Sustainable Design

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Optimize Site/Existing Structure Potential
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 06-04-2010

WITHIN THIS PAGE
• • • • •
Overview Recommendations Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
Creating sustainable buildings starts with proper site selection. The location of a building affects a wide range of environmental factors—as well as other factors such as security, accessibility, and energy consumption, as well as the energy consumed by transportation needs of occupants for commuting, the impact on local ecosystems, and the use/reuse of existing structures and infrastructures. If possible, locate buildings in areas of existing development where infrastructure already exists, ,and consider conserving resources by renovating existing buildings including historic properties. It is imperative that building owners and developers maximize the restorative impact of site design and building infrastructure while meeting the project's other requirements. Sustainable site planning should consist of a whole system approach that seeks to:

Green roofs can effectively absorb most rainfall events, reverse the urban heat island effect, and provide wildlife habitat. Chicago City Hall. Chicago, IL. Photo courtesy of Don Horn.



Minimize development of open space through the selection of disturbed land, re-use of brownfield sites, and retrofitting existing, buildings;

• • •

Consider energy implications in site selection and building orientation; Control erosion through improved grading and landscaping practices; Reduce heat islands through building design methods, minimizing impervious surfaces, and using landscaping;

• •

Minimize habitat disturbance; Restore the health of degraded sites by improving habitat for indigenous species through appropriate native plants, climateadapted plants, and closed-loop water systems;



Incorporate transportation solutions along with site plans that acknowledge the need for bicycle parking, carpool staging, and proximity to mass transit. Encourage alternatives to traditional commuting; and



Consider site security concurrently with sustainable site issues. Location of access roads, parking, vehicle barriers, and perimeter lighting, among others are key issues that must be addressed.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Minimize Development of Open Space •
Retrofit an existing building. When planning to reuse an existing building, there are things to consider like relocating personnel for major renovations, which may include stripping out all interior finishes and insulation, doing energy audits, and replacing lights, HVAC and windows.



Use disturbed land or brownfield sites

Naval Facilities Engineering Command Headquarters, Bldg. 33: Formerly a gun turret plant at the Navy Yard in Washington, DC, this facility was renovated into a 4-story office building featuring energy efficient envelope, lighting, and HVAC systems as well as environmentally preferable materials.

Control Erosion Through Improved Landscaping Practices • •
Use vegetation, grading, and stabilization techniques to prevent erosion. Capture storm water runoff on site; design for storm water retention features on site such as underground cisterns and pervious pavement. See also WBDG Achieving Sustainable Site Design through Low Impact Development Practices.



Use vegetated swales and depressions to reduce runoff.

Consider Energy Implications in Site Selection and Building Orientation •
Orient buildings to.be able to integrate passive and active solar strategies. If renovating/retrofitting an existing structure (i.e. when employing passive solar strategies is not possible), consider planting trees to shade areas of the building that get more sunshine. Coordinate sustainable site design with site security considerations, including Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) strategies.

• • •

Take advantage of natural ventilation and prevailing wind patterns. Maximize daylight use. Investigate the potential impact of future adjacent developments to the site (e.g., solar and wind exposure, daylighting, ventilation, etc.).

• •

Recycle existing pavement and demolition materials, Provide bike racks, and vehicle changing stations.

Control Erosion Through Improved Landscaping Practices • •
Use vegetation, grading, and stabilization techniques to prevent erosion. Capture storm water runoff on site, design for storm water retention features on site like pervious pavement. See also WBDG Achieving Sustainable Site Design through Low Impact Development Practices.



Use vegetated swales and depressions to reduce runoff.

Reduce Heat Islands Using Landscaping and Building Design Methods •
Maximize the use of existing trees and other vegetation to shade walkways, parking lots, and other open areas. Ensure that site work and landscaping are integrated with security and safety design. See also WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives for Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Integrate landforms and landscaping into the site planning process to enhance resource protection.



In hot, dry climates, like the southwestern states, consider covering walkways, parking lots, and other open areas that are paved or made with low reflectivity (i.e. dark) materials. Ensure that shading devices do not block critical ground level sight lines for security.



Finish the facility's roof with light-colored materials to reduce energy loads and extend the life of the roof, particularly in warm climates; consider incorporating green roofs or photovoltaics into the project. Use a roofing product that meets or exceeds Energy Star standards.



Consider incorporating green roofs into the project, which bring additional site benefits, including controlling stormwater runoff and improving water quality.

See also WBDG Extensive Green Roofs and EPA's website Heat Island Effect.

Energy Star® Roof-compliant, high-reflectance, and high emissivity roofing can lower roof surface temperature by up to 100°F, decreasing the amount of heat transferred into a building.

There are related sustainable site benefits of green roofs. They include:

• •

Controlling storm water runoff Improving water quality



Mitigating urban heat-island effects

See also WBDG Extensive Green Roofs and EPA's website Heat Island Effect.

Minimize Habitat Disturbance • • •
Keep land disturbance to a minimum and retain prime vegetation features to the extent possible. Reduce building and paving footprints. Limit site disturbance to a minimal area around the building perimeter, including locating buildings adjacent to existing infrastructure.

• •

Plan construction staging areas with the environment in mind. In northern climates, site parking and pedestrian areas so that they have sun exposure for assistance in melting the snow or ice.



Use non-toxic snow and ice removal methods. See also PROACT Fact Sheet on de-icing.

Restore the Health of Degraded Sites • •
Focus on restoration of degraded areas, increasing the existence of healthy habitat for native species. Conserve water use through xeriscaping with native plants. See also WBDG Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water.

Design for Sustainable Transportation • •
Site the building with public transportation access in mind and limit onsite parking. Use porous (pervious) alternatives to traditional paving for roads and walkways.



Make provisions for bicycling, walking, carpool parking, and telecommuting; and provide refueling/recharging facilities for alternative fuel/electric vehicles (or plan for their incorporation at a later date).

Balance Site Sustainability with Site Security/Safety •
Consider installing retention ponds and berms to control erosion, manage stormwater, and reduce heat islands while also serving as

physical barriers to control access to a building and to deflect blast effects.



Use native or climate tolerant trees to improve the quality of the site as well as provide protection by obscuring assets and people.



Implement erosion control measures to stabilize the soil (e.g., seeding and mulching, installing pervious paving) and/or to retain sediment after erosion has occurred (e.g., earth dikes and sediment basins). These help to reduce the negative impacts on water and air quality as well as mitigate potential damage to a building's foundation and structural system due to floods, mudslides, torrential rainstorms, and other natural hazards.



See also WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives.

Smart Growth
Smart Growth is an issue that concerns many communities around the country. It relates to controlling sprawl, reusing existing infrastructure, creating walkable neighborhoods, and locating places to live and work near public transportation. It is more resource-efficient to reuse existing roads and utilities than build new ones far out from cities in rural areas. Smart growth preserves open spaces and farm lands and strengthens the development of existing communities and their quality of life.
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EMERGING ISSUES
As global climate change increases storm events and changes ecosystems, sites are now more frequently threatened with damage from flooding, wind erosion and damage, abnormal temperatures, etc. Consider selecting a site that will limit the intended building's potential damage from global climate change. Hydrology of site to predevelopment conditions (EISA); energy reduction potential of site; how to use the site to maximize energy development in balance with preserving habitat.
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RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS
• •
Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) (PDF 738 KB, 310
pgs).

Executive Order 12072, "Federal Space Management"



Executive Order 13006, "Locating Federal Facilities on Historic Properties in Our Nation's Central Cities"



Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"



Department of Defense

o •

UFC 3-210-10, Low Impact Development

General Services Administration

o

P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, 2005

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MAJOR RESOURCES
WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES
Applicable to all building types. Applicable to the following space types, Parking: Outside/Structured, Parking: Surface

DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Accessible—Provide Equal Access, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation—Comply with Accessibility Requirements, Secure / Safe, Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use, Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water, Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products, Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers:

• • • •

01 41 00 (01411) Regulatory Requirements 01 42 00 (01421) References 01 50 00 (01500) Temporary Facilities & Controls 01 57 19.12 (01353) Noise and Acoustic Management

• • • • • • • • •

01 57 19.13 (01354) Environmental Management 01 74 19 (01351) Construction Waste Management 02 41 13 (02220) Selective Site Demolition 10 81 16.13 (02872) Bat Houses 31 10 00 (02230) Site Clearing 31 31 00 (02360) Soil Treatment 32 10 00 (02700) Bases, Ballasts, Pavements 32 12 43 (02795) Porous Paving 32 90 00 (02900) Planting

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Building Commissioning

TOOLS
LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool

Minimize Development of Undeveloped Open Space •
Environmentally Green… Economically Green: Tools for a Green Land Development Program by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, July 2001.



EPA OSWER Directive 9610.17, "Use of Risk-Based Decision-Making in Underground Storage Tank Corrective Action Programs," March 1996.



GreenInfrastructure.net—Green infrastructure is a strategic approach to conservation that addresses the ecological, social and economic impacts of sprawl and the accelerated consumption and fragmentation of open land. This website is hosted by The Conservation Fund in partnership with USDA Forest Service.



Maryland Department of the Environment, Brownfields Redevelopment Initiative



Smart Growth Network

Control Erosion through Improved Landscaping Practices • • •
Environmentally and Economically Beneficial Landscaping Guidance by the Federal Highway Administration EPA Low Impact Development website Xeriscape.org by the Colorado Waterwise Program

Reduce Heat Islands Using Landscaping and Building Design Methods • • • • Minimize Habitat Disturbance • •
International Astronomical Union (IAU) Commission 50's Working Group on "Controlling Light Pollution" International Dark-Sky Association (IDA)—IDA's mission is to preserve and protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark skies through quality outdoor lighting. IDA has many resources and information on outdoor lighting and light pollution prevention, including: Energy Star® Labeled Roof Products, EPA Green Roofs for Healthy Cities Greenroofs.com Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

o o • •

Good Lighting Fixtures Outdoor Lighting Regulations

National Wildlife Federation Obtrusive Lighting Guide by Lighting Consultancy And Design Services.

Restore the Health of Degraded Sites • •
Xeriscape.org by Colorado Waterwise Program USACE Technical Note ERDC TN-05-DRAFT No-Water Urinals, January 2007.

Design for Sustainable Transportation



Centre for Sustainable Transportation—The Centre for Sustainable Transportation was founded to provide leadership in achieving sustainable transportation in Canada.

• •

Sierra Club, Stop Sprawl Campaign, Transportation Issues Zion National Park Case Study by National Renewable Energy Laboratory As part of redesigning the visitors' experience at Zion National Park, clean running propane buses were designed to shuttle the park's 2.5 million annual visitors throughout the area. Automobile traffic, which was causing damage to the air and ecosystem of the park, was minimized. See also Case Study: Zion National Park.

Smart Growth • •
A Smart Growth Reader by the American Planning Association. Smart Communities Network, DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network



Smart Growth, Environmental Protection Agency

o o

Smart Growth Scorecards Turning Bases Into Great Places: New Life for Closed Military Facilities

• • Others •

Smart Growth Network Urban Land Institute

FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.



Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding

• • •

GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study Urban Land Institute

Optimize Energy Use
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 08-18-2009

WITHIN THIS PAGE
• • • • •
Overview Recommendations Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
On an annual basis, buildings in the United States consume 39% of America's energy and 68% of its electricity. Furthermore, buildings emit 38% of the carbon dioxide (the primary greenhouse gas associated with climate change), 49% of the sulfur dioxide, and 25% of the nitrogen oxides found in the air. Currently, the vast majority of this energy is produced from nonrenewable, fossil fuel resources. With America's supply of fossil fuel dwindling, concerns for energy supply security increasing (both for general supply and specific needs of facilities), and the impact of greenhouse gases on world climate rising, it is essential to find ways to reduce load, increase efficiency, and utilize renewable fuel resources in facilities of all types. During the facility design and development process, building projects must have a comprehensive, integrated perspective that seeks to:

• •

Reduce heating, cooling, and lighting loads through climateresponsive design and conservation practices; Employ renewable energy sources such as daylighting, passive solar heating, photovoltaics, geothermal, and groundwater cooling;



Specify efficient HVAC and lighting systems that consider part-load conditions and utility interface requirements;



Optimize building performance by employing energy modeling programs and optimize system control strategies by using occupancy sensors CO2 sensors and other air quality alarms; and



Monitor project performance through a policy of commissioning, metering, annual reporting, and periodic recommissioning.

Apply this process to the reuse or renovation of existing buildings as well.

2004 ASLA Award Recipients (Photos: Nancy Rottle)

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Reduce Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Loads through Climate-Responsive Design and Conservation Practices •
Use passive solar design; orient, size, and specify windows; and locate landscape elements with solar geometry and building load requirements in mind.



Use high-performance building envelopes; select walls, roofs, and other assemblies based on long-term, insulation, and durability requirements.

Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources •
Renewable energy sources include solar water heating, photovoltaic (PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal. Use of renewable energy can increase energy security and reduce dependence on imported fuels, while reducing or eliminating greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use. Consider solar thermal for domestic hot water and heating purposes.



Evaluate the use of building scale to take advantage of on-site renewable energy technologies such as daylighting, solar water heating, and geothermal heat pumps.



Consider the use of larger scale, on-site renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind turbines.



Evaluate purchasing electricity generated from renewable sources or low polluting sources such as natural gas.

Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems •
Use energy efficient HVAC equipment and systems that meet or exceed 10 CFR 434. For Department of Defense facilities, refer to the standards within UFC 3-400-01, Design for Energy Conservation.



Use lighting systems that consume less than 1 watt/square foot for ambient lighting.



Use Energy Star® approved and/or FEMP-designated energy efficient products or products that meet or exceed Department of Energy standards.



Evaluate energy recovery systems that pre-heat or pre-cool, incoming ventilation air in commercial and institutional buildings.



Investigate the use of integrated generation and delivery systems, such as co-generation, fuel cells, and off-peak thermal storage. See also WBDG Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Microturbines.

Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies • •
Employ energy modeling programs early in the design process. Use sensors to control loads based on occupancy, schedule and/or the availability of natural resources such as daylight or natural ventilation.



Evaluate the use of modular components such as boilers or chillers to optimize part-load efficiency and maintenance requirements.



Evaluate the use of Smart Controls that merge building automation systems with information technology (IT) infrastructures.



" Employ an interactive energy management tool that allows you to track and assess energy and water consumption like the Energy Star® Portfolio Manager.

Monitor Project Performance • •
Use a comprehensive, building commissioning plan throughout the life of the project. Use metering to confirm building energy and environmental performance through the life of the project.

• Sustainability and Energy Security

See also WBDG Facility Performance Evaluation.

Energy independence and security are important components of national security and energy strategies. Today, power is mostly generated by massive centralized plants, and electricity moves along transmission lines. "Getting off of foreign oil" means minimizing energy consumption through energy conservation and efficiency, and generating energy from local, renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, etc. (see WBDG Distributed Energy Resources, Fuel Cell Technology, Microturbines, Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), Daylighting, Passive Solar Heating) Additionally, using distributed energy systems adds to building resiliency as the threats of natural disaster damage become more frequent.
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EMERGING ISSUES

Roof-mounted PV on carport, North Island Naval Base, San Diego, CA

Passive survivability, which is described as the ability of a facility to provide shelter and basic occupant needs during and after disaster events without electric power is becoming a design strategy to consider, particularly in areas of the country where storms and floods have been reoccurring annually or more often. Incorporate facility survivability concepts in the design of critical facilities, including on-site renewable energy sources that will be available to power the building soon after a major storm passes. Checklist for Passive Survivability

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RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS
• •
Energy Codes and Standards Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) (PDF 738 KB, 310
pgs).

• •

Energy Policy Act of 2005 Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"

• •

Executive Order 13221, "Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices" U.S. General Services Administration

o

P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, 2005

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MAJOR RESOURCES
WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES
Applicable to most building types and space types, especially high energy users such as Health Care Facilities, Hospital, Research Facilities, Automated Data Processing: Mainframe, Automated Data Processing: PC System, Laboratory: Dry, Laboratory: Wet

DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process, Cost-Effective, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation— Update Building Systems Appropriately, Productive, Secure / Safe, Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential, , Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water, Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products, Sustainable— Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Section 23 28 13: Commercial—Kitchen Hoods, Section 23 31 00: HVAC Ducts and Casings, Section 23 05 93: Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing for HVAC, Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building

Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning 03 30 00 (03300) Cast-In-Place Concrete 03 40 00 (03400) Precast Concrete 04 20 00 (04200) Unit Masonry 07 20 00 (07200) Thermal Protection 07 30 00 (07300) Steep Slope Roofing 07 50 00 (07500) Membrane Roofing 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 08 50 00 (08500) Windows 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 12 10 00 (12100) Art 14 20 00 (14200) Elevators 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 26 50 00 (16500) Lighting 48 14 00 (13600) Solar Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment



48 15 00 (13600) Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment



48 30 00 (13600) Biomass Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Planning and Development, Building Commissioning

TOOLS
LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool. See also Tools: Energy Analysis.

Minimize Energy Consumption • • • • •
Energy Design Resources Energy Star®, EPA Energy Star® for New Building Design Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), DOE Net Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program



WBDG case studies: Center for Neighborhood Technology; EPA New England Regional Laboratory; NAVFAC Building 33

Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources • • •
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics Program, Sandia National Laboratory Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) and CREST (Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology)

Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems • • • •
10 CFR 434 Subpart A ASHRAE 90.1 FEMP Buying Energy Efficient Products Lighting Research Center

Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies



WBDG: Productive, Functional / Operational—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration, Functional / Operational—Meet Performance Objectives



U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume 1 (PDF 2.5
MB)

Others



FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.

• • •

Executive Order 13423 Technical Guidance

GSA LEED® Applications Guide

GSA LEED® Cost Study

Protect and Conserve Water
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 06-03-2010

WITHIN THIS PAGE
• • • • • •
Overview Recommendations Related Issues Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
Within the federal sector, alone, it is estimated that expenditures for water and sewer run between $0.5 billion and $1 billion annually. Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives of sustainable design. One critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas of the country, the demands on the supplying aquifer

exceed its ability to replenish itself. To the maximum extent feasible, facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected, used, purified, and reused on-site. The protection and conservation of water must be considered throughout the life of the building, and facility owners and developers must seek to:

• •

Reduce, control, and treat surface runoff; Use water efficiently through low or ultra-low flow fixtures, elimination of leaks, water conserving cooling towers, and other actions;



Improve water quality; for example eliminate lead-bearing products in potable water;



Recover non-sewage and gray water for on-site use (such as irrigation)

• • •

Establish waste treatment and recycling centers; Apply the FEMP Best Management Practices for Water Conservation. Follow Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Hydrology requirements to maintain or restore predevelopment hydrology of the property with regard to the temperature, rate, volume and duration of flow.

Water conservation must also be a key consideration in the reuse or renovation of an existing building.

Water conservation strategies implemented at the Post Office in Ft. Worth, TX include landscaping with native, or indigenous, plantings and rainwater catchment basins. Photo courtesy of Don Horn.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Reduce, Control, and Treat Surface Runoff



Use low impact development principles.

o

Use rainwater cisterns, vegetated swales and depressions to reduce runoff.

o o o •

Reduce the amount of impervious site area. Filter surface runoff. Use pervious paving materials.

Use Integrated Pest Management to reduce water pollution from pesticides.

• •

Consider incorporating green roofs into the project where feasible. Plan for storm water events in the overall management of surface water runoff.

• Use Water Efficiently • •

Follow EPA's Green Infrastructure policy for managing stormwater.

Incorporate water efficiency and conservation in construction specifications. Use low or ultra low water-efficient plumbing fixtures and integrate other water-saving devices into buildings.



Design landscape for water efficiency through the use of native plants that are tolerant of local soil and rainfall conditions.



Meter water usage; employ measurement and verification methods; comply with the Department of Energy's International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) (PDF 2.5 MB) for water use.



Install water-conserving cooling towers designed with delimiters to reduce drift and evaporation.



Reduce evaporation through controlled scheduled irrigation at dawn and dusk.



Eliminate leaks; caulk around pipes and plumbing fixtures; conduct annual checks of hoses and pipes.



Commission water and sewer systems as part of the project quality assurance process.



Specify WaterSense labeled products for quality, water-efficient products.

Protect Water Quality • • •
Install water quality ponds or oil/grease/grit separators as storm water runoff filtration systems. Eliminate the use of lead materials. Use non-toxic bathroom and kitchen cleaning products.

Recover Non-Sewage and Greywater for On-Site Use •
Use non-sewage wastewater for irrigation and other uses permitted by Code or local ordinance. Work with local water jurisdiction officials to get approval for greywater projects.



Use roof water, groundwater and groundwater from sump pumps for on-site activities.

• •

Capture and use condensate from HVAC systems. Work with local water jurisdiction officials to get approval for greywater projects.

Establish Site-Based Treatment and Recycling Programs • •
Use biological waste treatment systems to treat waste on-site. Use greywater, roof water, and groundwater for on-site activities.

Apply the FEMP Best Management Practices for Water Conservation
Best Management Practices (BMPs) were originally developed by the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management (FEMP) Program in response to the requirements set forth in previous Executive Order (EO) 13123, which required federal agencies to reduce water use through cost-effective water efficiency improvements. In response to EO 13423 and to account for recent changes in technology in water use patterns the Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense Office has updated the original BMPs. The updated BMPs below were developed to help federal agency personnel achieve water efficiency goals of EO 13423. BMP #1—Water Management Planning BMP #2—Information and Education Programs

BMP #3—Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection and Repair BMP #4—Water-Efficient Landscaping BMP #5—Water-Efficient Irrigation BMP #6—Toilets and Urinals BMP #7—Faucets and Showerheads BMP #8—Boiler/Steam Systems BMP #9—Single-Pass Cooling Equipment BMP #10—Cooling Tower Management BMP #11—Commercial Kitchen Equipment BMP #12—Laboratory/Medical Equipment BMP #13—Other Water Use BMP #14—Alternate Water Sources The International Storm Water Best Management Practices (BMP) Database, developed under a grant from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, contains best management practices, and study references for the effective design of storm water management systems.
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RELATED ISSUES
Dry Fire Hydrants
One of the synergistic technologies for achieving water conservation and fire safety is a dry fire hydrant. Dry hydrants are non-pressurized suction pipe systems that are permanently installed in ponds or lakes and use the untreated water, instead of municipal water, to fight fires. Utilized in areas that lack conventional fire protection; areas that cannot handle the large volumes of water due to antiquated systems; or during peak use seasons when there is low water pressure, dry hydrants allow fire departments to be much more efficient by providing close water sources to fire risks. Since dry hydrants are installed below frost line and do not require electricity, they are capable of supplying water in the case of natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes when electricity lines are knocked down, or during extreme cold or hot weather where conventional hydrant pipes can freeze or break. Also, dry fire hydrants help to save precious drinking water and conserve energy by using rainwater that does not need to be processed to be used for fighting fires. More
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EMERGING ISSUES
Greywater use can significantly reduce the amount of potable water needed for landscaping irrigation, toilet flushing and other non-drinking water applications. To increase greywater recovery and use, coordinate with local water authorities to explain the value of greywater recovery and the benefits to them and their community.

Passive survivability is a fairly new approach to disaster recovery and continuity of operations. Ensuring that an onsite water storage system can survive a natural disaster would allow a facility to operate through the disaster or restart operations soon after a disaster. Extreme weather has taxed water supply systems and caused major damage to facilities along coastlines and rivers. Before rebuilding after extreme weather events, apply sustainable development principles to rebuilding water supply systems and stormwater management. Continual drought conditions plague some parts of the country. Design water infrastructure systems and facility water use systems to minimize potable water use in these areas.
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RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS
• •
Clean Water Act Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) (PDF 738 KB, 310
pgs).

• •

Energy Policy Act of 2005 Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"



Department of Defense

o o •

UFC 3-210-10, Low Impact Development UFGS 01 57 23, Temporary Storm Water Pollution

General Services Administration

o

P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, 2005

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MAJOR RESOURCES
WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES
Applicable to most building types and space types, especially high water users such as Health Care Facilities, Hospitals, Research Facilities, Clinic / Health Unit, Laboratory: Dry, Laboratory: Wet

DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process, Cost-Effective, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation— Update Building Systems Appropriately, Productive, Secure / Safe, Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential, Sustainable —Optimize Energy Use, Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products, Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers

• • • •

12 10 00 (12100) Artwork 22 40 00 (15400) Plumbing Fixtures 31 25 73 (02635) Stormwater Management by Compost 32 90 00 (02900) Planting

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Building Commissioning

TOOLS
LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool

Federal Agencies • •
Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

o o • • Publications

Office of Water (OW) Office of Wastewater Management (OWM)

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Water Use Efficiency Program



Environmentally and Economically Beneficial Landscaping Guidance by the Federal Highway Administration

o

EPA NPDES General Permit for Storm Water Discharges From Construction Activities—Fact Sheet (PDF 461 KB, 38
pgs).

o

EPA Permitting Stormwater Discharges from Federal Facility Construction Projects—Fact Sheet (PDF 108 KB, 3 pgs).



EPA Storm Water Management for Construction Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices (PDF 4.2 MB, 39 pgs) by U.S. EPA. 1992.



FEMP Product Energy Efficiency Ratings (PEER) by U.S. Department of Energy. Pages for water efficient fixtures include faucets, showerheads, urinals.

• • •

GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study High Performance Building Guidelines (PDF 2.2 MB, 146 pgs), Chapter on Water Management, by New York City Department of Design and Construction. April 1999.



Minnesota Sustainable Building Guidelines by Regents of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, College Design, Center for Sustainable Building Research. Section on Water



The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting (PDF 1.9 MB, 88 pgs) by Texas Water Development Board.

Organizations • • • •
American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (ARCSA) Green Globes Rating System Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) USACE Technical Note ERDC TN-05-DRAFT No-Water Urinals (PDF
94 KB, 2 pgs),

January 2007.



U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)

o

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System

Others •
FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.



Green Seal—Standards for environmentally responsible products including water efficient fixtures



International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database—Developed under a grant from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, the BMP Database contains best management practices, and study references for the effective design of stormwater management systems.

• • • • •

Low Impact Development, EPA Smart Communities Network—Water Efficiency, DOE Strategic Computing Complex (SCC)—case study on the WBDG Water Efficiency, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Water Wiser—The Water Efficiency Clearinghouse

Use Environmentally Preferable Products
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 07-22-2010

WITHIN THIS PAGE
• • •
Overview Recommendations Related Issues

• • •

Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
The composition of materials used in a building is a major factor in its life-cycle environmental impact. Whether new or renovated, existing federal facilities must lead the way in the use of environmentally preferable products and processes that do not pollute or unnecessarily contribute to the waste stream, do not adversely affect health, and do not deplete limited natural resources. As the growing global economy expands the demand for raw materials, it is no longer sensible to throw away much of what we consider construction waste. Using a "cradle-to-cradle" approach, the "waste" from one generation can become the "raw material" of the next. When developing specifications, product descriptions and standards, consider a broad range of environmental factors including: waste prevention, recyclability, the use of recycled content (see EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program), environmentally preferable, and bio-based products, life-cycle cost, and ultimate disposal. During the facility/renovation design and development process, federal projects must have a comprehensive, integrated perspective that seeks to:

• •

Renovate existing facilities, products, and equipment whenever possible, such as historic structures or used furniture; Evaluate the environmental preferability of products using the cradleto-cradle, life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach;



Maximize the recycled content of all new materials, especially from a post-consumer perspective;



Specify materials harvested on a sustained yield basis such as lumber from certified forests;



Encourage the use of recyclable assemblies and products that can be easily "de-constructed" at the end of their useful lives;



Limit construction debris, encourage the separation of waste streams, and encourage recycling during the construction process;



Eliminate the use of materials that pollute or are toxic during their manufacture, use, or reuse; and



Give preference to locally produced products and other products with low embodied energy content.

BACK TO TOP

RECOMMENDATIONS
Renovate Existing Facilities, Products, and Equipment • •
Use reconditioned products and equipment, such as furniture, whenever economically feasible and resource efficient. Evaluate if components of existing buildings or facilities, such as windows or metal door frames, can be incorporated in any new construction. Ensure that the windows and doors meet the new facility's security, accessibility, and energy requirements.

Evaluate Environmental Preferability Using LCA •
Consider trade offs among multiple environmental impacts (e.g., global warming, resource depletion, indoor air quality) when determining environmental preferability. That is, look at the "big picture" rather than simply shifting problems from one impact to another. Employing LCA Tools like ATHENA and BEES can simplify the process and give more credible results. See WBDG Energy Analysis Tools.



Consider trade offs among life-cycle stages (i.e., raw materials acquisition, manufacturing, transportation, installation, use, and waste management) when determining environmentally preferability. That is, look at the "big picture" rather than simply shifting problems from one life-cycle stage to another.



Consider bio-based products

Maximize the Recycled Content of All New Materials •
Use EPA-designated recycled content products to the maximum extent practicable—required under the 42 USC §6962, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1994, Section 6002.



Purchase environmentally preferable products as described in EPA's Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program, which promotes Federal Government procurement of products and services

that have reduced impacts on human health and the environment over their life cycle.



Follow the EPA's five guiding principles established to help Executive agencies identify and purchase environmentally friendly products and services.

o

Environment + Price + Performance = EPP. Include environmental considerations as part of the normal purchasing process.

o

Pollution Prevention. Emphasize pollution prevention as part of the purchasing process.

o

Life-Cycle Perspective/Multiple Attributes. Examine multiple environmental attributes throughout the product and service's life cycle.

o

Comparison of Environmental Impacts. Compare environmental impacts when selecting products and services.

o

Environmental Performance Information. Collect accurate and meaningful environmental information about environmental performance of products and services.



Within an acceptable category of product, use materials and assemblies with the highest percentage available of post-consumer or post-industrial recycled content.



Within an acceptable category of product, evaluate the use of materials and assemblies with low embodied energy content.

Specify Materials Harvested on a Sustainable Yield Basis • •
Use timber products obtained from sustainably managed forests, certified through third-party agencies. Evaluate the substitution of bio-based materials or products, such as agricultural-fiber sheathing, for inert or non-recycled alternatives.



Specify rapidly renewable materials that regenerate in 10 years or less, such as bamboo, cork, wool, and straw.

Encourage the Use of Recyclable Assemblies and Products

• •

Within acceptable levels of performance, evaluate the use of demountable or de-constructable products and assemblies. Establish a waste management plan in cooperation with users to encourage recycling.



Investigate providing locations at the project site for organic waste composting.

Limit Construction Debris • •
Require the development and implementation of a plan for sorting construction waste for recycling. Use products and assemblies that minimize disposable packaging and storage requirements.



Consider designing a facility for deconstruction from the beginning.

Eliminate the Use of Materials that Pollute or are Toxic During Their Manufacture, Use, or Reuse •
Within an acceptable category of product, use materials and assemblies with the lowest level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). See WBDG Evaluating and Selecting Green Products.



Eliminate the use of asbestos, lead, and PCBs in all products and assemblies. See WBDG High-Performance HVAC.



Eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as refrigerants in all HVAC systems.



Evaluate the use of materials and assemblies whose manufacture does not pollute or create toxic conditions for workers. See also WBDG Secure/Safe—Ensure Occupant Safety and Health > Provide Good Indoor Air Quality and Adequate Ventilation and > Eliminate Exposure to Hazardous Materials.



Avoid Ground-level Ozone in buildings. It can contribute to health problems for the building's occupants and damages vegetation and ecosystems.

Give Preference to Locally Produced Materials with Low Embodied Energy Content •
Evaluate the use of locally produced products to stimulate local economies and reduce transportation burdens.



Evaluate the use of materials and assemblies that require minimum "embodied" energy for raw materials acquisition, manufacture, transport, installation, and use.

BACK TO TOP

RELATED ISSUES
Durability of Environmentally Preferable Materials
It is important that 'green' products perform the same as 'standard' products over their expected lives, therefore, it is valuable to develop a durability plan, which informs material and systems decisions assessing potential risk factors and damage functions. Once identified, measures can be made in the building design to address the risk factors. This process follows every phase from pre-design to building occupancy. Durability plans consider effects related to moisture, heat, sunlight, insects, material failure, ozone and acid rain, building function, style and natural disasters.

Balancing Sustainability and Security/Safety
To ensure that security strategies are appropriately implemented for the desired level of protection, designers are encouraged to conduct threat/vulnerability assessments and risk analysis. To prevent unnecessary use of resources in a project, include only the security measures identified by assessment and analysis. Evaluate the cost of comparable security measures before making your final decision. For high-risk and critical facilities, the increased use of materials and products is inevitable. In such cases, designers and builders are encouraged to specify and use environmentally preferable products to the maximum extent feasible. For example, as part of the Pentagon renovation work after the 9/11 terrorist attacks concrete rubble from damaged parts of the building were crushed into gravel and reused as aggregate under concrete slabs. More

Preferring Bio-based Products
Section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-171, May 13, 2002) confers Federal purchasing preference to bio-based products on the basis of five criteria: environmental performance, cost performance, bio-based content, technical performance, and availability. In support of this legislation, a Federal rule was developed specifying that the USDA establish a "USDA Certified Bio-based Product" label. To qualify for the label, bio-based products must be evaluated for life-cycle environmental and cost performance by the NIST BEES tool.
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EMERGING ISSUES
Many new products have appeared on the market in recent years, all claiming to be 'green,' yet they sometimes offer little proof to back up those claims. The term 'Greenwashing' has come into vogue to describe products having

unsubstantiated and misleading green characteristics. It is a challenge to specifiers and purchasers to determine the validity and relevance of environmental claims. Evaluate green products using recognized testing laboratories and test methods and read the Terrachoice article "The Six Sins of Greenwashing."
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RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS
• •
ASTM E 2129—Standard Practice for Data Collection for Sustainability Assessment of Building Products Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) (PDF 738 KB, 310
pgs).



Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"

• •

ISO 14040 Series—Life-Cycle Assessment Standards Department of Defense

o • •

DOD Green Procurement Program (GPP)

Green Procurement Requirements Overview U.S. General Services Administration

o

P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, 2005

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MAJOR RESOURCES
WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES
Applicable to most building types and space types.

DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process, Cost-Effective, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation— Update Building Systems Appropriately, Productive, Secure / Safe, Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential, Optimize

Energy Use, Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water, Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Section 07 41 13:Metal Roofing, Section 07 92 00: Joint Sealants, Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

01 67 00 (01611) Environmental Product Requirements 01 74 13 (01740) Progress Cleaning 01 78 23 (01830) Operation & Maintenance Data 05 05 00 (05050) Common Work Results for Metals 06 05 73 (06070) Wood Treatment 06 10 00 (06100) Rough Carpentry 06 16 00 (06160) Sheathing 06 20 00 (06200) Finish Carpentry 06 60 00 (06600) Plastic Fabrications 06 90 00 (06700) Alternative Agricultural Products 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 09 29 00 (09250) Gypsum Board 09 30 00 (09300) Tiling 09 51 00 (09510) Acoustical Ceilings 09 65 00 (09650) Resilient Flooring 09 65 16.13 (09654) Linoleum Flooring 09 68 00 (09680) Carpeting 09 72 00 (09720) Wall Coverings 09 90 00 (09900) Painting & Coating

• • • • • • • •

10 14 00 (10400) Signage 10 21 13.19 (10170) Plastic Toilet Compartments 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 12 10 00 (12100) Artwork 12 48 13 (12482) Entrance Floor Mats and Frames 12 59 00 (12700) Systems Furniture

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Planning and Development, Building Commissioning

TOOLS
Construction Waste Management Database, LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool



U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database—Created by NREL and partners, this publicly available database allows users to objectively review and compare analysis results that are based on similar data collection and analysis methods.

Use Green Products •
Federal

o o

Energy Star®, EPA Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers—The Guide provides model language that is intended to assist users in achieving green building goals as may be determined by the individual agency and project. It is being developed by EPA with the Federal Environmental Executive and the Whole Building Design Guide.

o

Green Procurement Program (GPP), Defense Logistics Information Service

o

GSA Federal Supply Service Environmental Products and Services Guide



Magazines and E-Newsletters

o

Choose Green Report—Various product recommendations by GreenSeal

o o o

Environmental Building News Environmental Design & Construction Magazine GreenSpec™—The Environmental Building News Product Directory



Other

o

Green Building Resource Guide by John Hermannsson. Taunton Press, 1997.

o o

Green Products Network GreenSage.com—An online source for green and sustainable building materials and furnishings.

o

Guide to Resource Efficient Building Elements by Tracy Mumma. Missoula, MT: National Center for Appropriate Technology's Center for Resourceful Building Technology, 1997. eGuide version of book available online.

o o

oikos® Green Building Source—Green product information PATHNET.org—Excellent repository of building materials, case studies, and innovative techniques

o

A Sourcebook for Green and Sustainable Building, City of Austin Green Builder Program

Renovate Existing Facilities, Products, and Equipment •
Case study: NAVFAC Building 33

Evaluate Environmental Preferability Using LCA •
BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability), NIST —BEES measures the environmental performance of building

products by using the life-cycle assessment approach specified in ISO 14000 standards.



Environmental Impact Estimator, Athena Institute—The Estimator lets designers assess the environmental implications of industrial, institutional, office, and both multi-unit and single-family residential designs: new construction or renovation.



Environmental Resource Guide by The American Institute of Architects (AIA), Joseph A. Demkin (Editor). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Maximize the Recycled Content of All New Materials • •
Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG), EPA Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP), EPA

Specify Materials Harvested on a Sustained Yield Basis • • • • • Limit Construction Debris • • • •
California Integrated Waste Management Board Case study: EPA New England Regional Laboratory Construction and Demolition Debris, EPA Construction Waste Management Database, GSA—The Database contains information on companies that haul, collect and process recyclable debris from construction projects. Created in 2002 by GSA's Environmental Strategies and Safety Division to promote responsible waste disposal, the Database is a free online service for those seeking companies that recycle construction debris in their area. Forest Certification Resource Center Forest Stewardship Council United States (FSC) Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) SmartWood (SW) Sustainable Forestry Initiative, American Forest & Paper Association



Municipal Solid Waste Management, EPA



National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center— Construction Waste Management



Department of Defense

o

UFC 1-900-01 Selection of Methods for the Reduction, Reuse and Recycling of Demolition Waste



Public Works Technical Bulletins, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers:

o

PWTB 200-1-23 Guidance for the Reduction of Demolition Waste Through Reuse and Recycling

o

PWTB 200-1-27 Reuse of Concrete Materials From Building Demolition

o

PWTB 420-49-30 Alternatives to Demolition for Facility Reduction



Residential Construction Waste Management: A Builder's Field Guide by Peter Yost and Eric Lund. National Association of Home Builders Research Center, January 1997.



WasteSpec: Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling by Triangle J Council of Governments.

Others •
FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.



Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding

• •

GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study



U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)

o

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System

Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 06-03-2010

WITHIN THIS PAGE
• • • •
Overview Recommendations Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
In the struggle to build cost-effective buildings, it is easy to forget that the ultimate success or failure of a project rests on its indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Healthy, comfortable employees are invariably more satisfied and productive. Unfortunately, this simple, compelling truth is often lost, for it is simpler to focus on the first-cost of a project than it is to determine the value of increased user productivity and health. Facilities should be constructed with an appreciation of the importance of providing high-quality, interior environments for all users. During the facility/renovation design and development process, federal projects must have a comprehensive, integrated perspective that seeks to:

The Thoreau Institute of Sustainability at the Presidio—San Francisco, California

• •

Facilitate quality IEQ through good design, construction, and operating and maintenance practices; Value aesthetic decisions, such as the importance of views and the integration of natural and man-made elements;



Provide thermal comfort with a maximum degree of personal control over temperature and airflow;



Supply adequate levels of ventilation and outside air to ensure indoor air quality;



Prevent airborne bacteria, mold, and other fungi through heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) system designs that are effective at controlling indoor humidity, and building envelope design that prevents the intrusion of moisture;



Avoid the use of materials high in pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or toxins;



Assure acoustic privacy and comfort through the use of sound absorbing material and equipment isolation;



Control disturbing odors through contaminant isolation and careful selection of cleaning products;



Create a high performance luminous environment through the careful integration of natural and artificial light sources; and



Provide quality water.

Note: IEQ encompasses indoor air quality (IAQ), which focuses on airborne contaminants, as well as other health, safety, and comfort issues such as aesthetics, potable water surveillance, ergonomics, acoustics, lighting, and electromagnetic frequency levels. IEQ improvements to an existing building can occur at any point during the use of a building.
BACK TO TOP

RECOMMENDATIONS
Facilitate Quality IEQ through Good Design, Construction, and O&M Practices •
Acceptable IEQ is often easiest to achieve if "source control" is practiced, not only during building construction, but also over the life of the building. For example, the designer may select building products that do not produce noxious or irritating odors; and design exterior entrances with permanent entryway systems to catch and hold dirt particles.



Refer to the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB) for scientific information about the effects of IAQ on people's health or work performance. The IAQ-SFRB is being developed by the Indoor Environment Department of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with funding support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.



The Operations & Maintenance (O&M) and cleaning staff can also avoid creating IEQ problems by choosing less noxious materials during repair and cleaning activities. While HVAC systems may be designed to isolate operations (kitchens, dry cleaners, etc.) from other occupancies, the O&M staff ensures that pressure differentials are maintained to avoid the undesirable flow of contaminants from one space to another. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices.

Value Aesthetic Decisions •
Appreciate the importance of providing windows in all occupied spaces for view and natural ventilation. See also WBDG Aesthetics and Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being.



Design spaces around basic human needs, ancient preferences, and connections to the patterns of nature and the mind. See also WBDG Psychosocial Value of Space.



Demand that individual buildings or facilities are consciously integrated into their natural and man-made context. See also WBDG Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential.

Provide Thermal Comfort •
Use ASHRAE Standard 55—Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy as the basis for thermal comfort. See also WBDG Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments.



Evaluate the use of access floors with displacement ventilation for flexibility, personal comfort control, and energy savings.



Understand moisture dynamics as a key criteria in the selection of wall and roof assemblies. See also WBDG Air Barrier Systems in Buildings.



Evaluate the benefit of specifying high-performance windows to increase mean radiant temperature (MRT).

Supply Adequate Levels of Ventilation and Outside Air • •
Design the ventilation system to exceed ASHRAE Standard 62: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Implement a construction management program that ensures key ventilation components are protected from contamination during construction.



Commission HVAC systems to ensure they operate and perform as designed. This will ensure that adequate ventilation rates have been achieved prior to initial occupancy. HVAC system should be installed with filters with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 7.



Investigate the use of separate outside air and conditioned air distribution systems. A good description of various types of heating and ventilation systems can be found at: WBDG High-Performance HVAC and Natural Ventilation.



Ensure fresh air intakes are located away from loading areas, exhaust fans, and other contamination points.



Ensure parking lot/garage usage cannot generate pollutants that affect fresh air intake or pedestrian traffic. Prevent vehicles idling near the facility during normal operations.

• •

Consider installing loading dock purge fans. Investigate the use of a permanent air quality monitoring system. ASHRAE acceptable level of carbon dioxide (CO2) for an indoor office environment is 1000 ppm ("normal" CO2 outside level is about 300 to 400 ppm). Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in office environments should be below 2 ppm. OSHA regulates levels of CO for industrial locations.



Coordinate ventilation and air filtration with chemical, biological, and radiological concerns and locate outside air intakes so they do not conflict with physical security requirements. See also WBDG Air Decontamination.



During operation, replace filters on periodic basis.

Prevent Airborne Bacteria, Mold, and Other Fungi

Prevention of mold and fungi is dependent upon effective HVAC and building envelope design and construction. The HVAC system must be able to control interior humidity conditions over a wide range of outdoor conditions. The system must be designed to have the capacity to dehumidify at the 1% Humidity Ratio and mean coincident dry bulb temperature, and control interior humidity at both extreme and low load conditions. The building envelope must be carefully designed to prevent intrusion of water and to dry if intrusion should occur. It must also incorporate barriers that control vapor and air infiltration.

• •

Carefully consider the envelope of the building to prevent moisture infiltration. Investigate immediately when there is a moisture condition, either from a leak or flood.



Ensure the number of spores in the indoor air is less than the outdoor air. It is recommended that there should be less than 700 spores in a cubic meter of air.

Limit Spread of Pathogens
For health care facilities:

• •

Implement proper maintenance procedures to prevent nosocomial infections. Consider removing restroom doors to reduce the chance of acquiring infections.

Avoid the Use of Materials High in Pollutants •
Limit the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in such products as cleaners, paints, sealants, coatings, and adhesives. See also WBDG Evaluating and Selecting Green Products.



Avoid products containing formaldehyde, i.e., carpet, wall panels, cabinetry.



Remove asbestos-containing material or contain it in a manner that precludes the possibility of future exposure.



In areas where it is prevalent, include measures to control and mitigate radon buildup.



Create safe, convenient, and secure storage spaces for housekeeping chemicals. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices.



If an area in an occupied building is being renovated, consider isolating and negatively pressurizing the construction area if work is being performed that would result in dust, fumes, or odors. If conditioned air is required due to high end finishing work, the air should be directly exhausted to the exterior environment and not returned to the fan.

• Assure Acoustic Privacy and Comfort •

Ensure office equipment installed emit minimal odors or pollutants.

Minimize noise through the use of sound-absorbing materials, high sound transmission loss walls, floors, and ceilings, and equipment sound isolation. See Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition, section on Acoustical Design for more information. See also WBDG Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments and Acoustic Comfort.



Consider sound masking systems. These systems introduce an unobtrusive background sound that reduces interference from distracting office noise. Note that some level of HVAC "noise" can serve as a background white noise source, eliminating the need for sound masking systems.



Avoid the use of small diameter ducts with high velocity airflow.

Control Disturbing Odors through Contaminant Isolation and Product Selection •
Directly exhaust copying and housekeeping areas, and provide added return air grills in these areas. This will help limit lower atmosphere ozone generation, commonly associated with duplicating and printing processes. Ozone acts as a power oxidant. It can attack surfaces of certain elastomers, plastics, paints, and pigments; and aid in sulfide and chloride corrosion of metals. Possible health hazards caused by ozone include eye and mucous membrane irritation as well as chronic respiratory disease.



Minimize disturbing odors through contaminant isolation and careful selection of cleaning products.



Ensure maintenance procedures are in place to remove all trash and recyclables from the building on a regular basis rather than storing them within the building for prolonged periods of time.



Prohibit smoking in all areas of the building. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a known carcinogen.



In special cases where smoking is permitted, e.g., federal judge's private chambers, ensure that the spaces:

o o o

Have lower pressure than adjacent areas; Comply with ASHRAE Standard 62 for proper ventilation; Are isolated from the return air system of surrounding areas to prevent pollutants from spreading to other areas.

Create a High—Performance Luminous Environment • •
Use daylighting for ambient lighting wherever feasible. Supplement natural light with integrated, high-performance ballasts, lamps, fixtures, and controls.



Substitute magnetic fluorescent lamps with high-frequency electronic ballasts to reduce flickering.



Reduce direct glare from both natural and man-made sources in the field of view—particularly in spaces with highly reflective surfaces, such as visual display terminals (VDTs).



Use task/ambient systems that provide reduced levels of diffuse, general illumination, and supplement with task lighting. Most people do not need lighting in excess of 300 lux (a unit of illumination).

• Provide Quality Water • •

Use light color on walls and locate windows properly.

Comply with EPA Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for the levels of various metals and bacteria in potable water systems. For newly installed or temporarily suspended domestic water systems, follow "start-up" procedures by flushing all down stream outlets.



Conduct periodic 'maintenance flushing' to proactively control drinking water issues.



Control domestic water temperature to avoid temperature ranges where legionellae grow: keep domestic water temperatures above

140°F (60°C) in tanks and 122°F (50°C) at all taps (faucets and showers).



Design cooling tower and building air intake placement so air discharged from the cooling tower or evaporative condenser is not directly brought into the facility's air intake.



Consider a closed loop system instead of an open system to reduce the potential of exposure at the cooling tower.

Be Aware of Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF)
Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are generated by forces associated with electric charges in motion, and by microwaves, radio waves, electrical currents, and transformers. EMF are thought to cause cancer, however there is insufficient evidence to prove this. There are no federal standards limiting occupational or residential exposure to EMF at this time, only various U.S. and International voluntary occupational exposure guidelines. Nevertheless, facility designers and managers should consult the following resources to find out the latest scientific research and recommendations on dealing with EMF exposure:

• •

EMF RAPID—Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program World Health Organization (WHO), Electromagnetic fields (EMF) website

Balance IEQ Strategies with Security Requirements
Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, building owners and occupants have placed greater emphasis on facility security and safety. However, security and safety measures must be considered within a total project context, including the project's environmental goals. Several indoor environmental quality strategies, such as dedicated ventilation systems and tight building envelopes, can be employed to help designers achieve an integrated, high performance facility. See also WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives.
BACK TO TOP

RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS
• •
ASHRAE Guideline 1—Guideline for the Commissioning of HVAC Systems ASHRAE Standard 52—Method of Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particular Matter



ASHRAE Standard 55—Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy



ASHRAE Standard 62—Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality —Sets the minimum acceptable ventilation requirements.

• •

ASHRAE Standard 90.1—Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Department of Defense

o

UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings

o

Air Force: Air Force Engineering Technical Letter ETL 04-3 Design Criteria for Prevention of Mold in Air Force Facilities.



U.S. General Services Administration

o

P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, 2005

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MAJOR RESOURCES
WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES
Applicable to most building types and space types, especially for Child Development Centers, Training Facility, Federal Courthouse, Health Care Facilities, Libraries, Office Building, Auditorium, Conference / Classroom, Courthouse: Courtroom, Library (Space Type), Office

DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Aesthetics, Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately, Productive, Secure / Safe, Sustainable— Optimize Site Potential, Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use, Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water, Sustainable —Use Environmentally Preferable Products, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Section 23 28 13: Commercial—Kitchen Hoods, Section 23 31 00: HVAC Ducts and Casings, Section 23 05 93: Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing for HVAC, Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers:



01 57 19.11 (01352) Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

01 67 00 (01611) Environmental Product Requirements 01 74 13 (01740) Progress Cleaning 05 05 00 (05500) Common Work Results for Metals 06 05 73 (06070) Wood Treatment 06 10 00 (06100) Rough Carpentry 06 16 00 (06160) Sheathing 06 20 00 (06200) Finish Carpentry 06 60 00 (06600) Plastic Fabrications 06 90 00 (06700) Alternative Agricultural Products 07 10 00 (07100) Dampproofing & Waterproofing 07 20 00 (07200) Thermal Protection 07 30 00 (07300) Steep Slope Roofing 07 50 00 (07500) Membrane Roofing 07 55 63 (07530) Vegetated Protected Membrane Roofing 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 08 50 00 (08500) Windows 09 29 00 (09250) Gypsum Board 09 30 00 (09300) Tiling 09 51 00 (09510) Acoustical Ceilings 09 65 00 (09650) Resilient Flooring 09 65 16.13 (09654) Linoleum Flooring 09 68 00 (09680) Carpeting 09 72 00 (09720) Wall Coverings 09 90 00 (09900) Painting & Coating

• • • • •

12 10 00 (12100) Art 12 59 00 (12700) Systems Furniture 22 40 00 (15400) Plumbing Fixtures 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Building Commissioning

TOOLS
LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Pages Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool

Facilitate Quality IEQ through Good Design and O&M Practices

FEDERAL AGENCIES AND LABORATORIES
• • •
Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Indoor Air Quality website Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Indoor Environment Department website

• •

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

o

OSHA, Indoor Air Quality website

ORGANIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS
• • • •
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) ASTM International Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) U.S. Green Building Council

o

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS TOOLS

IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) Computer Software—I-BEAM is computer software for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings. I-BEAM updates and expands EPA's existing Building Air Quality guidance and is designed to be comprehensive state-of-theart guidance for managing IAQ in commercial buildings. I-BEAM contains text, animation/visual, and interactive/calculation components that can be used to perform a number of diverse tasks.



Multizone Modeling website, NIST—Contains software tools for performing multi-zone analysis (e.g. CONTAMW), information on the applications of multi-zone modeling, multi-zone modeling case studies, and references to multi-zone modeling publications.

OTHERS
• •
Aerias—Online resource dedicated to promoting better human health and better business through IAQ awareness. "Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers" by U.S. EPA and National Institute for Safety and Health.



California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) Section 01350 Special Environmental Requirements for testing emissions of products



FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.

• •

GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study



High Performance Building Guidelines (PDF 2.2 MB, 146 pgs) by New York City Department of Design and Construction. April 1999.



Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse

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Direct inquiries: Phone (800) 438-4318; Fax: (703) 3565386; e-mail: [email protected]



Lessons Learned: High Performance Buildings. "Indoor Environmental Quality" by John J. Leitner and William Esposito, Jr., CIH, Ambient Group, Inc. New York, NY: Earth Day New York, 2000.

• Value Aesthetic Decisions • Provide Thermal Comfort • •

Sustainable Building Technical Manual (DOE/EPA)

WBDG: Aesthetics, Productive

WBDG: Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments MOIST 3 software—Computer software that predicts the onedimensional transfer of heat and moisture, allowing users to investigate the effects of various parameters on the moisture accumulation within layers of the construction. MOIST can also be used to generate guidelines and practices for controlling moisture.

Supply Adequate Levels of Ventilation and Outside Air • • • •
WBDG: Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being EPA Document #402-K-93-007, April 1995. EPA National Center for Environmental Research Fact Sheet: Ventilation and Air Quality in Offices by EPA Office of Air and Radiation (6607J). EPA Document #402-F-94-003, revised July 1990.



Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks by Department of Health and Human Services. May 2002.



Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological

Attacks by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. April 2003.



The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality by EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6604J) and United States Consumer Product Safety Commission.

• •

NAVFAC White Paper on Carbon Monoxide UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings

Prevent Airborne Bacteria, Mold, and Fungi • •
Air Force: Air Force Engineering Technical Letter ETL 04-3 Design Criteria for Prevention of Mold in Air Force Facilities. Indoor Environmental Standards Organization (IESO)—IESO is a non-profit organization that provides a national forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for the assessment of indoor environments. IESO also offers certification programs to promote awareness and compliance to the established standards. The IESO Standards of Practice, Volume 1 for the assessment of indoor air quality includes seven standards on two topics: Mold Sampling and Assessment of Mold Contamination.

• Limit Spread of Pathogens •

OSHA, Molds & Fungi website

WBDG: Health Care Facilities

Avoid the Use of Materials High in Pollutants • • • • •
Cleaning Products Pilot Project (CPPP), EPA (PDF 388 KB, 25 pgs) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing, EPA Greenguard Environmental Institute Certified Products GreenSeal Product Recommendations Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) IAQ Product Certification Program

Assure Acoustic Privacy and Comfort

• •

WBDG: Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments, Acoustic Comfort Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition

Create a High—Performance Luminous Environment • • •
WBDG: Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being, Productive— Provide Comfortable Environments IESNA RP-5 Recommended Practice of Daylighting Windows and Daylighting Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Provide Quality Water • •
EPA Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) NAVFAC Information on Legionella or Legionnaire's Disease

Balance IEQ Strategies with Security Requirements • •
WBDG: Secure / Safe—Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks



Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks by Department of Health and Human Services. May 2002.

Publications • •
How IEQ Affects Health, Productivity (PDF 220 KB, 3 pgs) by William J. Fisk, P.E., Member ASHRAE. ASHRAE Journal, May 2002. HVAC Characteristics and Occupant Health (PDF 430 KB, 4 pgs) by W.K. Sieber, M.R. Petersen, L.T. Stayner, R. Malkin, M.J. Mendell, K.M. Wallingford, T.G. Wilcox, M.S. Crandall, and L. Reed. ASHRAE Journal, September 2002.



IEQ and the Impact on Building Occupants (PDF 105 KB, 3 pgs) by Satish Kumar, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE and William J. Fisk, P.E., Member ASHRAE. ASHRAE Journal, April 2002.



IEQ and the Impact on Employee Sick Leave (PDF 105 KB, 3 pgs) by Satish Kumar, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE and William J. Fisk, P.E., Member ASHRAE. ASHRAE Journal, July 2002.



Ventilation Rates and Health (PDF 115 KB, 5 pgs) by Olli Seppänen, Fellow ASHRAE, William J. Fisk, P.E., Member ASHRAE, and Mark J. Mendell, Ph.D. ASHRAE Journal, August 2002.

Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 07-22-2010

WITHIN THIS PAGE
• • • •
Overview Recommendations Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction, it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly. Ensure operation and maintenance personnel are part of the project planning and development process including the establishing of commissioning criteria at the onset of a project. The use of toxic cleaning products can deteriorate indoor air quality; failure to test sensor control points on a regular basis can compromise energy efficiency; and poor training can lead to early system failures. Buildings must be operated and maintained with the security, safety, health, comfort, and productivity of their occupants in mind, and with an understanding of the next generation's need to reuse and recycle building components. To the extent possible, select systems that are easily maintained. Throughout the building's life cycle, operations and maintenance should seek to:

• •

Train building occupants, facilities managers, and maintenance staff in sustainable design principles and methods; " Purchase cleaning products and supplies that are resource-efficient, bio-degradable and non-toxic;



Use automated monitors and controls for energy, water, waste, temperature, moisture, and ventilation;



Reduce waste through source reduction and recycling to eliminate disposal off-site; and



Minimize travel by supporting telecommuting programs and enabling teleconferencing.

BACK TO TOP

RECOMMENDATIONS
Train Building Occupants, Facilities Managers, and Maintenance Staff in Sustainability Principles and Methods •
Implement a comprehensive, preventive maintenance program to keep all building systems functioning as designed. See WBDG Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM).



Install meters and track progress of energy, water, and waste systems to ensure the highest performance levels possible. Without meters to monitor and verify performance, it will be difficult to determine if building systems are operating as designed.



Provide operations support to facilities managers and maintenance crews to answer questions and offer additional information.

Employ Environmentally Preferable Landscaping Practices • •
Landscape with drought-tolerant native, or indigenous, plants. Develop a Pest Control Plan, which includes information about: materials and equipment for service; method for monitoring and detection; service schedule for each building or site; any structural or operational changes that would facilitate the pest control effort; and commercial pesticide applicator certificates or licenses.

• • •

Consider composting and/or recycling yard waste. Where necessary, use non-toxic outdoor fertilizers and pesticides. Minimize site disturbance. See also WBDG Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential.



Use landscaping products with recycled content as required by EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) for landscaping products.



See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices.

Purchase Cleaning Products and Supplies that are Resource-Efficient and Non-Toxic • •
Use cleaners that biodegrade rapidly. Look for products that are concentrated, using less packaging for more power.



Use integrated pest management (IPM) practices in facilities and landscaping to reduce the use of pesticides and herbicides. IPM has been mandated on federal property since 1996 by Section 136r-1 of Title 7, United States Code, and is cited in Title 41 of the Code of Federal Regulations (102-74.35) as a required service for agencies subject to the authority of the General Services Administration (GSA).



Use non-toxic pest control for indoor spaces and plants. See also WBDG Evaluating and Selecting Green Products.



Keep air ducts clean and free of microorganisms through a structured program of preventive maintenance and regular filter changes.

Use Automated Monitors and Controls for Energy, Water, Waste, Temperature, Moisture, and Ventilation Monitors and Controls •
Use schedule, occupancy, or luminance sensors to control lighting and other functions. In the absence of sensors, turn off lights when not in use.

• • •

Use timers for heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. Turn off computers and equipment when not in use. Enable power-down features on office equipment (e.g., Energy Star® computers).



Turn off computer monitors when not in use.

Reduce Waste Through Source Reduction and Recycling • • •
Start a comprehensive recycling program with source separation and occupant incentives. Use on-site composting of organic materials. Adopt green meeting practices. Evaluate potential hotel and conference center venues that are sustainable in that they recycle,

purchase recycled or recyclable items, use nondisposable food and beverage service, have bottle deposits, a plan for leftover food and meeting materials, and practice water and energy conservation.

Support Practices that Encourage Sustainable Transportation or Minimize Travel • •
Install sufficient bike racks to meet demand. Designate shuttle/bus stops in safe and accessible areas close to the facility.

• •

Provide sufficient parking spaces for carpools/vanpools. Support teleconferencing and videoconferencing through proper operations and maintenance of communication systems.



Support telework (aka telecommuting) programs by providing hotelling spaces (flexible and well-equipped office spaces that teleworkers can use when they come into the office) and properly operating and maintained telework centers.

BACK TO TOP

RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS

Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"

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Executive Order 13423, Technical Guidance—EMS Integration

• •

Executive Order 13221, "Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices" P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, U.S. General Services Administration, 2005

BACK TO TOP

MAJOR RESOURCES
WBDG

BUILDING / SPACE TYPES
Applicable to most building types and space types.

DESIGN OBJECTIVES
Aesthetics, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately, Productive, Productive—Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces, Productive—Design for the Changing Workplace, Productive— Promote Health and Well-Being, Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments, Secure / Safe—Ensure Occupant Safety and Health, Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential, Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use, Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water, Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products, Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality

PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

01 78 23 (01830) Operation and Maintenance Data 01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning 06 20 00 (06200) Finish Carpentry 09 29 00 (09250) Gypsum Board 09 30 00 (09300) Tiling 09 51 00 (09510) Acoustical Ceilings 09 65 00 (09650) Resilient Flooring 09 65 16.13 (09654) Linoleum Flooring 09 68 00 (09680) Carpeting 09 72 00 (09720) Wallcoverings 09 90 00 (09900) Painting & Coating 10 21 13.19 (10170) Plastic Toilet Compartments 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 12 48 13 (12482) Entrance Floor Mats and Frames 12 59 00 (12700) Systems Furniture

• • • • • • •

14 20 00 (14200) Elevators 22 40 00 (15400) Plumbing Fixtures 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 26 50 00 (16500) Lighting 32 90 00 (02900) Planting 48 14 00 (13600) Solar Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment



48 15 00 (13600) Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment



48 30 00 (13600) Biomass Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Building Commissioning

TOOLS
LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool

Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices • • • • •
WBDG Facilities Operations & Maintenance Energy Star Operations and Maintenance Reports EPA WasteWise Program EPA Smart Growth FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance

assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.



Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding



Pennsylvania Green Building Maintenance Manual (PDF 508 KB, 105
pgs)

by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in partnership with Green

Seal and Department of General Services' Property Management.



Operations and Maintenance—Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)



U.S. Green Building Council, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System— Existing Buildings.

Train Building Occupants, Facilities Managers, and Maintenance Staff in Sustainability Principles and Methods •
IFMA Certification Program for Facility Managers—Maintenance and operations management is one of eight competency areas evaluated in becoming a Certified Facility Manager. An ideas exchange among facility managers is available on an advertising-supported web page.

Employ Environmentally Preferable Landscaping Practices • •
Environmentally and Economically Beneficial Landscaping Guidance by the Federal Highway Administration Landscaping with Native Plants by the Environmental Protection Agency



Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Food Production Fact Sheet by EPA.

Purchase Cleaning Products and Supplies that are Resource-Efficient and Non-Toxic •
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP), EPA

o

Includes several Cleaning Products Pilot Projects on cleaners listed under "Solvents."

• •

Green Seal South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD)



U.S. General Services Administration, Federal Supply Schedule – GSA Schedule 73—Schedule 73 (Food Service, Hospitality, and Cleaning) offers a variety of cleaning equipment and accessories, and cleaning products (including biodegradable products) for daily cleaning-products that keep facilities clean in an environmentally friendly manner. Also available are office recycling containers and waste receptacles, outdoor recycling containers, and industrial trash storage containers.

Use Automated Monitors and Controls for Energy, Water, Waste, Temperature, Moisture, and Ventilation Monitors and Controls • • •
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers by U.S. EPA and National Institute for Safety and Health. Energy Star®, EPA FEMP Operations and Maintenance

Reduce Waste Through Source Reduction and Recycling • • • •
EPA Office of Solid Waste Green Meetings, EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Planning Environmentally Aware Events, EPA Office of Solid Waste Waste News.com

Support Practices that Encourage Sustainable Transportation or Minimize Travel •
E-Commutair, the Teleworking Impact Estimation Tool from the Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing, University of California, Berkeley

• •

Interagency Telework/Telecommuting website, GSA/OPM Public Law 106-346, Section 359—Congressional Federal Telework Mandate 2001 (Part of the Department of Transportation Appropriations Act of 2001), 23 October 2000.

• Publications •

The Telework Coalition (TelCoa)

HVAC Characteristics and Occupant Health (PDF 430 KB, 4 pgs) by W.K. Sieber, M.R. Petersen, L.T. Stayner, R. Malkin, M.J. Mendell,

K.M. Wallingford, T.G. Wilcox, M.S. Crandall, and L. Reed. ASHRAE Journal, September 2002.

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