Stirling Engine

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CHAPTER NO 1

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
The principle that makes Stirling engines possible is quite simple. When air is heated it expands, and when it is cooled it contracts. Stirling engines work by cyclically heating and cooling air (or perhaps another gas such as helium) inside a leak tight container and using the pressure changes to drive a piston. The heating and cooling process works like this: One part of the engine is kept hot while another part is kept cold. A mechanism then moves the air back and forth between the hot side and the cold side. When the air is moved to the hot side, it expands and pushes up on the piston, and when the air is moved back to the cold side, it contracts and pulls down on the piston. While Stirling engines are conceptually quite simple, understanding how any particular engine design works is often quite difficult because there are hundreds of different mechanical configurations that can achieve the Stirling cycle.

It is worthwhile to compare Stirling engines to other more familiar engines and note their similarities as well as their differences. Stirling engines are a type of heat engine. They turn heat into mechanical work and in this sense they perform the same function as other well known heat engines such as gasoline, diesel, and steam engines. Like steam engines, Stirling engines are external combustion engines, since the heat is supplied to the engine from a source outside the cylinder instead of being supplied by a fuel burning inside the cylinder.

Because the heat in a Stirling engine comes from outside of the engine, Stirling engines can be designed that will run on any heat source from fossil fuel heat, to geo-thermal heat, to sunshine. Unlike steam engines, Stirling engines do not use a boiler that might explode if not carefully monitored. When operating on sunshine, or geo-thermal heat, Stirling engines obviously produce no pollution at all, but they can be exceedingly low emissions engines even when burning gasoline, diesel, or home heating oil. Unlike gasoline or diesel engines that have many thousands of start stop cycles of combustion each minute, burners in Stirling engines burn fuel continuously.

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CHAPTER NO 2

HISTORY

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HISTORY
The Stirling Engine is one of the hot air engines. It was invented by Robert Stirling (1790-1878) and his brother James. His father was interesting in engine and he inherited it. He became a minister of the church at Scotland in 1816. At this period, he found the steam engines are dangerous for the workers. He decided to improve the design of an existing air engine. He hope it wound be safer alternative. After one year, he invented a regenerator. He called the ³Economiser´ and the engine improves the efficiency. This is the earliest Stirling Engine. It is put out 100 W to 4 kW. But the internal combustion engine substituted for it quickly. The Ericsson invented the solar energy in 1864 and did some improvements for after several years. Robert¶s brother, James Stirling, also played an important role in the development of Stirling engines.

FIGURE 2 : EARLIEST STIRLING ENGINE Robert Stirling gets a patent for the economizer with an air engine incorporating it in 1817. Since the Stirling engine worked at a lower pressure, and could not cause steam burns, the danger to explode is impossible. In 1818 he built the first practical exponent of his engine, used to pump water from a quarry. The inventors sought to create a safer engine instead of steam engines at that time, whose boilers often exploded as a result of high pressure of the steam and the inadequate materials. The original patent by Reverend Stirling was called the "economizer", for its improvement of fuel-economy. The patent also mentioned the possibility of using the device in an engine. Several patents were later determined by two brothers for different configurations including pressurized versions of the engine. This component is now commonly known as the "regenerator" and is essential in all high-power Stirling devices.
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FIGURE 3 : STIRLING ENGINE¶S PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Stirling engine of the second generation began in 1937.The Philips of Holland used new materials and technology to ascend a very high level. The knowledge about the heat transfer and fluid physical, which is a great significance to improving of the structure and raised the stability. Throughout World War II and by the late 1940s, Philips¶ subsidiary Johan de Witt does this work continued. And they did the Type 10, incorporated into a generator set as originally planned The set progressed through three prototypes (102A, B, and C), with the production version, rated at 200 watts electrical output from a bore and stroke of 55x27mm, being designated MP1002CA. In 1951, the price of Stirling engine is too high for the market. It made used of radios at that time. Though the MP1002CA may have been a dead end, it represents the blooming of the modern age of Stirling Engine development. In addition to which the advent of transistor radios with their much lower power requirements meant that the market for the set was fast disappearing. Though the MP1002CA may have been a dead end, it represents the start of the modern age of Stirling engine development.

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CHAPTER NO 3

PRESENTATION OF STIRLING ENGINE

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PRESENTATION OF STIRLING ENGINES
3.1 Stirling thermodynamic cycle

The Stirling engine cycle is a closed cycle and it contains, most commonly a fixed mass of gas called the "working fluid" (air, hydrogen or helium). The principle is that of thermal expansion and contraction of this fluid due to a temperature differential. So the ideal Stirling cycle consists of four thermodynamics distinct processes acting on the working fluid: two constant-temperature processes and two constant volume process. Each one of which can be separately analysed:  1-2: isothermal compression process. Work W1-2 is done on the working fluid, while an equal amount of heat Q1-2 is rejected by the system to the cooling source. The working fluid cools and contracts at constant temperature TC.  2-3: constant volume displacement process with heat addition. Heat Q2-3 is absorbed by the working fluid and temperature is raised from TC to TH. No work is done.  3-4: isothermal expansion process. Work W3-4 is done by the working fluid, while an equal amount of heat Q3-4 is added to the system from the heating source. The working fluid heats and expands at constant temperature TH.  4-1: constant volume displacement process with heat rejection. Heat Q4-1 is rejected by the working fluid and temperature decrease from TC to TH. No work is done.

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The process lines in the figure above reflect the properties of an ideal gas. The main processes, like for most heat engines, are cooling, compression, heating and expansion. A Stirling engine operates through the use of an external heat source and an external heat sink having a sufficiently large temperature difference between them. Compared to the ideal cycle, the efficiency of a real engine is reduced by irreversibilities, friction, and the loss of short-circuit conducted heat, so that the overall efficiency is often only about half of the ideal (Carnot) efficiency. The gasses used inside a Stirling engine never leave the engine. There are no exhaust valves that vent highpressure gasses, as in a gasoline or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place. Another useful characteristic of the Stirling engine is that if supplied with mechanical power, it can function as a heat pump (reversibility of the Stirling cycle). Understanding how a Stirling engine works is not a simple matter. It is not overly intuitive. Let¶s explain the device through the presentation of the different engines configuration.

3.2

Engine configurations

Mechanical configurations of Stirling engines are classified into three important distinct types: Alpha, Beta and Gamma arrangements. These engines also feature a regenerator (invented by Robert Stirling). The regenerator is constructed by a material that conducts readily heat and has a high surface area (a mesh of closely spaced thin metal plates for example). When hot gas is transferred to the cool cylinder, it is first driven through the regenerator, where a portion of the heat is deposited. When the cool gas is transferred back, this heat is reclaimed. Thus the regenerator ³pre heats´ and ³pre cools´ the working gas, and so improve the efficiency. But many engines have no apparent regenerator like beta and gamma engines configurations with a ³loose fitting´ displacer, the surfaces of the displacer and its cylinder will cyclically exchange heat with the working fluid providing some regenerative effect. 9

3.3

Alpha Stirling:

Alpha engines have two separate power pistons in separate cylinders which are connected in series by a heater, a regenerator and a cooler. One is a ³hot´ piston and the other one a ³cold piston´.

FIGURE 5 : ALPHA ENGINE¶S CONFIGURATION
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The hot piston cylinder is situated inside the high temperature heat exchanger and the cold piston cylinder is situated inside the low temperature heat exchanger. The generator is illustrated by the chamber containing the hatch lines.

Expansion: At this point, the most of the gas in the system is at the hot piston cylinder. The gas heats and expands, pushing the hot piston down, and flowing through the pipe into the cold cylinder, pushing it down as well.

Transfer: At this point, the gas has hot cylinder. As the crankshaft continues to turn the next 90°, transferring the bulk of the gas to the cold piston cylinder. As it does so, it pushes most of the fluid through the heat exchanger and into the cold piston cylinder.

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Contraction: now the majority of expanded gas is shifted to the cool side of the cylinder. It cools and contracts drawing both the piston up.

Transfer: The fluid is cooled and now the crankshaft turns another 90°. The gas therefore pumped back, through the heat exchanger, into the hot piston cylinder Once in this, it is heated and we go back to the first step.

FIGURE 6 : EXAMPLE OF A REAL CYCLE OF AN ALPHA ENGINE
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This diagram is feature of an alpha engine. The most important is to have the biggest grey area which represents the recuperated work during a cycle. The Alpha engine is conceptually the simplest Stirling engine configuration, however suffers from the disadvantage that both pistons need to have seals to contain the working gas. This type of engine has a very high power-to-volume ratio but has technical problems due to the usually high temperature of the "hot" piston and its seals.

3.4 Beta Stirling
The Beta configuration is the classic Stirling engine configuration and has enjoyed popularity from its inception until today. Stirling's original engine from his patent drawing of 1816 shows a Beta arrangement. Both Beta and Gamma engines use displacer- piston arrangements. The Beta engine has both the displacer and the piston in an in in-line cylinder system. The Gamma engine uses separate cylinders.

The purpose of the single power piston and displacer is to ³displace´ the working gas at constant volume, and shuttle it between the expansion and the compression spaces through the series arrangement cooler, regenerator, and heater.
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A beta Stirling has a single power piston same cylinder on the same shaft as a displacer piston. The displacer piston is a loose fit and does not extract any power from the expanding gas but only serves to shuttle the working gas from the hot heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger.

FIGURE 8 : BETA ENGINE WITH MOMENTUM FLYWHEEL When the working gas is pushed to the hot end of the cylinder it expands and pushes the power piston. When it is pushed to the cold end of the cylinder it contracts and the momentum of the machine, usually enhanced by a flywheel, pushes the power piston the other way to compress the gas. Unlike the alpha type, the beta type avoids the technical problems of hot moving seals.

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Expansion: At this point, the most of the gas in the system is at the hot piston cylinder. The gas heats and expands driving the power piston outward.

Transfer: At this point, the gas has expanded. Most of the gas is still located in the hot end of the cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries the crankshaft the next quarter turn. As the crank goes round, the bulk of the gas is transferred around the displacer to the cool end of the cylinder,
driving more fluid into the cooled end of the cylinder. 12

Contraction: Now the majority of the expanded gas has been shifted to the cool end. It contracts and the displacer is almost at the bottom of its cycle.

Transfer: The contracted gas is still located near the cool end of the cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries the crank another quarter turn, moving the displacer and transferring the bulk of the gas back to the hot end of the cylinder. And at this point, the cycle repeats.

FIGURE 9 : EXAMPLE OF A REAL CYCLE OF A BETA ENGINE

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3.5 Gamma Stirling
A gamma Stirling is simply a beta Stirling in which the power piston is mounted in a separate cylinder alongside the displacer piston cylinder, but is still connected to the same flywheel. The gas in the two cylinders can flow freely between them and remains a single body. This configuration produces a lower compression ratio but is mechanically simpler and often used in multi-cylinder Stirling engines. Gamma type engines have a displacer and power piston, similar to Beta machines, but in different cylinders. This allows a convenient complete separation between the heat exchangers associated with the displacer cylinder and the compression and expansion work space associated with the piston.

Further more during the expansion process some of the expansion must take place in the compression space leading to a reduction of specific power. Gamma engines are therefore used when the advantages of having separate cylinders outweigh the specific power disadvantage. The advantage of this design is that it is mechanically simpler because of the convenience of two cylinders in which only the piston has to be sealed.The disadvantage is the lower compression ratio but the gamma configuration is the favorite for modelers and hobbyists.
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3.6 Other types

Changes to the configuration of mechanical Stirling engines continue to interest engineers and inventors who create a lot of different version of the Stirling engine. There is also a large field of "free piston" Stirling cycles engines, including those with liquid pistons and those with diaphragms as pistons. For example, as an alternative to the mechanical Stirling engine is the fluidyne pump, which uses the Stirling cycle via a hydraulic piston. In its most basic form it contains a working gas, a liquid and two non-return valves. The work produced by the fluidyne goes into pumping the liquid.

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CHAPTER NO 4

PART LIST AND DRAWINGS

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PART LIST ADRAWINGS
SR.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Folder Links Plate Cyllinder

PART NAME

QUANTITY 02 02 01 10 04 01 01 01 04 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 04 01 02 04 01

MATERIAL Alluminium Alluminium Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Brass 02 01 Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Brass Steel Steel steel steel steel steel Brass Steel steel alluminium steel steel alluminium

Round head screw with cross recess M4X16 Round head screw with cross recess M4X25 Displacer 1 Displacer 2 Displacer rod 1 Hexagonal nut M6 Displacer seal Hot cyllinder Cold piston Displacer rod 2 Cold cyllinder Grub screw M5 X 10 Hexagonal bolt M12 X 12 Flywheel Shaft Bush Bearings SKF 608 Grub screw M4 X 6 Round head bolt M4 X 30 Crank Pin 1 Connecting rod Bush Pin 2 Pin 3 Base plate Support Round head screw M5 X 50 Heat Dissipator

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4.1 PART DRAWING FOR MODEL

PART NO 1

PART NO 2 18

PART NO 3

PART NO 6 19

PART NO 7

PART NO 8

PART NO 10 20

PART NO 11

PART NO 12

21

PART NO 13

PART NO 14

22

PART NO 17

PART NO 18

23

PART NO 19

PART NO 23

PART NO 24

24

PART NO 25

PART NO 27

25

PART NO 28

PART NO 29

26

PART NO 30

PART NO 32

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4.2 ASSEMBLY STAGES

ASSEMBLY DRAWING 01

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ASSEMBLY DRAWING 02

29

ASSEMBLY DRAWING 03

30

ASSEMBLY DRAWING 04

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ASSEMBLY DRAWING 05

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ASSEMBLY DRAWING 06

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ASSEMBLY DRAWING 07

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FINAL ASSEMBLY OF STIRLING ENGINE MODEL

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CHAPTER NO 5

MATERIAL COST ESTIMATION

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MATERIAL COST ESTIMATION 5.1 PART LIST SR. NO 1 2 3 4 PART NAME Folder Links Plate cyllinder Round head screw with cross recess M4X16 Round head screw with cross recess M4X25 Displacer 1 Displacer 2 Displacer rod 1 Hexagonal nut M6 Displacer seal Hot cyllinder Cold piston Displacer rod 2 Cold cyllinder Grub screw M5 X 10 Hexagonal bolt M12 X 12 Flywheel QUAN TITY 02 02 01 10 MATERIAL Alluminium Alluminium steel steel 2 04 01 01 01 04 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 steel 2.5 steel steel steel steel brass 02 01 steel steel steel steel steel 1800 630 110 53 390 490 90 150 89 16 27 4 40 108 36 15 70 8 9 324 10 89 16 27 16 40 108 36 15 140 8 9 324 20 Wt/Unit Rate/Unit Amount In gms rs 390 60 1310 97 16 230 194 32 460

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32

Shaft Bush Bearings SKF 608 Grub screw M4 X 6 Round head bolt M4 X 30 Crank Pin 1 Connecting rod Bush Pin 2 Pin 3 Base plate Support Electric Heater TOTAL

01 02 02 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 04 01 02 01

steel brass steel steel steel steel steel steel Brass Steel steel alluminium steel

90 20

18 6 45 8 1.5

18 12 90 8 3 30 20 40 16 20 40 375 28 600

80

15 10

110 25

20 8 10 10

1500 80

375 14 600 2844

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CHAPTER NO 6

MANUFACTURING PROCESS COSTING

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MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE

The knowledge of the manufacturing process is of great importance for design various manufacturing processes used in Mechanical Engineering. 1. Primary shaping processes: The processes used for preliminary shaping of the machine component are known as primary shaping .the common operation used for this process are casing, forging, extruding, rolling, drawing, bending, shearing, spinning, powder metal forming, and squeezing etc. 2. Machining Process : The processes used for giving final shape to the machine component, according to the planed dimensions are known as machining process. The common operation used for this process are turning, planning, shaping, drilling, boring, reaming, sawing, broaching, milling, grinding, hobbing etc 3. Surface finishing processes: The processes used to provide a good surface finish for the machine component are known as surface finishing processes. The common operations used for this processes are polishing, buffing, honing, lapping, abrasive belt grinding, barrel tumbling, electroplating, super finishing, sheradizing etc. ; 4. Joining processes: The processes used for joining the machine components are known as joining processes. The common operations used for this processes are welding, reverting, soldering, brazing, screw fastening, pressing, sintering etc.

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MANUFACTURING COST

Sr. MACHINE USED No. 1) 2) Lathe m/c Hacksaw

TOTAL TIME IN HOUR. 3.3 0.3

M/C RATE

TOTAL AMOUNT RS. 231 30

/HOUR. 70 100

3)

Drill m/c

1

180

180

5)

Milling m/c

1.5

160

240

7)

Table grinder

0.5

80

40

8)

Tapping

2

180

360

Total

1081

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CHAPTER NO 7

WORKING OF STIRLING ENGINE

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WORKING OF STIRLING ENGINE
Stirling engine has a sealed cylinder with one part hot and the other cold. The working gas inside the engine (which is often air, helium, or hydrogen) is moved by a mechanism from the hot side to the cold side. When the gas is on the hot side it expands and pushes up on a piston. When it moves back to the cold side it contracts. Properly designed Stirling engines have two power pulses per revolution, which can make them very smooth running.

HEATING
Let's start from top dead center of the hot piston. The hot piston moves to the upper part of the cylinder and the cold piston moves to the lower part of the cylinder during the first 90 degrees of revolution. The working air is moved from the cold space to the hot space. And the pressure in the engine is increased.

EXPANSION
During the next 90 degrees of revolution, the two pistons both move thelower part accepting the air pressure. The engine gets its power during this portion of its cycle.

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COOLING
The crankshaft revolves by power stored in the flywheel for the next 90 degrees. The hot piston moves to the lower part and the cold piston moves to the upper part. The air is moved from the hot space to the cold space. And the pressure in the engine is decreased.

CONTRACTION
The two pistons are moved to upper part by the contraction of the air during the next 90 degrees.The engine also gets power during this portion of its cycle. The two piston type Stirling engine then repeats this cycle.

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CHAPTER NO 8

REASONS TO USE STIRLING ENGINE

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REASONS TO USE A STIRLIN ENGINE

There are several reasons to use a Stirling Engine:  One reason is that for this kind of engine it¶s almost impossible to explode. You don¶t have to produce steam in a high pressure boiler. And inside the cylinder there are no explosions needed to run the pistons like in an Otto or Diesel engine. There are no ignitions, no carburetion because you only need one kind of gas and no valve train because there are no valves. This was a big advantage to the steam engines in the days when Stirling invented his engine because it was much less dangerous to work next to a Sterling Engine than to a common steam engine.    Inside the pistons can be used air, helium, nitrogen or hydrogen and you don¶t have to refill it because it uses always the same body of gas.

FIGURE 13 : SCHEMATIC STIRLING ENGINE

 To produce heat you can use whatever you want: fuel, oil, gas, nuclear power and of course renewable energies like solar, biomass or geothermal heat.
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FIGURE 14 : SOLAR PANEL  The external combustion process can be designed as a continuous process, so the most types of emissions can be reduced.  If heat comes from a renewable energy source they produce no emissions.  They run very silent and they don¶t need any air supply. That¶s why they are used a lot in submarines. E.g. in the Royal Swedish Navy.

FIGURE 15 : GOTLAND : HMS

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 They can run with a small temperature difference, e.g. with the heat of your hand or from a cup of hot coffee. They can be used as little engines for work which needs only low power.

FIGURE 16 : LOW POWER STIRLING ENGINE  They can run for a very long time because the bearings and seals can be placed at the cool side of the engine they need less lubricant and they don¶t have to be checked very often ( longer period between the overhauls ).  They are extremely flexible. The engine can run as a CHP (combined heat and power) because the heat which is produced to run it can easily be collected. Or in summers they can be used as coolers.

FIGURE 17 : CHP
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CHAPTER NO 9

ANALYZE FROM ECONOMIC POINT OF VIEW

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ANALYZE FROM ECONOMIC POINT
As said above the Stirling engine is a kind of external combustion engine, and it can use a variety of fuels. It can be estimated that combustible gases are the best material, including gasoline, diesel, propane, sunshine and salad oil; even cow dung can be run on as fuels. A cup of coffee cannot become a cup of gasoline, but it can be also used as a Stirling engine driver. There is a famous experiment that a Stirling engine can easily run on a cup of coffee. The Stirling engine is a kind of piston engine. In the external heating sealed chamber, the expansion of gases inside the engine promotes the pistons work. After the expanded gases cooling down in the air- conditioned room, next process is taking on. As long as a certain value of the temperature difference exists, a Stirling Engine can be formed.

FIGURE 18 : STIRLING ENGINE WORKING ON A CUP OF COFFEE This experiment shows that only a very small power operation can carry out a Stirling engine, which contributes a lot to energy conservation. This characteristic especially shows out on economy point. The benefits obtained from the Stirling engine are definitely far beyond the costs. So once solar is used to produce energy for the Stirling engine, the cost would surely be cut down for quite a lot. As long as there is sunshine, the Stirling engine will run on and on. Of course it costs much to manufacture a Stirling engine, as it requires a high level of the materials and manufacturing processes. The expansion-side heat exchanger¶s temperature is often very high, so the materials must stand the corrosive consequences of the heat. Typically these material requirements substantially increase the cost of the engine. The materials and assembly costs for a high temperature heat exchanger typically accounts for 40% of the total engine cost. But once the Stirling engine is made and put into a proper condition, quite a few costs would be paid for keeping it running.

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Some engines cause a lot of pollution, so much is cost for pollution control and government. On contrast, Stirling engine exhausts cleanly and avoid this type of matter. Development and utilization of solar will not pollute the environment, as solar is one of the cleanest energy. While the environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious today, this characteristic is extremely valuable. It saves the cost for a lot while making sustainable development. At the end of 18th century and the early 19th century, heat engine generally is steam engine. Its efficiency is very low, only 3% to 5%, that is, over 95% of the heat is not used. Stirling thermodynamic theory is aiming to improve the thermal efficiency. Stirling proposed that the Stirling cycle efficiency, under the ideal condition, may get the infinite enhancement. Certainly it cannot come to 100% due to the physical limitation, however the theory provide a direction for improving the thermal efficiency. In fact, now the efficiency of Stirling engine can come up to 80% or even more. So another part of cost is saved.

Nowadays, more and more countries have recognized that a society with sustainable development should be able to meet the needs of the community without endangering future generations. Therefore, use clean energy as much as possible instead of the high carbon content of fossil energy is a principle which should be followed during energy construction. Vigorously develop new and renewable sources of energy utilization technology will be an important measure to reduce pollution. Energy problem is a worldwide one, and it is sooner or later to get into the transitionto- newenergy period. Because of its sustainability, renewably and efficiency, the Stirling engine is just the very one being consistent with the requirements of the times.

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CHAPTER NO 10

APPLICATION OF STIRLING POWER

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APPLICATIONS OF THE STIRLING POWER
10.1 Cars

In the ages of 1970s and 1980s several automobile companies like ³General Motors´ or ³Ford´ were researching about Stirling Engine. This device is good for a constant power setting, but it is a challenge for the stop and go of the automobile.A good car can change the power quickly. One possibility to obtain this important characteristic is design a power control mechanism that will turn up or down the burner. This is a slow method of changing power levels because is not enough to accelerate crossing an intersection. The best solution in spite of these difficulties in automobiles is hybrid electric cars where Stirling Engine could give enough power to make long trips where could get burn gasoline or diesel, depending on which fuel was cheaper. The batteries could give the instant acceleration that drivers are used to. This invention makes the car silent and clean running.

FIGURE 19 : HYBRID CAR DESIGNED BY GM 1

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10.2 Submarine
³Kockums´, a Swedish defense contractor, produce Stirling Engines for the navy making the quietest submarines in the world.

FIGURE 20 : AIP SYSTEM This high-technology is named air-independent propulsion (AIP). There are four submarines equipment with Stirling AIP. The models are HMS Näcken, which was launch in 1978 and after ten years 1988 became the first submarine equipped with AIP system, by means of a cut and lengthened by an intersection of a Stirling AIP section, which before the installation is equipped by two Stirling units, liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks and electrical equipment. Successful demonstration of AIP system during many routine patrols of HMS Näcken made that Gotland, another type of submarine, was the first submarine designed from the beginning to operate with AIP system. The other four submarines that operates with this technology are two Söderman class were upgraded by 2004.

FIGURE 21 : STIRLING ENGINE IN NÄCKEN
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If the Stirling was designed to operate at ambientpressure (and had a valve system to ensure such) then itcould be enclosed in a small bubble of gas that wouldslowly be crushed by the pressure of the ocean andincrease the internal working volume of gas to a level that could not be easily achieved at sea level. With such enormous internal pressure the power output would be huge! ³Mick Viner, June 23, 2002´

10.3 Aircrafts
In relation about Stirling engines in aircraft, the communities near airports could benefit from the quiet engine. Unlike other types of aircrafts this kind of aircrafts increases the performance climbs to altitude.

FIGURE 22 : TORQUE-CRANKSHAFT ANGLE

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Like is showed above vibration is an area that Stirling excel. The shaft torque on four cylinders varies from 100% negative to 350% positive in each revolution. Only 5% of variation characterised the quiet engine obviously increasing the comfort of occupants as well as airframe fatigue is greatly reduced and isolator¶s materials. Less vibration is good advantage forthe propeller in means of torque,nowadays the propeller is designed considering the pulse of torque As long as the prop is also the flywheel it must be heavy and robust. Usually the first failure is the ignition system, in the Stirling the ignition is necessary at the beginning to start the fire after is not needed. Another hamper is eliminated without valves. In the following graph it is possible see that the performance of the Stirling engine increases with altitude because the system is sealed without reference of ambient air density. As the outside temperature declines, engine power increases. This compounds the natural ability of the aircraft to fly faster as air density decreases.

FIGURE 23 : ALTITUDE-AIRSPEED Stirling allow the plane to cruise above the weather rather than trough it thus it is a safety aspect because there are many accidents because the weather. In addiction, the possibility of the pilot to choose the altitude could benefit the optimize use of the winds.
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There are several reasons for the superior fuel economy. First, the Stirling is a much more efficient powerplant. An internal combustion engine takes in new air and fuel for each stroke, saving nothing from the previous one. But the Stirling re-uses the same heat energy on successive strokes; the fuel is only needed to make up the losses. The second reason is that the fuel is always burned full lean, at the best air/fuel ratio, while normal aircraft engines actually use gasoline as a coolant. The Stirling also uses the exhaust from the burner to preheat the incoming combustion air. Since the Stirling exhaust is cool, it is obvious that less energy is being thrown away. ³Darryl Philip, April 1993´

10.4 Heat and power System
This device replaces traditional boilers in houses. It is an innovative system developed to provide central heating, water heating and electricity

FIGURE 24 : AC WHISPER GEN Usually this device is called ³Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP)´ and produces much less carbon dioxide than other ways of providing heat and power. In fact, if the level of CHP was increased to the Government's target of 10,000 MW, the UK could be one third of the way to meeting its international commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

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The company Whisper Gen has launched to the market the market MkV AC gas fired that consists in four cylinders with double acting Stirling cycle. It is possible coach heat output from 7.5-12KW at 220-240V Benefits: ySavings through the production of own electricity. yReduce emissions of CO2 and other emissions. yAvoiding peak-load costs when the network is overloaded. yAllows for rapid introduction of new generation capacity. The performance is over 90% of the fuel energy resulting in a cleaner and more cost effective alternative to traditional electricity generation. Electricity generated can be fed back into the electricity grid or used in the home, reducing electricity costs even further. Invent provides an average household with a saving of about £150 per year. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions by up to 1.5 tonnes per year, a real contribution towards tackling the effects of global warming. That¶s 20% less carbon dioxide per household.

10.5 Cryocooler
If It is applied mechanical energy instead of cold and heat sources by means of external engine, It is possible reach temperatures like 10 K (-263°C) in machines of high technology. The first Stirling-cycle cryocooler was developed at Philips in the 1950s and commercialized in such places as liquid nitrogen production plants. This company is still active in the development and manufacturing Stirling cryocoolers and cryogenic cooling systems. A wide variety of smaller size Stirling cryocoolers are commercially available for tasks such as the cooling of sensors. Thermoacoustic refrigeration uses a Stirling cycle in a working gas which is created by high amplitude sound waves.

10.6 Nuclear power
Steam turbines of a nuclear plan can be replaced by Stirling engine thus reduce the radioactive by-products and be more efficient. Steam plants use liquid sodium as coolant in breeder reactors, water/sodium exchanger are required, which in some cases that temperature increase so much this coolant could reacts violently with water.

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FIGURE 25 : CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE SRG BY LOCKHEED NASA has developed a Stirling Engine known as Stirling Radioisotope (SRG) Generator designed to generate electricity in for deep space proves in lasting missions. The heat source is a dry solid nuclear fuel slug and the cold source is space itself. This device converter produces about four times more electric power from the plutonium fuel than a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. These generators have been extensively tested but have not yet been deployed on actual missions. Thus each SRG will utilise two Stirling converter units with about 500 watts of thermal power supplied by two GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) units and will deliver 100120 watts of electric power. Each GPHS contains four iridium-clad Pu-238 fuel pellets, stands 5 cm tall, 10 cm square and weighs 1.44 kg. The hot end of the Stirling converter reaches 650°C. The power output of the generator will be greater than 100 W at the beginning of life, but the wear out of plutonium decrease the heat source. However control system allows long life.

10.7 Solar Energy
Placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror a Stirling engine can convert solar energy to electricity with efficiency better than non-concentrated photovoltaic cells. In 2005 It is created a 1 kW Stirling generator with a solar concentrator, this was a herald of the coming of a revolutionary solar, nowadays It generates electricity much more efficiently and economically than Photovoltaic (PV) systems whit technology called concentrated solar power (CPS). Nowadays the company Infina Applications has development a 3 kW Solar Stirling Product.

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Some companies are launching technology using steel, cooper, aluminium and glass in the same low cost manufacturing techniques used to make consumer products. The equipment is well characterized with over 25,000 hours of on-sun time. This technology is the world s most efficiency for the conversion of solar energy to grid delivery electricity, roughly twice as efficient of the others alternative solar technologies. By a mirror to focus the sun¶s rays on the receiver end of a Stirling engine. The internal side of the receiver then heats hydrogen gas, which expands. The pressure created by the expanding gas drives a piston, crank shaft, and drive shaft assembly much like those found in internal combustion engines but without igniting the gas. The drive shaft is connected to a small electricity generator.

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This solar application is called concentration solar power (CSP) and is significant potential grid for water pumping or electrification. In California there is a big contract where the electrical output represents from approximately 1.4 percent to 2.6 percent of Edison¶s annual sales.

Next year the Stirling solar dish will be able to be in the market, therefore high capacity to produce energy with the power of sun helping to reduce emissions of CO2 gases. It is possible nowadays dream with CHP plants working with Stirling Engines and it is expected that this technology will be commercially available within the next few years.

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NASA uses an advanced system to concentrate the sunlight. Waste heat is removed through a heat exchanger and dissipated by radiator panels to space. The power and distribution system is based on the closed Brayton cycle. A recuperative heat exchanger between the turbine discharge and receiver inlet is used to improve cycle efficiency. Long life is made possible through the use of non-contacting gas bearings, hermetic sealing of the gas circuit, redundant electronic components, and ultraviolet/atomic oxygen protective coatings on all optical surfaces. Radiation degradation is reduced relative to solar photovoltaic arrays since semi-conducting materials are not used on the large exposed surfaces.

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CHAPTER NO 11

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

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CONCLUSION
Stirling engines qualify for ³free energy´ designation when they allow us to tap previously inaccessible sources of naturally occurring energy. Stirling cycle engines are very efficient for a given temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink. Actually, steam engines (the Rankine cycle) fall into this category, too. Stirling Engines are very flexible. There are a lot of different types of engines. They can be very small and run with only a small temperature difference, they are very quiet, for example to use them in submarines or they can be used as a CHP plant. Another good point is that they can be constructed in a way that they produce no emissions. That means, in combination with solar or geothermal heat, they can be used as a renewable energy source to produce electricity. The Stirling engine is an interesting device like it is showed in this document with various applications and high development. Its advantages are really beneficial for the environment because it is possible produce electricity with the power of sun with high efficiency (theorically like the Carnot Cycle). It is a huge advantage to the economy because is possible to burn the cheapest fuel and it is working instead of the more expensive one. And this engine is comfortable for the people because is quiet and not noisy like an internal combustion engine.

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FUTURE SCOPE
As is showed above, the Stirling engine has strong economic practicality. Above all, the original cost is quite lower than for any other engines. Even a few calories can drive it and keep it running. The next point is that the auxiliary costs are low, because the Stirling engine costs little on environment protection. The fuels it uses can be clean, so it costs little to handle with pollution governance. What is more, the profit of the Stirling engine is far beyond the cost. And the high efficiency can bring the maximum utilization. The real renewable energy is the solar application for this device because the other ways to produce the heat source are burning something. It is possible to decrease the emissions of CO2 or other toxic gases but not eliminate completely this problem for the earth and therefore for humans. This application could be one of the different ways to solve the problem of greenhouse gas emissions and to continue and also to develop our comfort.

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES
Books/Magazines y Technology and engineering-By B.P. Pundir y Automotive stirling technology-By Jack Erjavec y Modern engine technology-By Richad Van Basshuyen y Stirling engine-By Brian Cowan

y Automotive engine international-U.S.A. Magazines
Websites y y y y y y y y y y y y http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_engine http://www.kockums.se http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/tmsb/index.html http://www.infiniacorp.com/main.htm http://www.stirlingenergy.com http://www.whispergen.com/index.cfm http://www.sunpower.com/index.php http://www.sesusa.org/index.html http://news.soliclima.com http://www.nrel.gov/csp http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/%7Ekhirata/english/others.htm http://www.cec.uchile.cl/~roroman/

y

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REFERENCES OF FIGURES:
Figure1 www.sunpower.com Figure2 www.creusot.net/archives/idee/stirling/img/stirling.gif Figure3 tw.f14.yahoofs.com/myper/38.gq_GFHRT.YwEw_4YGB5QSPA-/blog/ap_20060827013919701.jpg?TT_8kNHB1B7ghYo0

Figure4 http://mac6.ma.psu.edu/stirling/ideal_stirling_cycle/index.html Figure5 http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/engines.htm Figure6 http://www.moteurstirling.com/alpha.htm Figure7 http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/beta.html Figure8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_engine Figure9 http://www.moteurstirling.com/beta.htm Figure10 http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/gamma.html Figure11 http://www.moteurstirling.com/gamma.htm Figure12 http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/s/t/stirling%20engine/source.html Figure13 http://blog.steamshift.com/2005/05/ Figure14 http://techfreep.com/category/energy/ Figure15 http://www.kockums.se/News/photostock/photo.html Figure16 http://www.sensi.org/~svo/stirling/ Figure17 http://energytech.at/(en)/kwk/portrait_kapitel-2_6.html Figure18 jiucifang.blog.bokee.net/bloggermodule/blog_viewblog.do?id=961285 Figure19 www.autobloggreen.com/tag/ford/ Figure20 www.kockums.se/Submarines/aipconversion.html Figure21 www.kockums.se/Submarines/aipconversion.html Figure22 www.cse.iitk.ac.in/.../371/abhishe/main1.html Figure23 www.cse.iitk.ac.in/.../371/abhishe/main1.html Figure24 www.whispergen.com/main/acwhispergen/ Figure25 www.grc.nasa.gov/.../5000/5490schreiber.html Figure26 www.stirlingenergy.com/solar_overview.htm Figure27 www.stirlingenergy.com/images.asp?Type=solar Figure28 www.grc.nasa.gov/.../doc/adv_sd_tech.html

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