits were discovered in the Witwatersrand region of Transvaal, quickly transforming the economy into a resource-dominated one. The British, seeking the riches of the gold fields, invaded the Boer republics and gained control of them in 1902 after the Second Boer War. The country also entered a period of industrialisation during this time, including the organisation of the first South African trade unions. The government soon started putting laws distinguishing between different races in place. In 1948 the National Party won the national elections, and immediately started implementing an even stricter race-based policy named Apartheid, effectively dividing the economy into a privileged white one, and an impoverished black one. The policy was widely criticised and led to crippling sanctions being placed against the country in the 1980s. South Africa held its first multi-racial elections in 1994, leaving the newly-elected African National Congress (ANC) government the daunting task of trying to restore order to an economy harmed by sanctions, while also integrating the previously-disadvantaged segment of the population into it. The 1994 government inherited an economy wracked by long years of internal conflict and external sanctions. The government refrained from resorting to economic populism. Inflation was brought down, public finances were stabilised, and some foreign capital was attracted. However, growth was still subpar. At the start of 2000, then President Thabo Mbeki vowed to promote economic growth and foreign investment by relaxing restrictive labour laws, stepping up the pace of privatisation, and cutting unneeded governmental spending. His policies face strong opposition from organised labour. From 2004 onward economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased. In April 2009, amidst fears that South Africa would soon join much of the rest of the world in recession, Reserve Bank Governor Tito Mboweni and Finance Minister Trevor Manuel differed on the matter: whereas Manuel foresaw a quarter of economic growth, Mboweni predicted further decline: "technically," he said, "that's a recession."

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