INTRODUCTION very organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. So it is necessary to raise skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. Inadequate job performance or a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning or a technological break-through require some type of training and development efforts. As jobs become more complex, the importance of employee development also increases. In a rapidly changing society, ―employee training and development is not only an activity that is desirable but
also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is maintain a viable and knowledgeable workforce“. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It is application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for an intended job. Development is the related process. It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those, which bring about growth of the personality; help individuals in the progress towards maturity and actualization of their potential capacities so that for theya become nothigher only good but also better men and women. Training a person bigger and job isemployees development.
Distinction Between Training and Development Training: • It is a short term process • It utilizes systematic and organized procedure • Managerial personnel acquire Skill of training sub-ordinates. • Non Managerial personnel acquire technical skill and knowledge for a definite purpose • It is primarily related with the job and technical skill learning
• It is a long term process • It too utilizes systematic and organized procedures • Managerial personnel get conceptual and theoretical knowledge and skill or managing. It is rarely used. • Non-Managerial personnel acquire technical skill and knowledge for a long-term purpose. • It is mainly useful for long-term management development process.
Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.: a.) When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed b.) To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort c.) As part of an overall professional development program d.) As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization e.) To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system f.) To train about a specific topic
COMPANY PROFILE THE GENESIS Jindal Saw Ltd. is a part of the USD $4 billion Jindal Group, one of the country's topmost industry houses and the foremost indigenous steel producers and exporters. It started operation in the year 1984, when it became the first company in India to manufacture Submerged Arc Welded (SAW) Pipes using the internationally acclaimed U-O-E technology
ABOUT JINDAL SAW LTD. JSL is one of the country's largest producers of SAW pipes, which is widely used in the energy sector for the transportation of oil and gas. With integrated facilities at multiple locations and an ever expanding market opportunity, JSL has diversified from a single product company to a multi-product company, manufacturing large diameter submerged arc pipes and spiral pipes and bends for the energy transportation sector; carbon, alloy and stainless steel seamless pipes and tubes manufactured by conical piercing process used for industrial applications; and Ductile iron (DI) pipes for water & sewage transportation. JSL has established itself as a market leader, and a global major in providing total pipe solutions
to the industry.
A STRUCTURED ORGANIZATION At JSL, the business operations are highly structured with four strategic business units: Large Diameter Pipes, Seamless Tubes, DI (Ductile Iron) Iron ) Pipes and the US Operations. Every SBU has its own dedicated sales and marketing targets and operations. While the first three SBUs manufacture and market Large Diameter Pipes, Seamless Tubes and Ductile Iron Pipes respectively, the last SBU acts as a dedicated marketing arm catering to the American market. In effect, the US Operations markets the products manufactured by all other SBUs. It also gets raw material converted to finished goods supplied to the US Affiliates under a toll conversion arrangement, and further markets the product in the American market. Besides these, JSL also provides various value added products like pipe coatings, bends and connector castings to its clients.
MANUFACTURING FACILITIES The state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities of Jindal Saw Ltd. are located at three places in India. The first plant was set up in Kosi Kalan in UP to manufacture SAW Pipes using UO-E technology. Later, a coating plant was also added here. At Nashik (Maharashtra), the company has one plant, engaged in the manufacture of Seamless pipes. There are two manufacturing bases in Mundra (Gujarat). Mundra-I, which is fully export oriented, has two plants to manufacture SAW Pipes and one plant for coating. Mundra-II, the second base, has three more plants.
QUALITY AT PAR WITH THE BEST IN THE WORLD The company boasts of an inimitable, innovative and process driven business environment with the highest level of quality commitment, which is reassured
through the ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 18001 certifications, amongst others.
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Jindal Saw Ltd. firmly believes that the essence of corporate governance is based on three key aspects: √ Integrity & Fairness √ Transparency & Disclosure √ Accountability & Responsibility At Jindal Saw Ltd., the principle of corporate governance is based on two core philosophies: • The management must be given the executive freedom to drive the Company forward, towards its goals, objectives and vision, without undue restraints • This freedom of management must be exercised prudently within a framework of effective accountability.
VISION This Vision Statement is the guiding philosophy at Jindal Saw Limited. The word 'Value' in the statement refers to the quality products, services, systems and solutions that are essential for providing value to our customers. As a forerunner to evoking customer delight, the Company seeks to emerge as the most preferred provider of value — not merely any provider, nor even just a preferred one. This involves being best of class in everything, in particular, technology and innovation. The third keyword in the Vision Statement is „Reliable‟ . Pipelines are a key investment in the infrastructure sector. They carry core products for industry and society, such as oil, gas, water, etc. They are often laid underground or offshore — on the seabed. Thus, reliability is a very important expectation. This demands superior competencies in the company‘s design, materials, manufacturing, transportation, storage, installation, commissioning, etc. The concept of reliability is vital for any survival of any business venture in today‘s highly competitive and dynamic global scenario.
JSL seeks to realize its Vision by capitalizing on its key strengths — technical management, innovation, finance, leadership, building infrastructure and its reputation for fulfilling its commitment to customers.
JINDAL SAW LTD., NASHIK (SEAMLESS TUBES & PIPES DIVISION) This unit of JSL manufactures and markets stainless/Carbon/Alloy steel seamless tubes and pipes manufactured in a ultra-modern plant in Nashik, Maharashtra with technology and equipments from Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik-MEER of Germany, the acknowledged world leaders in Seamless Tubes & Pipes technology. t echnology. Seamless division employs the latest version of the Conical Piercer process; a process producing high quality Carbon steel tubes and pipes. Diameter of the hot finished Carbon steel seamless tubes/pipes vary from 44.5 mm to 168.3 mm with wall thickness range from 3.5 mm to 25 mm. The cold finished stainless steel seamless tubes/pipes can have a diameter varying from 6 mm to 73 mm and wall thickness ranging from 0.6 mm to 6 mm. These tubes and pipes are extensively used in Oil refineries, Petrochemical plants, Power, Heat transfer equipments, Metallurgical, Instrumentation and General EngineeringRefrigeration applications .sector, Boiler, Automotive, applications. In view of the growing international demand, this SBU seeks to horizontally integrate the company‘s tubular products line into a full range of such products to cater overseas market.
PRODUCTS RANGE 1.Cold finished Stainless Steel tubes/ pipes •
Outer diameter 6 mm to 73.0 mm • Wall thickness 0.6 mm to 6.0 mm 2.Cold finished Carbon Steel tubes/pipes • Outer diameter 19.05 mm to 88.9 mm • Wall thickness 2.0 mm to 8.0 mm
3.Hot finished Carbon Steel tubes/pipes • •
Outer diameter 44.5 mm to 168.30 mm Wall thickness 3.5 mm to 25 mm
DEPARTMENTS: Nashik plant of Jindal SAW Ltd. has following departments: • API-Finishing • API-Maintenance • Cold Mill • Cold Mill-Maint.
• • • • • • • • • • •
Finance Hot Mill Hot Mill Maintenance HRD Logistics
INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING Training Policy: Every company or organization should have well-established training policy. Such a policy represents the top management‘s commitment to the training of its employees, and comprises rules and procedures governing the standard and scope of training. A training policy is considered necessary for the following reasons: a) To include a company‘s intention to develop its personnel; to provide guidance in the framing and implementation of programmes and to provide information concerning them to all concerned; b) To discover critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis; and c) To provide suitable opportunities to the employee for his own betterment.
Training Courses: Training may range from highly specified instruction in the procedures to be adopted while performing a particular job to very general instruction concerning the economy and society. Training courses in general areas usually aim at making an employee a rounded individual, a happier happier w worker orker and a good ccitizen itizen and at trainin training g him for ―la ―larger rger rrespons esponsibilit ibilities ies‖ and future advancement. Such training exerts a remarkable influence on production and labour. From the producer‘s point of view, output would increase with decrease in scrap, spoilage, waste and the cost of production. From the point of view of labour, the 11
employee‘s morale would improve. Training programmes are no doubt expensive; but their worth to a growing concern cannot be over-emphasized.
Need for Basic Purposes of Training: (i) To increase productivity (ii) To improve quality
(iii) To help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs (iv) To improve organizational climate (v) To improve health and safety (vi) Obsolescence prevention (vii) Personal Growth
Importance of Training Training is the corner-stone of sound management, for it makes employees more effective and productive. It is actively and intimately connected with all the personnel or managerial activities. It is an integral part of the whole management programme, with all its activities functionally inter-related. Training is a practical and vital necessity because apart from the other advantages mentioned above, it enables employees to develop and rise within the organization and increasing increa sing their ―mark ―market et v value alue‖, ear earning ning power and jjob ob sec security. urity. It moul moulds ds the employee‘s attitudes and helps them to achieve a better cooperation with the company and the greater loyalty to it. The management is benefited in the sense that higher standards of quality are achieved; a satisfactory organizational structure is built up; authority can be delegated and stimulus for progress applied to employees. Training, moreover heightens the morale of the employees, for it helps in reducing dissatisfaction, complaints, grievances and
absentism, reduces turnover. Further trained employees make a better and economical use of materials and equipment; therefore, wastage and spoilage are lessened, and the need for constant supervision is reduced. The importance of training has been expressed in these words: ―Training is a widely accepted problem-solving device. Indeed our national superiority in manpower productivity can be attributed in no small measure to the success of our educational and industrial training programmes.‖ Hence, we take more vitamin pills to solve personal health problems and more training to solve our manpower problems. Over and under-emphasis of training stem largely from inadequate recognition and determination of training needs and objectives. They stem also from lack of recognition of the professional techniques of modern industrial training.
Principles of Training: (i) The purpose of the training is to help meet company objectives by providing opportunities for employees at all organizational levels to acquire the requisite knowledge, skills and attitudes; (ii) The first step in training is to determine needs and objectives; (iii) The objectives and scope of a training plan should be defined before its development is begun in order to provide a basis for common agreement and co-operative action; (iv) The techniques and processes of a training programme should be related directly to the needs and objectives of an organization; (v) To be effective, training must use the tested principles of learning;
(vi) Training should be conducted in the actual job environment to the maximum possible extent.
(vii) Training that requests the trainee to make changes in his values, attitudes, and social beliefs, usually achieves better results if the trainee is encouraged to participate, discuss and discover new, desirable behaviour norms. (viii) The trainee should be provided with ‗feedback‘ on the progress he is making in utilizing the training he has received. The feedback The feedback should should be fast and frequent, especially for the lower level jobs , which are often routine and quickly completed.
Training Evaluation This research work specifically aims in evaluating the existing training practices in Jindal SAW Ltd. Objectives of training evaluation is to determine the ability of the participant in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, the specific nature of training deficiencies, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training and the extent of the training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements. To be really effective, the training methods must fir in training programme needs find out how effective the methods are in accomplishing their goals of modifying skills, attitudes and ultimate behavior.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The research work is carried out for the purpose of achieving certain basic objectives such as: • To study the existing training practices • To determine the ability of the participants in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained • To test the effectiveness of training efforts undertaken • To identify the errors and deficiencies in the current training practices • To suggest better ways and techniques to avoid pitfalls or deficiencies if any in the existing training practices • To compare the existing training practices with the standard training practices
HYPOTHESIS “Training practices in Jindal SAW Ltd. have made a significant contribution in creating more competent, loyal and contended workforce…!”
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is a scientific and systematic research for pertinent information on a specific topic.
―Research is the process which includes defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determ det ermine ine whe whethe therr th they ey ffit it th thee fo formu rmulat lating ing hypo hypothe thesi siss‖.
PRIMARY DATA: Primary data are obtained by a study specially designed to fulfill the data needs of the problem at hand. The Employee Training Cards which comprises details such as employee information, individual training needs identified and HOD‘s rating and remarks regarding pre-training and post-training performance status of the employee acts as a primary data for this project work.
SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data is the data, which is not collected first hand. Following forms of data acts as a secondary data for this project work.
• Training Needs identified on the basis of performance appraisal, job descriptions, etc. • List of Training Programs conducted during the year • Focus & contents of training programs conducted, etc.
SURVEY METHOD: Statistical survey is the most popular device of obtaining the desired data. A survey is a process of collecting data from existing population units with no control over factor that may affect the population characteristics of interest in the study.
“SAMPLE METHOD” Of Data Collection: Sampling is the simply the process of learning about the population on the basis of a sample drawn from it. In this method, instead of every unit of the universe, only a part of the universe is studied and the conclusions are drawn on the basis for the entire universe. A sample is subset of population units. Sample Size for the project work: 60 employees of JSL from staff & managerial cadre.
STANDARD TRAINING METHODS/TECHNIQUES The forms and types of employee training methods are inter-related. It is difficult, if not possible, to say which of the methods or combination of methods is more useful than the other. In fact, methods are multifaceted in scope and dimension, and each is suitable for a particular situation. Care must be taken in adapting the technique/method to the learner and the job. An effective training technique generally fulfills these objectives; provide motivation to the trainee to improve job performance, develop willingness to change, provide for the trainee‘s active participation in the learning process, provide a knowledge of results about attempts to improve (i.e. feedback), and permit practice where appropriate.
CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING METHODS: Training Methods can be generally classified as: 1. ON THE JOB TRAINING 2. VESTIBULE TRAINING
Classroom methods are again sub-classified into a) LECTURES b) CONFERENCE c) CASE STUDY d) ROLE-PLAYIN ROLE-PLAYING G e) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION
ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING (OJT) Virtually every employee, from the clerk to company president, gets some ―on-the-jobtr trai ainin ning g‖, wh when en h hee join joints ts a fi firm rm.. T That hat‘s ‘s w why hy William Tracly calls it, “the most common, the most widely used and accepted, and the most necessary method of training employees in the skills essential and acceptable for job performance.” Under this technique, an employee is placed in a new job and is told how it may be performed. It is primarily concerned with developing in an employee a repertoire of skills and habits consistent with the existing practices of an organization, and with orienting him to his immediate problems. Employees are coached and instructed by skilled co-workers, by supervisors, by the special training instructors. They learn the job by personal observation and practice as well as occasionally handling it. It is learning by doing, and it is most useful for 19
jobs that are either difficult to simulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing. Ther Th eree aare re a var varie iety ty o off OJ OJT Tm met ethod hods, s, su such ch aass ― ―co coac achin hing g‖ or ― ―und under erst stud udy y‖; job job ro rota tati tion on and special assignments. Under coaching Under coaching or understudy method (which is also known as ‗internship‘ and ‗apprenticeship‘), the employee is trained on the job by his immediate superior. ‗ Internship‘‘ is usually applied to managerial personnel and provides wide variety Internship of job experi experience, ence, often involvi involving ng jo job b rota rotation, tion, or an ―ass ―assistant istant to‖ type of pos position. ition. ‗ Apprenticeship‘‘ is generally used to impart skills requiring long periods of practice as Apprenticeship found in trade, crafts and other technical fields. In job In job rotation, a management trainee is made to move from job to job at certain intervals. The jobs vary in content. Special assignments or committees are other methods used to provide lower-level executives with first hand experience in working on actual problems. On-the-job training is made more effective by the use of variety of training aids and techniques, such as procedure charts, lecture manuals, sample problems, demonstrations, oral and written explanations, tape-recorders and other aids.
Merits of On-the-Job Training • The trainee learns on the actual equipment in use and in the true environment of his job. 20
• It is highly economical since no additional personnel or facilities are required for training. • The trainee learns the the rules, regulations and procedures by observing their day-to-day applications • It is most appropriate for teaching the knowledge and skills, which can be acquired in a relatively short period, say, a few days of weeks
Demerits of On-the-Job Training
• The Instruction is often highly disorganized and haphazard and not properly supervised. • Learners are often subjected to distractions of a noisy shop or office.
VESTIBULE TRAINING This method attempts to duplicate on-the-job situations in a company classroom. It is a classroom training, which is often imparted with the help of the equipment, and machines, which are identical with those in use .in the place of work. This technique enables the trainee to concentrate on learning the new skill rather than on performing an actual job. Technical training is given in the classroom, while the practical work is conducted on the production line. It is a very efficient method of training semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of work at the same time.
Training is generally given in the form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role-playing and discussion.
DEMONSTRATION (LEARNING BY SEEING) In the demonstration method, the trainer describes and displays something, as when he teaches an employee how to do something by actually performing the activity himself and by goi going ng thr throu ough gh a sste tepp-byby-st step ep expla explana nati tion on of ― ―wh why y ‖ and ―w ―wha hatt‖ he is do doing ing.. Training by example is effective in mechanical operations or interpersonal relationships, for job duties and responsibilities, for informal group standards, supervisory expectations, and the like. Demonstrations are particularly effective in the training for the acquisition of skills; but their usefulnessthe is limited when it is a question of training management personnel. demonstration, emphasis is primarily on know-how, the principles and theory ofInaajob must, therefore, be taught by some other method.
SIMULATION Simulation is a technique, which duplicates, as nearly as possible, the actual conditions encountered on the job. The vestibule training method or the business
game-method are the examples of business simulations. Simulation techniques have been most widely used in aeronautical industry. Trainee interest and employee motivation are both high in simulation exercises because the actions of a trainee closely duplicate real job conditions. This training is essential in cases in which actual on-the-job practice might result in a serious enquiry, a costly error, or the
destruction of valuable materials or resources. It is for this reason that the technique is very expensive.
APPRENTICESHIP For training in crafts, trades and in technical areas, apprenticeship training is the oldest and most commonly used method, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training period of 2-3 years. The fields in which apprenticeship training is offered are numerous and range from the job of a draughtsman, a machinist, a printer, a tool maker, a mechanic, carpenter, fitters, electricians, etc. A major part of training time is spent on-the-job productive work.
Merits: • A skilled work force is maintained; • Immediate returns can be expected from training; • The workmanship is good;
23 • The hiring cost is lower because of reduced turnover and lower production costs; • The loyalty of the employees is increased and opportunities for growth are frequent.
CLASSROOM OR OFF-THE-JOB METHODS ―Off-the-job trainin ―Off-the-job training g‖ simply means that ttraining raining is not a part of ever everyday yday jjob ob act activity. ivity. The actual location may be in the company classrooms or in the places, which are owned by the company, or in universities, or associations, which have no connection with the company. These methods consists of • Lectures • Conferences • Group Discussions • Case Studies • Role-playing
LECTURES Lectures are regarded as one of the simplest ways of imparting knowledge to the trainees, especially when facts, concepts, or principles, attitudes, theories and 24
problem-solving abilities are to be taught. Lectures are formal organized talks by the training specialist, the formal superior or other individual specific topics. The lecture method can be used for very large groups, which are to be trained within a short time, thus reducing the cost per trainee. It can be organized rigorously so that ideas and principles relate properly. The main advantage of the lecture system is that it is simple and efficient and through it more material can be presented within a given time than by any other method.
THE CONFERENCE METHOD In this method, the participating individuals ‗confer‘ to discuss points of common interest of each other. It is a formal meeting, conducted in accordance with an organized plan, in
which the leader seeks to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining a considerable amount of oral participation of the trainees. There are 3 types of conferences. In the directed discussion, the trainer guides the discussion is such a way that the facts, principles or concepts are explained. In the training conference, the instructor gets the group to pool its knowledge and past experience and brings different points of view to bear on the problem. In the seminar the seminar conferences, answer is bound to question or a solution to a problem.
For this, the instructor defines the problem, encourages and ensures full participation in the discussion.
SEMINAR OR TEAM DISCUSSION This is an established method for training. A seminar is conducted in many ways: i) It may be based on a paper prepared by one or more trainees on a subject selected in consultation with the person in charge of the seminar. The trainees read their papers, and this is followed by a critical discussion. ii) It may be based on the statement made by the person in charge of the seminar or on a document prepared by an expert, who is invited to participate in the discussion. iii) Valuable working material may be provided to the trainees to the actual files. The trainees may consult the files and bring these to the seminar where they may study in detail the various aspects of job or work or task.
CASE STUDIES The case study is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best be attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases. The case study is primarily useful as a training technique for supervisors and is
especially valuable as a technique of developing decision-making skills and for broadening the perspective of the trainee. In case study method, the trainee is expected to: i) master the facts, become acquainted with the content of the case ii) define the objectives iii) Identifying the problems in case iv) development of alternative courses of action v) select the best alternative.
ROLE-PLAYING The idea of Role-playing involves action, doing and practice. In role-playing, trainees act out a given role, as they would in stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play before the rest of the class. The role-players are simply informed of a situation is acted out by the role-players. Role-playing is especially useful in providing new insight and in presenting the trainee with opportunities to develop interaction skills.
EXISTING TRAINING PRACTICES Training Procedure:
Training programmes are costly affair, and time consuming process. Therefore, they need to be drafted very carefully. Usually in training programmes following steps are considered necessary: 1. Discovering or Identifying the training needs (Training Needs Identification) 2. Preparation of Training Calendar for the year 3. Preparation of Individual Training Cards 4. Presentation of operations and knowledge 5. Performance try-out 6. Training Feedback 7. Training Evaluation & follow-up
Fig: Sequence of Training Programme 1. TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION (THROUGH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OBESERVATION, NEW JOB RESPONSIBILITIES ETC.) 2. PREPARATION OF TRAINING CALENDAR 3. PREPARATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TRAINING CARDS
6. TRAINING EVALUATION AND FEEDBACK (REWARDS AND FEEDBACK) 5. PERFORMANCE TRY-OUT 4. PRESENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE (APPLICATIONS OF TRG. TECHNIQUES)
1. Discovering or Identifying Training Needs A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step, in the first place, is to make a through analysis of the entire organization, its operations and manpower resources available availa ble in ord order er to find o out ut ― ―the the tr trouble ouble spots‖ where trainin training g ma may y be needed needed.. Identification of training needs must contain 3 types of analyses: a. Organizational Analysis b. Operations Analysis c. Man Analysis In Jindal SAW Ltd. TNI (Training Needs Identification) is done on the basis of following activities: i) Performance Appraisal ii) Job Descriptions iii) New Job Responsibilities Given iv) Observation during daily work done v) Special functional training needs i) PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:
Performance appraisal is the process of evaluating an employee‘s performance of a job in terms of its requirements. It is the technique by which performance evaluation of employee is done generally by his superiors. It creates a base for identification of individual training needs. Performance Appraisal serves to stimulate and an d guide employee development. Appraisal program provide information on the weaknesses of employees and enable them to gauge their own value and accomplishments and to know what they are doing. The weaknesses
provide the basis for an individual development programme. If used properly such periodic appraisals will establish an atmosphere in which criticism can be taken without resentment and can be used constructively for self-improvement. STANDARD APPRAISAL METHODS:
• • • • •
Global Essay and Rating Training Rating approach Rating by Superiors Forced choice appraisal Forced distribution approach
•• • • • •
Critical incident method Field Review techniques Feedback of appraisal information Rating by Self Rating by Group Behaviour Anchored Rating
FACTORS AFFECTING APPRAISAL
• Choice of appraisal method to match objective sought • Lack of sets of standards for evaluation • Poor feedback to the employee • Rating errors due to appraisers‘ apathy, halo effect, Leniency or strictness, central tendency, bias approach • The economy measures in this activity • Ability to use feedback data • Boss-subordinate relationship In Jindal SAW Ltd. Global Essay & Rating method is used for appraising the performance of the employees. In essay technique, the supervisor makes a free 31
form open-ended appraisal of an employee in his own words & puts down his impressions about the employee. An appraiser considers various factors such as: • General ability to perform to given tasks & responsibilities • Production, quality and cost control
• Attitude & manpower handling abilities • Development needs for future
ii) JOB DESRIPTIONS Job Description defines the scope of job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job in the organization. It provides the necessary information to the management of training and development programs. It helps the requirements of training programs in the following ways: a) Job description help to identify the training needs related to a particular job b) Job descriptions help to determine the content and subject matter of in-training courses.
iii) NEW JOB RESPONSIBILITIES GIVEN Whenever new job responsibilities are given to the employee, he has to give training related with those new responsibilities. It will facilitate him to perform his responsibilities more efficiently.
iv) OBSERVATION DURING DAILY WORK DONE By these technique superiors observes their subordinate while performing their day-to-day work activities to identify any kind of training necessary to impart.
v) SPECIAL FUNCTIONAL TRAINING NEEDS In this technique special functional training needs are identified based on technology change, change in organization‘s procedures, new project development, etc.
2. Preparation of Training Calendar This is the second step in the training procedure. After identification training needs of the employees a full-fledged training calendar for the year is prepared. This calendar consists of all the details such as type of training given, date & venue, concerned trainers, etc. It is the form of preplanned training activities, which gives the clear idea about the training program for the year. Training Calendar informs the employees about the kind of training given to them & prepares them for the learning.
3. Preparation of Individual Training Cards After preparation of general training calendar, individual training cards are prepared for each employee. This training card generally comprises following details: • Name, Code, designation, date of joining, and the department of the employee • Training needs identified • Source from which training needs are identified • Department Head‘s rating related with the employee‘s current performance • Department Head‘s expectation about the employee‘s current performance
4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge This is the most important step in training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be emphasis on key points, and one point should explained at a time. For this purpose, the trainer should
demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations.
5. Performance Try-Out Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected, and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the first time. Then the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in a right way, he is put on his own, but not abandoned. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated. This is usually done by: Given written or oral tests to trainees to ascertain how far they have learnt; Observing trainees on the job itself and administering performance tests to them; Arranging structured interviews with the participants or sending them questionnaires by mail
34 Comparing the results obtained after the training with those secured
before the training programme in order to find out whether any material change is taken place in attitude, opinion, in the quality of output, in the reduction in scrap, breakage, etc. Study of profiles and charts of career development of the participants and related assignment techniques.
6. Training Feedback & Evaluation Concerned department heads generally gives training feedback. Proper feedback gives an idea to how much extent the training programs found effective & measures the level of performance improvement achieved. Training evaluation is the last but one of the most important steps in the training procedure. It is meant for measuring the effectiveness of training efforts undertaken. The training feedback given by HODs acts as source for evaluation process. It is an analytical process in which the data collected through feedback by HODs is systematically analyzed by using some predetermined mathematical formula. e.g. Percentage Improvement = Post-training performance Status / (Pre-training performance Status + Expectation) The results obtained by such calculations are represented with the help of various data representation tools such as: a. Tables b. Graphs c. Charts etc. Such tools provide an easy way for the reader to interpret the results. Such data analysis also helps in identifying any deficiencies or pitfalls in the current training program.
TRAINING TECHNIQUES ADOPTED
In the organization the techniques that are adopted to impart training to its employees are:
1. On-the-job training This is the training method in which an employee is given training while performing his job. This kind of training technique is generally used for imparting technical skills. Most of the times it is used when there any technological change, new installments or change in the operations is there. In such techniques trainees can learn quickly as they are trained on the job itself. Also it found easier to trainee as he is already familiar with his job and only new things have to be learned.
2. Classroom Training Techniques In such type of training techniques as the name suggests training is given within the classroom. It includes various kinds of classroom training methods
a) Workshops: The organization frequently arranges various kinds of workshops within or outside the organization for imparting training to its employees. Such types of
workshops include variety of functional & behavioural skills impartation training. Some of the topics include: • Industrial Waste Management • Stress Management • Soft Skills development
Morale building, etc. Such workshops not only enhance the knowledge of employees but also assist in their selfdevelopment.
b) Seminars & Conferences It is the regular practice in the organization to send its employees outside the organization to attend the seminars and conferences that are arranged for the purpose of giving various kinds of training. It may be on the technical skill development, behavioural skill development, etc.
3. Induction Training Induction training is the part of socialization process for any new employee who is joining the organization. Induction training is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies and purposes of the organization.
In other words, it is a welcoming process- the idea is to welcome a newcomer, make him feel at home and generate in him a feeling that his own job, however small is meaningful and has significance as a part of the total organization. Induction training has its many aspects and covers various activities like: • Introduction to organizations goals & objectives • Introduction to departments & staff of the company
• Company‘s products, procedures, rules & regulations • Various welfare amenities, benefits & services • Roles & responsibilities of the employee, etc. • Safety System/Practices • Emergency Response Procedure • Quality Systems Induction training though given initially when an employee joins the organization, it is one of the most important activities as it integrates the employee with the organization at the first time when he joins the organization. It builds his confidence, morale and makes him feel more secure.
SPECIAL WORKSHOPS ARRANGED TO IMPART TRAINING 1. “WAR ON WASTE” By Alliance India, Mumbai Focus : Industrial Waste Management Hazardous Waste Management- Best Practices & challenges
Handling & treatment of hazardous waste from Petrochemicals Preventive environmental management opportunities in industry
ALLIANCE INDIA, MUMBAI Over the years Alliance India has made a philosophy out of organizing and disseminating information relevant to today‘s corporate world. They believe firmly, that ‗sharing knowledge‘ and aiding its application is the purest, most reliable route to corporate success. Whether in the form of conferences, workshops or tailor-made training programs, they constantly strive and innovate to impart knowledge of the newest working trends in different verticals, and facilitate immediate test runs and application of the best practices. Their events aim at developing confidence in managers to cope with changing trends and help them experience first-hand the advantages of working differently Their conferences a number of which are held each year – are the clearest sign of Alliance India‘s belief in sharing knowledge and having organizations put the same into practice as they achieve subsequent milestones. These events bring .
together renowned business people, notable researchers & key players in major technologies and industries. The result is an open forum for learning, networking and creating resources for growth & development.
1. “MEDICINE FREE LIFE” BY THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION- “VIKALP” Focus:
2. “MERI PEHCHAN” BY MPOWER BUSINESS FACILITATORS LTD., MUMBAI “Meri Pehchan” was aimed at helping participants to improve their personality in order to achieve their desired identity. The basis of good personality is that person feels confident and at ease in every situation. This workshop reveals personality traits of participants and helps them to know themselves better.
Focus: Importance of Personality Development Meri Pehchaan: Who am I? Importance of perception Positive mental attitude Communication skills Time Management Belief system Human Relations Self hypnosis
MPOWER BUSINESS FACILITATORS LTD., MUMBAI MPower Business Facilitators Limited is a young and dynamic company, that believes in business excellence., settle for nothing but the very best. They are committed to guiding and mentoring people, helping people unlock their known and unknown potential, and to create and facilitate change - positive, credible, creative and vital.
TRAINING BUDGET HR department either quarterly or half yearly prepares training budget. The Training Budget normally covers the following: • Cost of planning • Cost of TNI and TNA • Cost of testing progress • Cost of Trials • Cost of Running Progress • Cost of Valedictions • Cost of Training Materials and Training Aids • Cost of publishing or awarding • Cost of Feedback systems COMPUTING THE COST
Direct Cost • Consultants‘ Fee • Honorarium to training faculties • Refreshments/lunch/Dinner • Hire charges of institutions • Hire charges of Training Aids • Cost of writing materials and Stationery. Indirect Cost • Cost of running HRD Organizations • Paper production cost • TA/DA to trainees and trainers • Leave or compensation allowance • Work suffered due to employee being away for training • Managerial/Supervision cost • Cost of running Library.
DERIVING THE FORMULA
COST OF PLANNING THE PROGRAMME CP = CC + CTI + CA + CS + CSO CP= Cost of planning CC=Cost of consultant CTI = cost of TNI CA = Cost of appraisal CS = cost of programme scheduling CSO = Share of over-head of the department Cost of TNI/TNA = Cost of diagnosis + cost of Appraisal (initial) + Share of overhead + cost of Interview of survey Cost of Programme = Cost of design + cost of Testing + cost of retesting + cost of conducting+ cost of Facilities + cost of Evaluation/Feedback
PRIMARY DATA 1. EMPLOYEE TRAINING CARD
EMPLOYEE TRAINING CARD FOR THE YEAR ________________________ Name Name of Employee : Date of Joining :Designation : Department :S.NoTraining NeedRatingIdentifiedOut of performanceNew Job Observed during OthersPresentAdd yourAfter training% improvementAppraisalResponsibilities givenDaily work done(pleasestatus expectationstatusspecify)ABCD1SIGN expectationstatusspecify)ABCD1SIGN OF HR DEPTSIGNATURE OF CONC. DHNote :Following are the instructions for filling up above form and judge the effectiveness of training of employee and organisation1The organisation1The training needs are to be identified by concerned DH and employee jointly so that both are convinced for improvement area identified.2Tick mark in the appropriate column to monitor reason under the head Basis of training need identified for particular training need3In the column A - provide marks ranging from 0 to 10 based on experience of conc. DHIn the column B - provide marks ranging from 1 to 10 for where conc. DH wants him to be after imparting training (improvement to be done4this year. Further improvement can be expected during next year, if required, i.e., step by step
improvement till 100% satisfaction)5In the column of C - provide marks ranging from 0 to 10 for - how much the employee had improved after training is imparted6In the column D - calculate the % improvement as =C/(A + B) after getting rating from conc. Dept Head in the column C.7This training card is to be circulated for identification of training needs in the month of April every year8Also calculate the impact / improvement % of trainings imparted during previous year after getting rating / remarks from con. Dept Head9Sum-up the to improvement % against 100% improvement - this will give you the total effectiveness of trainings provided during the year.10Other way of analysis is whether 100% improvement could not be achieved because of ineffective trainer OR less knowledge acquired by employee.11Take accordingly corrective and preventive actions for improvementBasis of Training Need Identified
Questionnaire Note: Please tick mark (√) the appropriate option
1.How do you rate the overall training program with respect to the learning experience gained? a) Excellent b) Very Good C) Good d) Average e) Poor 2. How did you find the instructor considering his knowledge level? a) Excellent b) Very Good C) Good d) Average e) Poor 3. How do you rate the presentation style of the instructor? a) Excellent b) Very Good C) Good d) Average e) Poor 4. Did you find the contents of the training program rich with respect to the main objective of the program? a) Yes b) No 5. Did you find audiovisual aids useful for the learning purpose? a) Yes b) No 6. Did you find the schedule of the training program convenient? a) Yes b) No 7. Which of your expectations have been fulfilled in this training program?
45 a) Knowledge Enhancement b) Urge of learning
c) Introduction to new techniques d) Overall conduct of program e) Clearance of doubts & queries if any 8. According to you what were the 2 major strengths of this training program? 9. According to you what were the 2 major weaknesses of this training program? 10. Please give your valuable suggestions for improvement in future Training programs?
-----------------Thank You! ----------------
SECONDARY DATA TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFIED (TNI): •
TNI on the basis of Performance Appraisal
1. FUNCTIONAL TNI SR. NO. FUNCTIONAL TNI 1 Project Management 2 TPM 3 5S 4 Improving Productivity 5 Strategic Planning 6 Industrial Safety 7 Problem Analysis 8 Negotiation Skills 9 Export procedures 10 PLC's & Drives 11 Training on S-7 12 3-D Animation 13 Finance for Non-finance people 14 Supervisory Development 15 WHF,WBF,IBH operations 16 Computer Literacy 17 CNC Programming 18 Tech. Knowledge of SS & CS 19 Training in Metallurgy
20 First level MDP 21 Training on Product/process specification 22 ERP Training 23 Latest Excise Development 24 Training in ISO Lead Auditor Skills 25 DEPB/Adv. License Training 26 Training for API - FINISHING
2. BEHAVIOURAL TNI SR. NO. BEHAVIOURAL TNI
1 Communication Skills 2 Presentation skills 3 Leadership 4 Time Management 5 Team building 6 Creativity & Innovation 7 Motivation 8 Personality Development 9 Interpersonal Skills 10 Improving emotional intelligence 11 Self development 12 Stress Management
3. OTHER DEVELOPMENT ACTION TNI SR. NO. OTHER DEV. ACTION TNI 1 Man management 2 Heat Treatment 3 Job Rotation 4 Job Enlargement 5 CNC Programming 6 On the job training 7 Development of subordinates 8 Training in MS-Excel 9 Training in Hydraulics system 10 Latest version of ACD PROE 11 Furnace Operations 12 Special Project to reduce waste 13 Furnace Operations
14 Study of Tube Specifications 15 Supply Chain Management 16 Lean Manufacturing Process 17 Training in Data Process
TNI BASED ON JOB DESCRIPTIONS SR. NO. TRAINING NEED IDENTIFIED 1 Industrial Waste Control 2 Man Power Management 3 Effective Downtime Utilization 4 TPM 5 WHF & WBF Maintenance 6 Effective Fuel Utilization 7 JIT & Kanban 8 MIS Report Generation 9 ERP 10 S/W Security Systems Dev. 11 Certification of Product Quality 12 Testing Equipment Calibration
TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE YEAR 2005-06 (OCT. 05 – JUNE 06)
1. EXTERNAL TRAINING PROGRAMS SR. NO. TITLE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM TRAINEE CATEGORY MONTH &YEAR 1 Stress Management MCS & Staff Oct.-05 2 Communication & Presentation skills MCS & Staff Dec.-05 3 Gears & Gear Boxes MCS Dec.-05 4 First Aid Treatment Artisan & Security Dec.-05 5 Interpersonal Skills MCS & Staff Jan.-06 6 Mediclaim MCS & Staff Feb.-06 7 Leadership & Motivation skills Staff & Artisan Feb.-06 8 Fire Fighting Demo MCS & Staff Mar.-06 9 Medicine Free Life All Apr.-06
10 Workshop on Leadership MCS & Staff Apr.-06 11 Income Tax Staff & Artisan Apr.-06 12 Conference on ―War on Waste" MCS June. -06 13 Workshop on Creating Self Identity-"Meri Pehchaan" MCS & Staff June. -06 14 Workshop on "Know Yourself" MCS & Staff June. -06
2. INTERNAL TRAINING PROGRAMS SR. NO. TITLE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM TRAINEE CATEGORY MONTH & YEAR 1 API Product & Process MCS & Staff Oct.-05 2 Metallurgy MCS & Staff Oct.-05 3 General Maintenance & Hydraulics MCS & Staff Oct.-05 4 SPC
MCS & Staff Oct.-05 5 Safety & General maintenance Staff & Artisan Nov. -05 6 Marketing Trends MCS & Staff Nov. -05 7 TPM MCS Nov. -05 8 Maintenance Module in NSCPL System MCS & Staff Dec.-05 9 Pilger Technology Staff & Artisan Dec.-05 10 The Essence of Leadership MCS Dec.-05 11 Documentary Credit for International Trade MCS & Staff Jan.-06 12 Tube Making MCS & Staff Jan.-06 13 LPG MCS & Staff Feb.-06 14 General Safety Staff & Artisan Mar.-06 15
TECHNICAL TRAINING PROGRAMS SR. NO TITLE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM 1 Gears & Gear Boxes 2 API Product & Process 3 Metallurgy 4 General Maintenance 5 General Safety 6 Marketing Trends 7 TPM 8 Maintenance Module in NSCPL System 9 Pilger Technology 10
Documentary Credit for International Trade 11 Tube Making 12 LPG 13 Risk Management 14 ISO Awareness 15 Basics of Hydrauilcs 16 CNC Machines & its programming 17 Internal Mailing System 18 Industrial Waste Management
BEHAVIOURAL TRAINING PROGRAMS PROGRAMS SR. NO TITLE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM 1 Stress Management 2 Communication & Presentation skills 3 Interpersonal Skills 4 Leadership & Motivation 5 Workshop on Creating Self Identity-"Meri Pehchan" 6 Workshop on "Know Yourself"
DEPARTMENT WISE STRENGTH OF APPRASAL PERSONNEL SR. NO. DEPARTMENT NO. OF EMPLOYEES 1 API-Finish 16
COMPARISON OF STANDARD TRAINING PRACTICES & EXISTING TRAINING PRACTICES SR. NO. NAME OF ACTIVITY STD. TRAINING PRACTICES EXISTING TRAINING PRACTICES 1 Training Calendar Period Yearly Monthly 2 Training Budget Period Annualy Quarterly 3 Training Evaluation By Trainer,Superior,Trainee HODs 4 TNI Methods Questionnaire,Checklist, Surveys,Performance Appraisal, Observations, etc. Performance Appraisal, Job Description, Observations, etc. 5 Training Techniques On-the-job, Simulations ,seminars, workshops, etc.
OBSERVATIONS • Existing training practices concentrates on functional management training as well as training to enhance knowledge about the sector i.e. Seamless tubes & pipes. So comprehensive induction training program is preferred. • The general term „Training‟ is used for training to staff, managerial personnel and Artisans, which includes both Technical as well as Behavioural training. • Existing training practices prefer on the job training methods over the other methods like vestibule training or simulations. For behavioural training classroom methods like seminars, lectures, conferences, etc. are adopted. • It is the frequent practice in the organization to send Employees from staff and management cadre outside the organization to impart technical as well as behavioural training organized by external training institutes. • Though company‘s core interest is technical operations, many aspects of Management Development Programs are covered in various training practices through special workshops, conferences, seminars etc. to impart managerial and behavioural skills. • Employee Training Calendars are prepared yearly or half yearly as a part of training plan. • Internal trainers or supervisors are given the ‗ Appreciation Appreciation Certificate‟ for their efforts in successfully conducting the training programs. 60
RECOMMENDATIONS 1) There should be predefined policy for minimum no. of participants attending the training program. 2) The efforts should be taken to motivate employees for participating in the training programs. If possible, the personal involvement or active participation of the trainee should be got in the training program. 3) Employee‘s professional background & experienced should be considered before planning the training program. 4) Innovative training techniques should be adopted to improve the effectiveness of training programs and to keep the interests of the participants intact. If possible multiple training techniques should be used.
5) Training programs should be supported with sufficient audiovisual aids like graphs, charts, videos, presentations, etc. 6) The organization should tie-up with the Industrial Training Institutes for imparting training to its employees 7) The minimum time gap between the training program and the training evaluation by the HODs should be fixed so that accurate evaluation can be achieved. 8) The feedback of immediate superior of the employee should be considered along with the feedback of HOD while evaluating the training programs. It will help in achieving more precise results. 9) It should be recognized that all the trainees do not progress at the same rate. Therefore, flexibility should be allowed in judging the rates of progress in the training program.
10) The trainee should be provided with personal assistance when he encounters any obstacle in the learning process. 11) As the trainee acquires new knowledge, skills, or attitudes and applies them in job situations, he should be significantly recognized and rewarded for the same. 12) The trainee should be provided with regular feedback of his progress in training and implementation of newly acquired skills. 13) The trainee should be provided with sufficient information about the training institute and the objectives of training program before sending him to external training programs. 14) Attempts should be made to develop efficient and competent trainers from the organization itself that will not only save training cost and efforts but also satisfy the urge of self-expressions & growth opportunities of trainers.
CONCLUSIONS Based on the study of existing training practices in the organization and the systematic analysis of collected data, following inferences can be drawn: The average percentage improvement after training in various categories of employees: MCS category of employees: 57% Staff category of employees: 52% The average percentage improvement with respective to training methods adopted: Technical Training: 63% Behavioural Training: 52% The formulated hypothesis is found to be true as there is considerable improvement in the performance of the employees after training impartation. Also there is considerable reduction in the employee turnover and absentism, which reveals the validity of the hypothesis.
www.jindalsaw.com Training Records of JSL, Nashik A handbook of Personnel Management By- C.B.