stock split

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All publicly-traded companies have a set number of shares that are outstanding on the stock market. A stock split is a decision by the company's board of directors to increase the number of shares that are outstanding by issuing more shares to current shareholders. For example, in a 2-for-1 stock split, every shareholder with one stock is given an additional share. So, if a company had 10 million shares outstanding before the split, it will have 20 million shares outstanding after a 2-for-1 split. A stock's price is also affected by a stock split. After a split, the stock price will be reduced since the number of shares outstanding has increased. In the example of a 2-for-1 split, the share price will be halved. Thus, although the number of outstanding shares and the stock price change, the market capitalizationremains constant. A stock split is usually done by companies that have seen their share price increase to levels that are either too high or are beyond the price levels of similar companies in their sector. The primary motive is to make shares seem more affordable to small investors even though the underlying value of the company has not changed. A stock split can also result in a stock price increase following the decrease immediately after the split. Since many small investors think the stock is now more affordable and buy the stock, they end up boosting demand and drive up prices. Another reason for the price increase is that a stock split provides a signal to the market that the company's share price has been increasing and people assume this growth will continue in the future, and again, lift demand and prices. Another version of a stock split is the reverse split. This procedure is typically used by companies with low share prices that would like to increase these prices to either gain more respectability in the market or to prevent the company from being delisted (many stock exchanges will delist stocks if they fall below a certain price per share). For example, in a reverse 5-for-1 split, 10 million outstanding shares at 50 cents each would now become two million shares outstanding at $2.50 per share. In both cases, the company is worth $50 million. The bottom line is a stock split is used primarily by companies that have seen their share prices increase substantially and although the number of outstanding shares increases and price per share decreases, the market capitalization (and the value of the company) does not change. As a result, stock splits help make shares more affordable to small investors and provides greater marketability and liquidity in the market.

Overview Take, for example, a company with 100 shares of stock priced at $50 per share. The market capitalization is 100 × $50, or $5000. The company splits its stock 2for-1. There are now 200 shares of stock and each shareholder holds twice as many shares. The price of each share is adjusted to $25. The market capitalization is 200 × $25 = $5000, the same as before the split.

Ratios of 2-for-1, 3-for-1, and 3-for-2 splits are the most common, but any ratio is possible. Splits of 4-for-3, 5-for-2, and 5-for-4 are used, though less frequently. Investors will sometimes receive cash payments in lieu of fractional shares. It is often claimed that stock splits, in and of themselves, lead to higher stock prices; research, however, does not bear this out. What is true is that stock splits are usually initiated after a large run up in share price. Momentum investing would suggest that such a trend would continue regardless of the stock split. In any case, stock splits do increase the liquidity of a stock; there are more buyers and sellers for 10 shares at $10 than 1 share at $100. Some companies have the opposite strategy: by refusing to split the stock and keeping the price high, they reduce trading volume and volatility.Berkshire Hathaway is a notable example of this. Other effects could be psychological. If many investors believe that a stock split will result in an increased share price and purchase the stock the share price will tend to increase. Others contend that the management of a company, by initiating a stock split, is implicitly signaling its confidence in the future prospects of the company. In a market where there is a high minimum number of shares, or a penalty for trading in so-called odd lots (a non multiple of some arbitrary number of shares), a reduced share price may attract more attention from small investors. Small investors such as these, however, will have negligible impact on the overall price.
[edit]Effect

on historical charts

When a stock splits, many charts show it similarly to a dividend payout and therefore do not show a dramatic dip in price. Taking the same example as above, a company with 100 shares of stock priced at $50 per share. The company splits its stock 2-for-1. There are now 200 shares of stock and each shareholder holds twice as many shares. The price of each share is adjusted to $25. Based on this example you might expect to see the stock dropping from $50 to $25. This would cause chaos in the market as investors would panic if they did not take time to realize that there was a stock split. So what is done is something called adjusted close price. This adjusted close price will take all the closing prices before the split and divide them by the split

ratio. So when you look at the charts it will seem as if the price was always $25. Both the Yahoo! historical price charts[1] and the Google historical price charts[2] show the adjusted close prices.
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Reverse stock split Share dividend Share repurchase also known as stock buyback Berkshire Hathaway, which has never had a stock split, has at times been valued at over US$140,000 per share. Market depth
 

Definition
Anincreasein thenumberofoutstandingsharesof acompany'sstock, such that proportionateequityof eachshareholderremains thesame. Thisrequiresapprovalfrom theboard of directorsandshareholders. Acorporationwhose stock is performing well may choose tosplitits shares, distributingadditionalshares to existing shareholders. The mostcommon stocksplit is two-for-one, in which eachsharebecomes two shares. Thepriceper share immediately adjusts to reflect the stock split, sincebuyersandsellersof the stock all know about the stock split (in this example, theshare pricewould becut inhalf). Somecompaniesdecide to split their stock if the price of the stockrisessignificantly and is perceived to be tooexpensiveforsmall investorstoafford.also calledsplit.

A corporate action in which a company's existing shares are divided into multiple shares. Although the number of shares outstanding increases by a specific multiple, the total dollar value of the shares remains the same compared to pre-split amounts, because no real value has been added as a result of the split. In the U.K., a stock split is referred to as a "scrip issue", "bonus issue", "capitalization issue" or "free issue". Investopedia Says: For example, in a 2-for-1 split, each stockholder receives an additional share for each share he or she holds. One reason as to why stock splits are performed is that a company's share price has grown so high that to many investors, the shares are too expensive to buy in round lots. For example, if a XYZ Corp.'s shares were worth $1,000 each, investors would need to purchase $100,000 in order to own 100 shares. If each share was worth $10, investors would only need to pay $1,000 to own 100 shares.

Stock Splits is an increase in the number of outstanding shares of a company's stock, such that proportionate equity of each shareholder remains the same. This requires approval from the board of directors and shareholders. A corporation whose stock price is really good in the share market could very well use the option

of splitting its shares. This action results in issuing supplementary shares to existing shareholders. The most common stock split is two-for-one, in which each share that a shareholder holds becomes two shares. So, if a company had 10 million shares outstanding before the split, it will have 20 million shares outstanding after a 2for-1 split. Since buyers and sellers of the stock already know about the stock split, the price per share immediately adjusts to reflect the stock split. Some of the companies in the market decide to split their stock if the price of the stock rises to a great extent and is supposed to be too expensive for small investors to afford.

Different types of stock splits
Forward stock splits
The term forward stock split is defined as when any company will announce a stock split, the price of the stock will decrease; however, the number of shares will increase proportionately. For example, if you own 100 shares of XYZ Company that operates at $100.00 a share and it announces a two for one stock split, you will own a total of 200 shares at $50.00 after the split. Although many stock splits are two for one, companies can split their stock in any number of ways, including three for one, three for two, and so forth. The stock market average returns for these new shares will reflect the ratio that was used in the split.

Advantages of Forward Stock Splits
The most important reason for a company to use this stock market strategy is to increase liquidity of the stock. Although there are investors buying certain companies stock at over $500 per share, many more investors would be inclined to buy if there were five times more shares at $100 per share. This tactic is employed by many companies when their stock sales come to a standstill because of the consistent increase in the prices of their stocks. If the stock doesn¶t stall companies will typically allow the price to rise, as indicated by some companies over $500 per share.

Reverse stock splits
Reverse stock splits are less likely to be used by the companies as they show somewhat of a negative investment strategy attached to them. The reverse stock split is defined as the stock split under which a firm¶s number of shares outstanding is reduced. If the price of a stock for a certain company drops too low, many mutual funds will not purchase them. Therefore, by having the low prices for their stocks, they run the risk of being delisted, or even being removed from the market indexes. In addition, the low stock prices of a company would create a psychological stigma as buyers and sellers view them as worthless. By doing a reverse stock split, companies can raise the stock price by lowering the number of outstanding shares; therefore, eliminating the problems caused by the low stock prices.

Advantages of Reverse Stock Splits
There are three reasons why a company would want to go for a reverse stock split. First of all, the transaction costs to the shareholders would be less after the reverse stock split. Secondly, the liquidity and marketability of a company¶s stock might be improved when its price is raised to the popular trading range. Finally, Stocks selling at certain price below a certain level are not considered respectable which means that the investors underestimate these companies earnings, cash flow, growth, and stability. Some financial analysts argue that a reverse stock split can achieve instant respectability. A reverse stock splits reduces the number of shares and increases the share price proportionately. For example, if you own 10,000 shares of a company and it declares a one for ten reverse split, you will own a total of 1,000 after the split. A reverse split has no affect on the value of what shareholders own. Below we illustrate exactly what happens with the most popular splits in regards to number of shares, share price and market cap of the company splitting its shares.

Pre-Split

Post-Split

2 For 1

# of Shares

10 Million

20 Million

Share Price

10 Million

5 Million

Market Cap

100 Million 100 Million

3 For 1

# of Shares

10 Million

30 Million

Share Price

10 Million

3.3 Million

Market Cap

100 Million 100 Million

3 For 2

# of Shares

10 Million

15 Million

Share Price

10 Million

6.6 Million

Market Cap

100 Million 100 Million

Reverse Split

1 For 10

# of Shares

10 Million

1 Million

Share Price

1 Million

10 Million

Market Cap

10 Million

10 Million

Why do companies splits their stocks?
Now, one might have a question, if the value of the stock doesn't change, what motivates a company to split its stock? There are several reasons because of which companies consider carrying out this corporate action. The first reason is psychology. As the price of a stock gets higher and higher, some investors may feel that the price is too high for them to buy, or small investors may feel that it is unaffordable. Splitting the stock brings the share price down to a more attractive level. The effect here is completely psychological. The actual value of the stock doesn't change at all, but the lower stock price may affect the way the stock is perceived and therefore persuade some new investors. Splitting the stock also gives existing shareholders the feeling that they suddenly have more shares than they did before, and obviously, if the price of the stock rises, they have more stock to trade. Another reason, and arguably a more logical one, for splitting a stock is to increase a stock's liquidity, which increases with the stock's number of outstanding shares. When stocks get into the hundreds of dollars per share, very large. A perfect example is Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, which has never had a stock split. At times, Berkshire stock has traded at nearly $100,000 and its bid spread can often be over $1,000. By splitting shares a lower bid spread is often achieved, thereby increasing liquidity. None of these reasons or potential effects that we've mentioned agree with financial theory; however, if you ask someone with knowledge in finance, he or she will likely tell you that splits are totally irrelevant - yet companies still do it. Splits are a good demonstration of how the actions of companies and the behaviors of investors do not always fall into line with financial theory.

Examples
Stock Split History for Bank of New York Company
Date Type

08/13/1998 2 For 1 Stock Split

08/08/1996 2 For 1 Stock Split

05/13/1994 2 For 1 Stock Split

11/07/1986 3 For 2 Stock Split

10/07/1983 2 For 1 Stock Split

Stock Split History for Wind River Company
Declared Record Payable Type

01/07/99 01/19/99 02/04/99 3 For 2 Stock Split

02/14/97 02/24/97 03/10/97 3 For 2 Stock Split

04/26/96 05/10/96 05/24/96 3 For 2 Stock Split

Difference between stock splits and stock dividends
The laws of logics tells that stock splits and stock dividends can leave the value of the firm unaffected, increase its value, or decrease its value. The issues are complex enough that one cannot easily determine which of the three relationship holds. Stock splits and stock dividends are similar in several aspects. In particular, they are both corporate events in which each shareholder receives a certain number of new shares free of charge whereby the stock price is reduced accordingly. However, there are also some differences between the two events. In the case of a stock split, each old share is split into a number of new shares with a reduced par value, leaving the total equity capital unchanged. In the case of a stock dividend, a number of new shares is received for each share owned. The new shares have the same par value as the old shares, whereby the total equity capital increases proportionally with the size of the stock dividend.1 It is well documented that, on average, the announcement of a stock split or a stock dividend is associated with a positive stock market

reaction. Still, very little is known about the exact explanation for the positive announcement effect and only a few papers have taken the difference between stock splits and stock dividends into account when examining the announcement effect.

Advantages for Investors
There are plenty of arguments over whether a stock split is an advantage or disadvantage to investors. Someone would say that a stock split is a good buying indicator, letting us know that the company's share price is increasing and therefore doing very well. This may be true, but on the other hand, you can't get around the fact that a stock split has no affect on the fundamental value of the stock and therefore poses no real advantage to investors. Despite this fact the investment newsletter business has taken note of the often positive sentiment surrounding a stock split. There are entire publications devoted to tracking stocks that split and attempting to profit from the optimistic nature of the splits. Critics would say that this strategy is by no means a time-tested one and questionably successful at best. Factoring in Commissions also take part when we discuss about advantages and disadvantages of stock splits. Historically, buying before the split was a good strategy because of commissions that were weighted by the number of shares you bought. It was advantageous only because it saved you money on commissions. This isn't such an advantage today because most brokers offer a flat fee for commissions, so you pay the same amount whether you buy 10 shares or 1,000 shares. Some online brokers have a limit of 2,000 or 5,000 shares for that flat rate, but most investors don't buy that many shares at once. The flat rate therefore covers most trades, so it does not matter if you buy pre-split or post-split. Stock's price is also affected by a stock split. After a split, the stock price will be reduced since the number of shares outstanding has increased. In the example of a 2-for-1 split, the share price will be halved. Thus, although the number of outstanding shares and the stock price change, the market capitalization remains constant.

Conclusion
Stock splits have historically been used by the companies to increase or lower the number of outstanding shares and to change their company¶s negative impressions of the stock price. Investment timing in companies like these has shown to be more psychological than realistic since stock prices are only adjusted in a way that the market capitalization remains constant. Stock splits are another interesting feature of investing and a good piece of knowledge for those who are learning about the stock market. The most important thing to know about stock splits is that there is no effect on the worth (as measured by market capitalization) of the company. A stock split should not be the deciding factor that would attract you into buying a stock. While there are some psychological reasons why companies will split their stock, the split doesn't change any of the business fundamentals. In the end, whether you have two $50 bills or one $100 bill, you have the same amount in the bank as far as the stock split is concerned.

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