Star

Published on February 2017 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 51 | Comments: 0 | Views: 252
of 14
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

Star-Delta Motor Starter
Pos ted A PR 10 2012 b y JI GU PAR MA R in M OTO R wi th 45 C OMM EN TS

Star-delta motor starter panel

Introduction to Star-Delta motor starter

Star-delta starter panel

Most induction motors are started directly on line, but when very large motors are started that
way, they cause a disturbance of voltage on the supply lines due to large starting current
surges. To limit the starting current surge, large induction motors are started at reduced voltage
and then have full supply voltage reconnected when they run up to near rotated speed.

Two methods used for reduction of starting voltage are: Star delta starting andAuto
transformer starting.

Working Principle of Star-Delta Starter
This is the reduced voltage starting method. Voltage reduction during star-delta starting is
achieved by physically reconfiguring the motor windings as illustrated in the figure below.
During starting the motor windings are connected in star configuration and this reduces the
voltage across each winding 3. This also reduces the torque by a factor of three.

Scheme - Working Principle of Star-Delta Starter

After a period of time the winding are reconfigured as delta and the motor runs normally.
Star/Delta starters are probably the most common reduced voltage starters. They are used in
an attempt to reduce the start current applied to the motor during start as a means of reducing
the disturbances and interference on the electrical supply.
Traditionally in many supply regions, there has been a requirement to fit a reduced voltage
starter on all motors greater than 5HP (4KW). The Star/Delta (or Wye/Delta) starter is one of
the lowest cost electromechanical reduced voltage starters that can be applied.
The Star/Delta starter is manufactured from three contactors, a timer and a thermal overload.
The contactors are smaller than the single contactor used in a Direct on Line starter as they
are controlling winding currents only. The currents through the winding are 1/root 3 (58%) of
the current in the line.
There are two contactors that are close during run, often referred to as the main contractor and
the delta contactor. These are AC3 rated at 58% of the current rating of the motor. The third
contactor is the star contactor and that only carries star current while the motor is connected in
star.
The current in star is one third of the current in delta, so this contactor can be AC3 rated at one
third (33%) of the motor rating.

Star-delta Starter Consists following units
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Contactors (Main, star and delta contactors) 3 No’s (For Open State Starter) or 4 No’s
(Close Transient Starter).
Time relay (pull-in delayed) 1 No.
Three-pole thermal overcurrent release 1 No.
Fuse elements or automatic cut-outs for the main circuit 3 Nos.
Fuse element or automatic cut-out for the control circuit 1No.

Power Circuit of Star Delta Starter
The main circuit breaker serves as the main power supply switch that supplies electricity to the
power circuit.
The main contactor connects the reference source voltage R, Y, B to the primary terminal of
the motor U1, V1, W1.
In operation, the Main Contactor (KM3) and the Star Contactor (KM1) are closed initially, and
then after a period of time, the star contactor is opened, and then the delta contactor (KM2) is
closed. The control of the contactors is by the timer (K1T) built into the starter. The Star and
Delta are electrically interlocked and preferably mechanically interlocked as well.

Power circuit of Star-Delta starter

In effect, there are four states:
The star contactor serves to initially short the secondary terminal of the motor U2, V2, W2 for
the start sequence during the initial run of the motor from standstill. This provides one third of
DOL current to the motor, thus reducing the high inrush current inherent with large capacity
motors at startup.

Controlling the interchanging star connection and delta connection of an AC induction motoris
achieved by means of a star delta or wye delta control circuit. The control circuit consists of
push button switches, auxiliary contacts and a timer.

Control Circuit of Star-Delta Starter (Open Transition)

Scheme - Control Circuit of Star-Delta Starter (Open Transition)

The ON push button starts the circuit by initially energizing Star Contactor Coil (KM1) of star
circuit and Timer Coil (KT) circuit. When Star Contactor Coil (KM1) energized, Star Main and
Auxiliary contactor change its position from NO to NC.
When Star Auxiliary Contactor (1) (which is placed on Main Contactor coil circuit ) become NO
to NC it’s complete The Circuit of Main contactor Coil (KM3) so Main Contactor Coil energized
and Main Contactor’s Main and Auxiliary Contactor Change its Position from NO to NC. This
sequence happens in a friction of time.

After pushing the ON push button switch, the auxiliary contact of the main contactor coil (2)
which is connected in parallel across the ON push button will become NO to NC, thereby
providing a latch to hold the main contactor coil activated which eventually maintains the
control circuit active even after releasing the ON push button switch.
When Star Main Contactor (KM1) close its connect Motor connects on STAR and it’s connected
in STAR until Time Delay Auxiliary contact KT (3) become NC to NO.
Once the time delay is reached its specified Time, the timer’s auxiliary contacts (KT)(3) in Star
Coil circuit will change its position from NC to NO and at the Same Time Auxiliary contactor
(KT) in Delta Coil Circuit(4) change its Position from NO To NC so Delta coil energized and
Delta Main Contactor becomes NO To NC. Now Motor terminal connection change from star to
delta connection.
A normally close auxiliary contact from both star and delta contactors (5&6)are also placed
opposite of both star and delta contactor coils, these interlock contacts serves as safety
switches to prevent simultaneous activation of both star and delta contactor coils, so that one
cannot be activated without the other deactivated first. Thus, the delta contactor coil cannot be
active when the star contactor coil is active, and similarly, the star contactor coil cannot also be
active while the delta contactor coil is active.
The control circuit above also provides two interrupting contacts to shutdown the motor.
TheOFF push button switch break the control circuit and the motor when necessary. The
thermal overload contact is a protective device which automatically opens the STOP Control
circuit in case when motor overload current is detected by the thermal overload relay, this is to
prevent burning of the motor in case of excessive load beyond the rated capacity of the motor is
detected by the thermal overload relay.
At some point during starting it is necessary to change from a star connected winding to a delta
connected winding. Power and control circuits can be arranged to this in one of two ways –
open transition or closed transition.

What is Open or Closed Transition Starting
1. Open Transition Starters
Discuss mention above is called open transition switching because there is an open state
between the star state and the delta state.
In open transition the power is disconnected from the motor while the winding are reconfigured
via external switching.

When a motor is driven by the supply, either at full speed or at part speed, there is a rotating
magnetic field in the stator. This field is rotating at line frequency. The flux from the stator field
induces a current in the rotor and this in turn results in a rotor magnetic field.
When the motor is disconnected from the supply (open transition) there is a spinning rotor
within the stator and the rotor has a magnetic field. Due to the low impedance of the rotor
circuit, the time constant is quite long and the action of the spinning rotor field within the stator
is that of a generator which generates voltage at a frequency determined by the speed of the
rotor.
When the motor is reconnected to the supply, it is reclosing onto an unsynchronized generator
and this result in a very high current and torque transient. The magnitude of the
transient is dependent on the phase relationship between the generated voltage and the
line voltage at the point of closure can be much higher than DOL current and torque and can
result in electrical and mechanical damage.
Open transition starting is the easiest to implement in terms or cost and circuitry and if the
timing of the changeover is good, this method can work well. In practice though it is difficult to
set the necessary timing to operate correctly and disconnection/reconnection of the supply can
cause significant voltage/current transients.
In open transition there are four states:
1. OFF State: All Contactors are open.
2. Star State: The Main [KM3] and the Star [KM1] contactors are closed and the delta
[KM2] contactor is open. The motor is connected in star and will produce one third of
DOL torque at one third of DOL current.
3. Open State: This type of operation is called open transition switching because there is
an open state between the star state and the delta state. The Main contractor is closed
and the Delta and Star contactors are open. There is voltage on one end of the motor
windings, but the other end is open so no current can flow. The motor has a spinning
rotor and behaves like a generator.
4. Delta State: The Main and the Delta contactors are closed. The Star contactor is open.
The motor is connected to full line voltage and full power and torque are available

2. Closed Transition Star/Delta Starter
There is a technique to reduce the magnitude of the switching transients. This requires the use
of a fourth contactor and a set of three resistors. The resistors must be sized such that
considerable current is able to flow in the motor windings while they are in circuit.
The auxiliary contactor and resistors are connected across the delta contactor. In operation,
just before the star contactor opens, the auxiliary contactor closes resulting in current flow via
the resistors into the star connection. Once the star contactor opens, current is able to flow
round through the motor windings to the supply via the resistors. These resistors are then
shorted by the delta contactor.

If the resistance of the resistors is too high, they will not swamp the voltage generated by the
motor and will serve no purpose.
In closed transition the power is maintained to the motor at all time.
This is achieved by introducing resistors to take up the current flow during the winding
changeover. A fourth contractor is required to place the resistor in circuit before opening the
star contactor and then removing the resistors once the delta contactor is closed.
These resistors need to be sized to carry the motor current. In addition to requiring more
switching devices, the control circuit is more complicated due to the need to carry out resistor
switching
In close transition there are four states:
1. OFF State. All Contactors are open
2. Star State. The Main [KM3] and the Star [KM1] contactors are closed and the delta
[KM2] contactor is open. The motor is connected in star and will produce one third of
DOL torque at one third of DOL current.
3. Star Transition State. The motor is connected in star and the resistors are connected
across the delta contactor via the aux [KM4] contactor.
4. Closed Transition State. The Main [KM3] contactor is closed and the Delta [KM2] and
Star [KM1] contactors are open. Current flows through the motor windings and the
transition resistors via KM4.
5. Delta State. The Main and the Delta contactors are closed. The transition resistors are
shorted out. The Star contactor is open. The motor is connected to full line voltage and
full power and torque are available.

Effect of Transient in Starter (Open Transient starter)
It is Important the pause between star contactor switch off and Delta contactor switch is on
correct. This is because Star contactor must be reliably disconnected before Delta contactor is
activated. It is also important that the switch over pause is not too long.
For 415v Star Connection voltage is effectively reduced to 58% or 240v. The equivalent of 33%
that is obtained with Direct Online (DOL) starting.
If Star connection has sufficient torque to run up to 75% or %80 of full load speed, then the
motor can be connected in Delta mode.
When connected to Delta configuration the phase voltage increases by a ratio of V3 or 173%.
The phase currents increase by the same ratio. The line current increases three times its value
in star connection.
During transition period of switchover the motor must be free running with little deceleration.
While this is happening “Coasting” it may generate a voltage of its own, and on connection to

the supply this voltage can randomly add to or subtract from the applied line voltage. This is
known as transient current. Only lasting a few milliseconds it causes voltage surges and
spikes. Known as a changeover transient.

Size of each part of Star-Delta starter
1. Size of Over Load Relay
For a star-delta starter there is a possibility to place the overload protection in two positions, in
the line or in the windings.

OVERLOAD RELAY IN LINE:
In the line is the same as just putting the overload before the motor as with a DOL starter.
The rating of Overload (In Line) = FLC of Motor.
Disadvantage: If the overload is set to FLC, then it is not protecting the motor while it is in
delta (setting is x1.732 too high).

OVERLOAD RELAY IN WINDING:
In the windings means that the overload is placed after the point where the wiring to the
contactors are split into main and delta. The overload then always measures the current inside
the windings.
The setting of Overload Relay (In Winding) =0.58 X FLC (line current).
Disadvantage: We must use separate short circuit and overload protections.

2. Size of Main and Delta Contractor
There are two contactors that are close during run, often referred to as the main contractor and
the delta contactor. These are AC3 rated at 58% of the current rating of the motor.
Size of Main Contactor= IFL x 0.58

3. Size of Star Contractor
The third contactor is the star contactor and that only carries star current while the motor is
connected in star. The current in star is 1/ √3= (58%) of the current in delta, so this contactor
can be AC3 rated at one third (33%) of the motor rating.
Size of Star Contactor= IFL x 0.33

Motor Starting Characteristics of Star-Delta Starter
Available starting current: 33% Full Load Current.
Peak starting current: 1.3 to 2.6 Full Load Current.
Peak starting torque: 33% Full Load Torque.





Advantages of Star-Delta starter
The operation of the star-delta method is simple and rugged
It is relatively cheap compared to other reduced voltage methods.
Good Torque/Current Performance.
It draws 2 times starting current of the full load ampere of the motor connected






Disadvantages of Star-Delta starter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Low Starting Torque (Torque = (Square of Voltage) is also reduce).
Break In Supply – Possible Transients
Six Terminal Motor Required (Delta Connected).
It requires 2 set of cables from starter to motor.
.

It provides only 33% starting torque and if the load connected to the subject motor
requires higher starting torque at the time of starting than very heavy transients and
stresses are produced while changing from star to delta connections, and because of
these transients and stresses many electrical and mechanical break-down occurs.
.
In this method of starting initially motor is connected in star and then after change over
the motor is connected in delta. The delta of motor is formed in starter and not on motor
terminals.
.
High transmission and current peaks: When starting up pumps and fans for
example, the load torque is low at the beginning of the start and increases with the
square of the speed. When reaching approx. 80-85 % of the motor rated speed the load
torque is equal to the motor torque and the acceleration ceases. To reach the rated
speed, a switch over to delta position is necessary, and this will very often result in high
transmission and current peaks. In some cases the current peak can reach a value that
is even bigger than for a D.O.L start.
.
Applications with a load torque higher than 50 % of the motor rated torque will not be
able to start using the start-delta starter.
.
Low Starting Torque: The star-delta (wye-delta) starting method controls whether the
lead connections from the motor are configured in a star or delta electrical connection.

The initial connection should be in the star pattern that results in a reduction of the line
voltage by a factor of 1/√3 (57.7%) to the motor and the current is reduced to 1/3 of the
current at full voltage, but the starting torque is also reduced 1/3 to 1/5 of the DOL
starting torque.
.
10. The transition from star to delta transition usually occurs once nominal speed is
reached, but is sometimes performed as low as 50% of nominal speed which make
transient Sparks.

Features of star-delta starting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

For low- to high-power three-phase motors.
Reduced starting current
Six connection cables
Reduced starting torque
Current peak on changeover from star to delta
Mechanical load on changeover from star to delta

Application of Star-Delta Starter
The star-delta method is usually only applied to low to medium voltage and light starting
Torque motors.
The received starting current is about 30 % of the starting current during direct on line start and
the starting torque is reduced to about 25 % of the torque available at a D.O.L start. This
starting method only works when the application is light loaded during the start.
If the motor is too heavily loaded, there will not be enough torque to accelerate the motor up to
speed before switching over to the delta position.

Starting Of Three Phase Induction
Motors
By Kiran Daware AC Machines, Induction Motor Leave A Comment

An induction motor is similar to a poly-phase transformer whose secondary is short
circuited. Thus, at normal supply voltage, like in transformers, the initial current taken by
the primary is very large for a short while. (Unlike in DC motor, large current at starting is
due to back emf.) If an induction motor is directly switched on from supply, it takes 5 to 7
times its full load current, and develops a torque which is only 1.5 to 2.5 times the full

load torque. This large starting current will produce large voltage drop in line, which may
affect the operation of other devices connected in the line. From the torque equation of
induction motor, it can be seen that starting torque can be improved by increasing the
rotor resistance. Rotor resistance can be easily increased in case of slip-ring induction
motors, but for squirrel cage motorsstarting current can be controlled by applying
reduced stator voltage.
Methods of starting induction motor are described below.

Starting Of Squirrel Cage Motors
Adding external resistance to the rotor of a squirrel cage motor is not possible. Starting
in-rush current in squirrel cage motors is controlled by applying reduced voltage to the
stator. For this purpose, following methods are used:
1.

By using primary resistors or reactors

2.

Autotransformer

3.

Star-delta switches

1. Using primary resistors:

Obviously, purpose of primary resistors is to drop some voltage, consequently applying
reduced voltage to the stator. Hence, the initial current will be reduced. Here, one thing
should be noted that, current varies directly to thee voltage whereas torque varies as
square of the applied voltage.
That is, if the applied voltage is reduced by 50% :- current will be reduced by 50% but
the torque will be reduced by 25%.

2. Auto-transformers:

Auto-transformer

Auto-transformers are also known as auto-starters or compensators. They can be used
for both star connected or delta connected squirrel cage motors. The internal
connections of an auto-starter is as shown in the figure. At starting, switch is at "start"
position, and reduced voltage is applied across the stator. When the motor gathers
speed, say upto 80% of its rated speed, auto-transformer automatically disconnects from
the circuit as the switch goes to "run" position.
The switch changing the connection from start to run position may be air-break (small
motors) or oil-immersed (large motors). There are also provisions for no-voltage and
over-load, with time delay circuits. Many auto-transformers also come with options of
reduced voltage drop of 80%, 65% and 50% of the line voltage.

3. Star-delta starter:
This method is used in the motors, which are designed to run on delta connected
stator. A two way switch is used to connect the stator winding in star while starting
and in delta while running with normal speed. When stator winding is star connected,
voltage over each phase in motor will be reduced by a factor 1/(sqrt. 3) that it would
be for delta connected winding. The starting torque will 1/3 to that of it will be for
delta connected winding. Hence a star-delta starter is equivalent to an auto-

transformer of ratio 1/(sqrt. 3) or 58% reduced voltage.

Starting Of Slip-Ring Motors

Slip-ring motors are started with full line voltage, as external resistance can be easily
added in the rotor circuit with the help of slip-rings. A star connected rheostat is
connected in series with rotor via slip-rings as shown in the fig. Introducing resistance in
rotor current will decrease the starting current in rotor (and hence in stator). Also, it
improves power factor and the torque is increased. The connected rheostat may be
hand-operated or automatic.
As, introduction of additional resistance in rotor improves the starting torque, slip-ring
motors can be started on load.
The external resistance introduced is only for starting purposes, and is gradually cut out
as the motor gathers the speed.

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close