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Centre for Lifelong Learning and Extension
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Human Resource Management

2014-2015
Ms. /Mr. Nupur Sanjaybhai Sharma
ROLL NO: 40

Has completed her project on

Training & Development.

Guided BY

Course Director

Soma Chakraborty

Dr. Shyamal Pradhan

Asst.Director & course Co.

Dr. Shilpa Kapadia

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My Sincere gratitude to MRS Soma Chakraborty of Human Recourse

Department & in the course of Centre for Lifelong Learning and Extension
studies for widening my vision and understanding of the subjects. For

providing valuable information and suggestions all through my course of
study.

My special thanks to Dr. Shyamal Pradhan (Course Director) & Dr.

Shilpa Kapadia (Asst.Director & course Co.) for them contribution
development of my vision professionally & personally.

I express my thanks to all the staff members of Faculty of General

Education Centre for their help and co-operation during the course of my
study.

I would like to thank all the people, working in various organizations

who helped me directly or indirectly in the completion of my Project work.
There are no word to express my gratitude to my family for their

endless support, encouragement and faith.

NUPUR SHARMA

DECLARATION

The present thesis is an original study and is based entirely on the

work carried out by me under the guidance of MRS. Soma Chakraborty.

The present work has neither been published in part or full, nor has

any degree been awarded to me for it either by this university or by any

other university. I hereby also testify that the present work is not based on
the work of another person.

NUPUR SHARMA

“Tell me and I forget, teach
me and I remember, involve me and I learn”
- Benjamin Franklin
Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff

and Manage organization. It comprises of the functions and principles

that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and compensating

the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business
organizations, such as education, healthcare etc. Human resource

Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions
that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee
effectiveness.

Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of

employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he
leaves, come under the horizon of HRM.

The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll,

Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention,
Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions, one such important
division is training and development.

Meaning

Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of

knowledge, sharpening of skills, concept, and rules or changing of attitudes
and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is the

formal and systematic modification of behaviour through learning which
occurs as a result of education, instruction development and planned
experience. Training is about knowing where u stand (no matter how good

or bad the current situation looks) at present and where you will be after
some point of time.

Today’s dynamic economy requires the company to constantly train

their employees as change occurs at lightning speed. Knowledge continues

to expand at a geometric rate while new, never existed fields pop up

constituently, arising to become a significant competitor that threatens your

business. It is clear that your employee needs training to stay on top of this
fast changing environment. However ,it is difficult to even know what

training your employee needs, let alone what training is available or
scheduling the training of your employee.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It
ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change
takes

place

in

structured

format.

TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACHES OF TRAINING AND
DEVLOPMENT
Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to
believe in training.

They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not

made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and
not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But

now

the

scenario

seems

to

be

changing.

The modern approach of training and development is that Indian
Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training
is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system

in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield
the best results.

Definitions

“Training is the systematic modification of the behaviour through

Learning that takes place as an outcome of education, instructions,

Development and planned experience.”

- (Michael Armstrong)

job.”

“Training is the process of acquiring the skills necessary to do the
- (Robert N. Lussier)

“Training consists of planned programs undertaken to improve

Employee knowledge, skills, attitudes and social behaviour so that

Performance of the organisation improves considerably.”

- (Wayne Cascio)

“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an
Employee for doing a particular job.”

- (Edwin Flippo)

“Training is the organised procedure by which people learn
Knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.”

- (Dale S. Beach)

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
OBJECTIVES

The principal objective of training and development division is to make

sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organisation. In
addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational,
Functional, and Societal.
Individual Objectives:
Help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances

the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives:

Assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual

effectiveness.

Functional Objectives:
Maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the
organization’s needs.

Societal Objectives:
Ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the

needs and challenges of the society.

Importance of training and
Development

- Productivity –

Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the
employees that helps the organisation further to achieve its long-term goal.
- Team spirit –

Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team

spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn

within the employees.

- Organization Culture –

Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational
health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture
within the organization.

- Organization Climate –

Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling

about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders,
subordinates, and peers.

- Quality –

Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and

work-life.

- Healthy work environment –

Training and development helps in creating the healthy working

environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual
goals aligns with organizational goal.
- Health and Safety –

Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the
organization thus preventing obsolescence.
- Morale –

Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
- Image –

Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

- Profitability –

Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive
attitudes towards profit orientation.
-

Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e.

Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It
helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies

Need for training

Analysing training needs:

For training to be effective, it is important to not only discern the training
needs of the individual / group but also hoe their needs fit the overall

objectives of the organisation. Many organisations invest considerable
resources in training and development but never really examine how

training and development can most effectively promote organisational

objectives, or how development activities should be altered in the light of
business plans.

When does the need for training arise?

1.) The installation of new equipment or techniques
2.) A change in working methods or products produced

3.) A realisation that performance is inadequate
4.) Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees

5.) A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality
6.) An increase in number of accident
7.) Promotion or transfer of individual employees
How to determine training needs and priorities?

In order to determine whether there is a need for training, we have to
answer four questions:

1.) What is the company’s goal?

2.) What task must be completed to achieve this goal?

3.) What behaviours are necessary for each job incumbents to complete
his or her assignment task?

4.) What deficiencies, if any, do incumbents have in the skills, knowledge
or attitudes required to perform the necessary behaviours?

The questions demonstrate the close link between human resource planning
and determination of training needs. It means that training programs should

be designed on the basis of company’s needs , type of work, type of skills
necessary to complete the work , and so on. In other words training

programs should be developed or designed keeping in mind the training
needs.

The manager can realize the need for training employees on the basis of
productivity, which is inadequate job performance or drop in productivity.

When a manager sees evidence of inadequate job performance, assuming the
individual is making a satisfactory effort, attention should be given towards
raising the skill level of the worker.

When a manager is confronted with a drop in productivity, it may suggest
that skills need to be ‘fin-tuned.’

A rise in the number of accidents suggests some type of re-training is

necessary. Changes imposed on employees as a result of a job redesign or
technological breakthrough can also be crucial in providing training. The
effectiveness of training can be judged on the basis of its contribution to

performance, where performance is a function of skills abilities, motivation

and the opportunity to perform. Managers must compare the value received
from increase in performance with the costs incurred in the training. The
benefits that accrue (grow) from training must exceed the cost incurred.

Once it is determined that training is necessary, training goals must be

established. We must clarify what is to be changed, and by how much. These
goals should be tangible, verifiable and measurable. They should be clear to

both management and the employees. Such explicit goals ensure that
management and the employee know what is expected from the training
efforts.

How to make training effective?

Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice
effective:

1.) Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major
resources and adequate time to training. This is what high –
performing organisations do.

2.) Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm.

Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let

training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills.

3.) Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training

exists, and training and retaining are done at all levels on a continuous
and ongoing basis.

4.) Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Let this
philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organisation.

5.) Ensure that there is proper linkage among organisational, operational
and individual training needs.

6.) Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.

Induction training
Induction training is important as it enables a new recruit to become

productive as quickly as possible. It can avoid costly mistakes by

recruits not knowing the procedures or techniques on their new jobs.
The length of induction training will vary from job to job and will

depend on the complexity of the job, the size of the business and the
level or position of the job within the business.

The following areas may be included in induction training:
• Learning about the duties of the job.
• Meeting new colleagues.

• Seeing the layout the premises.

• Learning the values and aims of the business.

• Learning about the internal working and policies of the
business.

Methods of Training
Off - the - job training:

off – the – job training covers a number of techniques – class room lectures,
conferences, simulation, audio visuals, case study, vestibule training. The
facilities needed for each of these techniques vary from small makeshift

classroom to an elaborate development center. The actual location may be
in the company class room or in the place, which are owned by the
company.

The various off – the – job methods are:
a.) Class room lectures :
Simplest way of imparting knowledge to trainees is by lecture. Lecture
is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large

audience. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of
knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that it can
be useful when a large group has to be taught.

b.) Conference:
In this technique the participating individuals confer to discuss points

of common interest to each other. Conference is a formal meeting
conducted according to organised plan. Conference method is ideal for

analysing problems and issues concerning organisation and their
members.

c.) Simulation:
Simulation is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as

nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job.
Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision- making

environment for the trainee. Similarly present likely problem situation
and alternatives to the trainee.

d.) Audio – visual
Audio visuals include television slides, overheads, video- tapes and
films.

These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job
conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Further, the

quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for

all training group. But, audio – visuals constitute a one way system of
communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for

clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from
audience to audience.

e.) Case study:
The person in charge of training make out a case, provides necessary
explanations, initiates the discussion going. When the trainees are

given cases to analyse. They are asked to identify the problem and

recommend tentative solutions. Case study can provide excellent

opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgement
abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision –
making abilities within the constraints of limited data.
f.) Vestibule training (training – centre training):

Vestibule training method attempts to duplicate on – the –job situation

in a company classroom. It is a classroom training which is often
imparted with the help of equipment and machines which are identical

with those in use in the place of work. This method enables the trainee
to concentrate on learning the new skill rather than on performing an

actual job. Theoretical training is given in the classroom while the
practical work is conducted on the production line.

g.) Programmed instruction:

A programmed instruction involves breaking information down into
meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a
logical and sequential learning program or package. This is a method

where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer.
Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book of

thought a teaching machine. After reading each block of material, the

learner must answer a question about it. Feedback in the form of
correct answers is provided after such response.
On – the – job training:

On the job training places the employees in an actual work situation and

makes they appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing.
For jobs that either are difficult to simulate or can be learned quickly by
watching and doing on – the – job training makes sense.

Almost every employee, from the clerk to company president gets some on
– the – job training, when he joins a firm. Under this method, an employee
is placed in a new job and is told how it may be performed. It is primarily
concerned with developing employees skills and abilities.

The various on – the – job methods are:
a.) Apprenticeship program:
Apprenticeship programmes put the trainee under the guidance of
master worker. These are designed to acquire a higher level of skill.
People seeking to enter skilled traits to become, for example plumbers,

electricians, etc are often required to undergo apprenticeship training.

These apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of

time working with experienced guide, or trainer. A uniform period of
training is offered to trainees.

b.) Coaching :

In this method, the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a

coach. The coach or counsellor sets mutually agreed upon goals,
periodically reviews the trainees progress. The trainee works directly

with a senior manager and the manager takes full responsibility for
the trainee’s coaching. Classically the trainee is being groomed to

replace the senior manager and relieve him from his duties. This gives
a chance for the trainee to learn the job also.

c.) Internship training:
It is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions
and business firms cooperate. Selected candidates carry on a regular
study for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or
office to acquire practical knowledge and skills.
d.) Job rotation:
This kind of training involves shifting the trainee from one department
to another or from one kind of job to another. This enables the trainee

to gain a broader understanding of all the parts of the business and

how the organisation as a whole functions. The trainee gets fully
involved in the departments operations and also gets a chance to test

his/ her own aptitude and ability. Job rotation allows trainees to

interact with other employees facilitating future cooperation among

departments. When employees are trained by this method, the

organisation finds it easier at the time of promotions, replacements or
transfers.

The three model of training are:
1. System model
2.Instructional system development model
3. Transitional model

Systematic Model Training

The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a
regular basis to make further improvements. The training should

achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to

required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are
as follows:

1. Analyse and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the

department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do
they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to
develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual
performance would be evaluated.

2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step
requires developing objectives of training, identifying

the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training
program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery

method, examining the training material, validating information to be
imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.

4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong
step can lead to the failure of whole training program.

5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in

terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments
to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure
practices.

Transitional Model

Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop
describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of
which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.
Vision –
focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after

the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the

organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting
a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising
to meet some other deadlines.

Mission –
explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in
the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to
motivate, inspire, and inform

the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells

about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the
customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.
Values –

is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It

reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent
of current industry environment. For example, values may include
social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.

the mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner

loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective
is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the
training model is further implemented.

Instructional System Development
Model (ISD)Model:

Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was

made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-

days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on
the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job
responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined

objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in

determining and developing the favourable strategies, sequencing the

content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be
achieved.

The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:

1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job
analysis, and target audience analysis.

2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome,

instructional objectives that measures behaviour of a participant after the

training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating
the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart
knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.

3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training

material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including
hand-outs, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc., course
material for the trainee including hand-outs of summary.

4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as

arranging speakers, equipment’s, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling,
lighting, parking, and other training accessories.

5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the
training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work

performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses

and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to
remedy or improve failure practices.

The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training

program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout
the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an
input to the next phase.

To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure
is called training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest

part of the system because one wrong step can lead to a failure of the whole
training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong
action.

Training implementation can be segregated into:
• Practical administrative arrangements

• Carrying out of the training

Implementing training

Once the staff, course, content, equipment, topics are ready, the

training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean
that the work is done because implementation phase requires

continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the

most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are
the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training
program:

The trainer –
The trainer needs to be prepared mentally before the delivery of the
content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance.
The trainer also sets grounds before meeting with participants by
making sure that he is comfortable with the course content and is
flexible in his approach.
Physical set –upGood physical set up is a pre requisite for an effective and successful
training program because it makes the first impression on

participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly
square as possible. This will bring people together both physically

and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated
to every participant.

Establishing rapport with participants –

There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good

rapport with trainees by:

• Greeting participants simple ways to ease those initial tense
moments

• Encouraging informal conversation

• Remembering their first name

• Pairing up the learners and have them familiarised with one
another

• Pairing up the learners by what name the trainer wants to be
addressed

• Getting to class before the arrival of learners

• Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time

• Using familiar examples

• Varying his instructional techniques

• Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
Reviewing the agenda –
At the beginning of the training program it is very important to
review the program objective. The trainer must tell the

participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of

trainers to do at the end of the program and how the program
will run. The following information needs to be included:

• Kinds of training activities

• Schedule

• Setting group norms

• Housekeeping arrangements

• Flow of the program

• Handling problematic situations
Training evaluation

The process of examining a training program is called training

evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the
desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates
are able to implement their learning in their learning in their
respective workplaces or to the regular work routines.

Purposes of training evaluation
• Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidate and
linking it to learning outcomes.

• Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between

acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place,
and training.

• Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if
the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with
accordingly.

• Power games: At times, the top management (higher

authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate
it for their own benefits.

• Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual
outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.

Process of training evaluation

1.) Before training :
The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training

program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it
as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are
unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program.

Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods
used and whether those methods confirm to the candidate’s
preferences and learning style.
2.) During training:
It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually
consists of short tests are at regular intervals.
3.) After training :
It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed
again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is

designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at

the individual department and organizational level. There are various
evaluation techniques for this phase.

Techniques of evaluation

The various methods of training evaluation are:
• Observation

• Questionnaire

• Interview

• Self-diaries

• Self-recording of specific incidents

Training and Human Resource
Management

The Human Resource functioning is changing with time and with this
change, the relationship between the training function and other

management activities are changing as well. The training and development

activities are now equally important with that of the other human resource
functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile,
waste of time, resource, and money. Nowadays, training has become an
investment because every department in the organisation would need

some or the other kind of training in order to survive in this highly growing
competitive environment. If training is not considered a priority or not

seen as a vital part in the organisation, then it is difficult to accept that such
a company has effectively carried out human resource management.

Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development
activities in the organisation.

To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality
movement (concepts of human resource management) , senior

management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of
human resource management require careful planning as well as greater

emphasis on the employee development and long term education. Training
is now the important tool of human resource management to control the
attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their

professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc.

As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a
multitude of courses.

Role of Human Resource Professionals in training:

This is the era of cut – throat competition and with this changing scenario

of business, the role of human resource professionals in training has been
widened. Human resource professional’s role now is:
• Active involvement in employee education

• Rewards for improvement in performance

• Rewards to be associated with self – esteem and self – worth

• Providing pre – employment market oriented skill development
education

• and post-employment support for advanced education and training
• Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training

Review of literature
Research is concerned with the systematic gathering of information, the

purpose is to provide a brief and review related to study and to show what
present a study contributes more knowledge in the area of study.

Traditionally, the purpose of training and development has been to ensure
that employees can effectively accomplish their jobs. Today, the business

environment has changed, with intense pressure on organisations to stay

ahead of the competition through innovation and reinvention.

As we push forward into the 21st century, organisations are realizing the

very real value of having quality and focused training available to their
employees. A dollar value return on investment is the reward to any

organisation willing to make the bold move towards providing high quality
training that is becoming a standard for a cutting edge industry leader.
Training is the provision of guided experience to change behaviour,

attitudes, or opinion. Training needs analysis that identifies specific gaps
which the training program is required to fill. Training enhances
confidence, commitment & motivation in oneself which leads to

recognition, greater responsibility, pay improvements, personal

satisfaction, achievement and enhanced career prospect.

Lisa N. Littrell and Judith Strother (1960)
A study on assessment of the effectiveness of E- learning in corporate

training programs since 1999 conducted by Lisa N. Littrell and Judith

Strother, Florida Institute Of Technology. Corporate are constantly looking
for more cost – effective ways to deliver training to their employees. E –
learning is less expensive, booking training facilities , travel costs for

employees or trainers, plus employee time away from the job are greatly

reduced. But now some firms that have spent large amounts of money on

new E- learning efforts have not received the desired economic advantage.
Hill and Others (1964 – 65)
Conducted the research study , which deals with initial stages of

management development movement in the country. It had covered a
sample of 240 participants trained in 17 different courses by

administration staff college of India and IIM Kolkata and Ahmadabad.

Participant’s reaction to the course revealed that more than 50% of these
had been sent for training as a result for their company’s policy without
any clear perception & objective about the course.

The administrative staff college of India (1985):
Conducted the survey to study different organisations and training

institutes seeking information about their training policies and practices.
First , a survey study was undertaken to know and understand the

policies and practices of selecting, nominating trainees and follow up

preparations of training budgets and other training activities as practiced

by different organisations. 19 organisations from private sectors, 6

organisations from public sectors were under covered. The importance was
identified over and over again. The survey results shows that 50% & 83%
of public and private sectors industries this authority seems to be

distributed amongst top management and training manager and the boss of
the executive to be trained. From amongst the methods outlined ,the public
sectors indicated performance appraisal and personal interview with

supervisor of the managers as the most favoured method for identification
of training needs. In general, the private sector organisation gave more
weightage to different methods of training need identification.

In comparison to public sector organisations, almost double number of

private sectors organisation were more conscious of past training follow –
up.

Micheal S. Lane, Gerald L. Blakely (1990)
Management development programs are increasingly being studied

and evaluated, regarding their efficiency and effectiveness. Presents the

results of a survey of 155 directors and vice – presidents of personnel and

human resource management departments regarding the current status of
their management development programmes. Thios result indicates that

management development programs do not seem to differentiate between
levels of management .

Oladele akin (1991)
Evaluation is increasingly being regarded as a powerful tool to enhance the
effectiveness of training . Three major approaches to training evaluation :

quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted.
In order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be
integrated with organisational life.
Phillip C. Wright (1992):
Reports on a study of current and past training literature which suggests

that, to be effective and to isolate both training needs and those problems
having other , non – trainable solutions, training must be preceded by the
needs analysis. Proposes a needs assessment model to illustrate an

optimum needs assessment process and compares this model to Ontario’s
Government.

Farhad Analoiu (1995)
Traditionally ,the effectiveness of the senior officials within the public

sector has been disproportionately associated with task instead of people
related skills. A study of 74 senior mangers within Indian Railways, over

three years, has revealed that managers, in order to become effective , not
only require task and people skill but also self – development knowledge

and skills. Moreover, the above broad categories of managerial skills form a
hierarchy which suggests that the more senior positions which managers
occupy , the greater the need for need for people and development.

Explores the implications of the above for senior management training and
development in public sector briefly.

Harold Lewis and Shoemaker (1998):
A study on transfer of training as perceived by trainer and supervisor in the
workplace conducted by Harold Lewis and Shoemaker (1998) . The

purpose of the study was twofold. The first of study was to develop a

comprehensive survey of transfer of training strategies. The secondary

purpose was to measure the perceived importance of these strategies by

trainers and supervisors strategies were developed and presented to the

trainers and supervisors strategies by trainers and supervisors and there
was a strongly supported differences found in the rating of the three

phases of transfer before, during and after training . From the result of this
study, it was conducted that trainer and supervisors were in strong
agreement with the strategies.
David Hyslop (1999):
The field of training and development changed significantly during the

during the 1990s and 2000s , reflecting both its role and importance in

achieving higher employee performance and meeting organisational goals
.This field has become more important because employees need to learn

new skills, advance their knowledge, and meet the challenges of technology
in achieving high performance.

Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry(2002)

Discusses the importance of proving the effectiveness of training.

Effectiveness is the primary motive for training. Describes ways to evaluate
training’s effectiveness, behaviour changes on the job being the most

important. Defines an approach whereby individuals can see how they have
changed and quantify the amount of change.
Davenport (2006):
According to him, mentioned in his recent studies that it’s easy to

implement strategy with the internet supported software. Some of the

training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and
developments. The “content” and the “access” are the actual factors for the
process. It is a representation itself by the access on the main aspect what
is effective to the adopted practice in training development . As per the

recent theories to access the knowledge is changing from substantial in the
traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the new
meaning of information with electronic learning use. There is a survey
confirmation for using classroom to deliver the training would drop
dramatically.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a pure and simple framework or a plan for the
study that guides the collection and analysis of data.

Research is the scientific way to solve the problems and it’s increasingly

Used to improve the market potential. This involves exploring the possible

methods one by one and arriving at the best solution considering the
resources at the disposal of research.

Significance of the study
The study is intended to evaluate effectiveness of training in the

organisation. A good training program is essential to achieve the goal of the

organisation as training now is directly being linked to the business
performance of the organisation.

This study attempts to provide an insight in the training and development
practices in the organization and effectiveness of different functions and
methods of training.

Objectives of the study
• To study the effectiveness of training at Hilti.

• To study the employees perception on training programs.

• To study on the training needs and satisfaction of the employees and
to find the best method of training.

Sampling Frame
The project work would be undertaken at Hilti, in Vadodara city
Sampling Method:
Random sampling method is used for gathering the necessary information.
Sampling Design:
A sampling design is the specification of methods and procedure for

acquiring information needed. It is the overall operation patterns or

framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected
from which source by that procedure.
Sampling media
Sampling media is the interview for the proposed project.
Sample size
The sample size is 30 respondents.
Methods of data collection

The data collected was through:

“Primary source” in the form of raw materials to which statistical methods
are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations. The primary

source are discussion with the employees, data collected through
structured non- disguised questionnaire.

“Secondary sources” in the form of finished products as they have already
been treated statistically in some form or the other. The secondary data

mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company
websites and also discussion with management of the organisation.
Secondary data was also collected from books, catalogue, etc.
Limitations of the study:
• Sample size is small

• Sample may be biased
• Non – response error

• Huge space between what people say and what they actually do

• More structured questionnaire would have limited options

DATA ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

Data Analysis and Interpretation
Table-1
Distribution of respondents with reference to age group
Age

Frequency

Percentage

31 to 40

15

50

51 to 60

11

21 to 30

1

41 to 50

3.33

3

Total

10

36.67

30

100

AGE
3%
21 to 30

37%

31 to 40
50%

41 to 50
51 to 60

10%

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30 respondents,

1 respondent (3.33%) was in the age group of 21 to 30,

15 respondents (50%) were in the age group of 31 to 40,
3 respondents (10%) were in the age group of 41 to 50,

11 respondents (36.67%) were in the age group of 51 to 60.

Table-2
Distribution of respondents with reference to Education
Education

Frequency

Percentage

HSC

2

6.67

Graduate

18

60

Post Graduate

10

33.33

Total

30

100

EDUCATION
6.67%
33.33%
HSC
Graduate
Post Graduate
60.00%

Interpretation:
from the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30 respondents ,
2 respondents (6.67%) were HSC passed,
18 respondents (60%) were graduate,

10 respondents (33.33%) were post graduates

Table-3
Distribution of respondents with reference to their experience
Experience

Frequency

Percentage

1 to10

6

20

11 to 20

10

33.33

Total

30

100

21 to 30

14

46.67

EXPERIENCE
20.00%

1 to10

46.67%

11 to 20
21 to 30
33.33%

Interpretation:
From the above chart it can be interpreted that out of 30 respondents,

Experience of employees is maximum between 21 to 30 years which is 14
(20%)

On the other hand, employees who have experience between 11 to 20 are
10 (33.33%)

And employees who have experience between 1 to 10 are 6 (46.67%).
Finally it can be

Concluded that there are more experienced employees in the organisation.

Table-4
Do u have a well-defined policy for cleaning and development in the
organisation?

Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

16

53.33

Total

30

100

No

14

46.67

Well Defined Policy

Yes

46.67
53.33

No

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30 respondents,

16 respondents (53.33%) responded that their organisation had a well-

defined policy, and remaining 14 respondents (46.67%) responded that
they didn’t have a well-defined policy.

Table - 5
What according to you training is?

Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

(A)A tool to bring

17

56.67

(B) An instrument to

1

3.33

(C) An instrument to

10

33.33

2

6.67

30

100

about a desired change
maximise profit

increase technical
change

(D) A tool to bring
about a change in
interpersonal
relationship
Total

WHAT TRAINING IS
60
50
40
Percentage

30
20
10
0

A

B

C

D

Interpretation: From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents, majority of

17 respondents (56.67%) had to say that it is a tool to bring a desired
change,

Other 1 respondent (3.33%) had to say it is an instrument to maximise

profit

10 respondents (33.33%) said it is an instrument to increase technical
skills and

The rest 2 respondents (6.67%) said, a tool to change inter – personal
relations.

Table - 6
In your organisation how often training sessions are conducted?
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Monthly

9

30

Quarterly

10

33.33

Half-yearly

4

13.33

Annually

5

16.67

As and when

2

6.67

30

100

required
Total

TRAINING SESSIONS
6.67%
16.67%

30.00%
Monthly
Quarterly
Half-yearly

13.33%

Annually
As and when required

33.33%

Interpretation:

From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

9 respondents (30%) said they attend training sessions monthly,
10 respondents (33.33%) attend sessions quarterly
4 respondents (13.33%) attend half yearly
5 respondents (16.67%) attend yearly

2 respondents (6.67%) as and when required

Table - 7
Supervisors efforts to identify your strengths and weaknesses
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Very

5

16.67

Somewhat

9

30

Satisfied

7

23.33

Dissatisfied

6

20

Not applicable

3

10

Total

30

100

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
10.00%

16.67%

Very
Somewhat

20.00%

Satisfied
30.00%
23.33%

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

Dissatisfied
Not applicable

5 respondents (16.67%) had to say that the strength and weakness
identification is very much strong

9 respondents (30%) had to say somewhat

7 respondents (23.33%) had to say they are satisfied
6 respondents (20%) had to say dissatisfied

3 respondents (10%) had to say not applicable.

Table - 8
The quality of orientation and training received for your current
position in the company
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Very

6

20

Somewhat

6

20

Satisfied

10

33.33

Dissatisfied

6

20

Not applicable

2

6.67

Total

30

100

ORIENTATION AND TRAINING
6.67%

20.00%

20.00%

Very
Somewhat
Satisfied
20.00%

33.33%

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

Dissatisfied
Not applicable

6 respondents (20%) had to say that the quality of training and
orientation was very much supportive

6 respondents (20%) had to say somewhat

10 respondents (33.33%) had to say they are satisfied
6 respondents (20%) had to say dissatisfied

3 respondents (10%) had to say not applicable.

Table – 9
The mentoring you are currently receiving from senior peersParticulars

Frequency

Percentage

Very

4

13.33

Somewhat

8

26.67

Satisfied

13

43.33

Dissatisfied

3

10

Not applicable

2

6.67

Total

30

100

MENTORING
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

43.33

26.67
13.33

Very

10

Somewhat

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

Percentage
6.67

Not
applicable

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

4 respondents (13.33%) had to say that the mentoring they are
receiving right now is very much appreciable

8 respondents (26.67%) had to say somewhat

13 respondents (43.33%) had to say they are satisfied
3 respondents (10%) had to say dissatisfied

2 respondents (6.67%) had to say not applicable

Table – 10
Management support for my efforts to improve my weaknessParticulars

Frequency

Percentage

Very

6

20

Somewhat

6

20

Satisfied

15

50

Dissatisfied

2

6.67

Not applicable

1

3.33

Total

30

100

MANAGEMENT SUPPORT
50
40
30

50

Percentage

20
10
0

20

20
6.67

Very

Somewhat

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

3.33
Not
applicable

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

6 respondents (20%) had to say that the management’s support to
improve their efforts is very much commendable
6 respondents (20%) had to say somewhat

15 respondents (50%) had to say they are satisfied
2 respondents (6.67%) had to say dissatisfied

1 respondents (3.33%) had to say not applicable

Table - 11

Do you prefer external training conducted by your
organisation?

Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Interested

10

33.33

Not –interested

20

66.67

Total

30

100

80
66.67

70
60
50
40

Interested

33.33

Not –interested

30
20
10
0

1

2

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

10 respondents (33.33%) said they would prefer external training

Whereas, 20 respondents (66.67%) said they were not interested in

external training.

Table – 12
What do you think, training enables people to self-sufficient?

Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

17

56.67

No

13

43.33

Total

30

100

60

56.67

50

43.33

40
30
20
10
0

interested

not- interested

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

17 respondents (56.67%) said they training enables people to self
sufficient

Whereas, 13 respondents (43.33%) said they it does not.

Table – 13
Is there any sequence of training programme in your organisation?
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

20

66.67

No

8

26.67

Don’t know

2

6.67

Total

30

100

66.67

70
60
50
40

26.67

30
20

6.67

10
0

Yes

No

Don’t know

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

20 respondents (56.67%) said that there was a sequence of training
programme

Whereas, 8 respondents (43.33%) said it wasn’t like that,

2 respondents (6.67%) said they don’t know.

Table – 14
Employees selected for training really needs training and
selected without discrimination.
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Agree

5

16.67

Strongly agree

20

66.67

Uncertain

3

10

Disagree

2

6.67

Strongly disagree

Nil

Nil

Total

30

100

70

66.67

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

16.67
10
6.67

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

5 respondents (16.67%) agree to it that employees are selected
purely on the basis of training needs

Whereas, 20 respondents (66.67%) said that they too strongly agree,

3 respondents (10%) said that it was uncertain,
2 respondents (6.67%) disagreed to it,

And there were nil respondents who strongly disagreed.

Table – 15
On what basis do you evaluate the training program?
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Cost – benefit

7

23.33

15

50

8

26.67

30

100

approach
Return on
investment
Employee
satisfaction
Total

50
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

26.67

23.33

Cost – benefit
approach

Return on
investment

Employee
satisfaction

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

7 respondents (23.33%) said that they evaluate the training program
on the basis of cost - benefit

Whereas, 15 respondents (50%) said it is return on investment,
8 respondents (26.67%) said it is employee satisfaction.

Table – 16
In your organisation training is more based on:

Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Soft – skills

20

66.67

Hard- skills

6

20

Both

4

13.33

Total

30

100

13.33

Soft – skills

20

Hard- skills
Both
66.67

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

20 respondents (66.67%) said that training was more based on soft
skills,

Whereas, 6 respondents (20%) said it was based on hard skills,
4 respondents (13.33%) said it is was based on both.

Table – 17
Do you think effective relations between trainers and trainee would
result in effective training?
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

25

83.33

No

5

16.67

Total

30

100

100
83.33

80
60
40
20

16.67

0
1
2
Yes

No

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

25 respondents (83.33%) said yes effective relations between
trainers & trainee would result into effective training,
Whereas, 5 respondents (16.67%) say no.

Table – 18
Does the training technique help employees when he encounters
difficulty?

Particulars

frequency

Percentage

Not at all

Nil

Nil

True to little extent

2

6.67

Somewhat true

3

10

True to great extent

18

60

Very true

7

23.33

Total

30

100

70
60

60
50
40
30

23.33

20
10
0

6.67

True to little extent

10

Somewhat true

True to great
extent

Very true

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

Nil respondents said that training program didn’t help employees to

encounter difficulties, 2 respondents (6.67%) said it was true to a
little extent

Whereas, 3 respondents (10%) said it was somewhat true,
18 respondents (60%) said it was true to a great extent, 7
respondents (23.33%) said it was very true.

Table – 19
In last two years how many training programs have you attended?
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

1 to 3

12

40

4 to 6

10

33.33

7 to 10

5

16.67

More than 10

3

10

Total

30

100

45

40

40

33.33

35
30
25
20

16.67

15

10

10
5
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

12 respondents (40%) had attended training program 1 to 3 times in
the last two years,

10 respondents (33.33%) attended 4 to 6 times,

5 respondents (16.67%) attended 7 to 10 times,

3 respondents (10%) attended it more than 10 times.

Table -20
Training aims at:
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Improving

3

10

Profit maximisation

2

6.67

Skill enhancement

6

20

Enhance competency

4

13.33

Both c ) & d)

15

50

Total

30

100

organisational
effectiveness

60
50

50
40
30
20

20
10
0

10

13.33
6.67

Improving
Profit
Skill
organisational maximisation enhancement
effectiveness

Enhance
competency

Both c ) & d)

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

3 respondents (10%) had to say that training aimed at improving
organisational effectiveness,

2 respondents (6.67%) had to say it aimed at profit maximisation,
6 respondents (20%) had to say skill enhancement,

Rest 4 respondents said it enhances competency.

15 respondents (10%) said it aims at both skill enhancement as well
as competency.

Table – 21
Do you think training helps to improve quality of work?
Particulars

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

25

83.33

No

5

16.67

Don’t know

Nil

Nil

Total

30

100

90

83.33

80
70
60
50

Yes

40

No

30
16.67

20
10
0

1

2

Interpretation:
From the above chart, it can be interpreted that out of 30
respondents,

25 respondents (83.33%) had to say that training does help to
improve quality,

5 respondents (16.67%) had to say it did not,
Nil respondents had to say they don’t know.

Conclusion
the present study conclude that majority of the employees are

interested in attending training program and most of them agree that
they could transfer the learning by implementing new knowledge,

skill, ability and technology that they got from the training program.
In general, the company provides very well designed and widely
shared trained policy to its employees. However, there could be

improvement in the case of conducting feedback reviews so as to
analyse the status of the employees after training.

• Most of the respondents are in the age of 31 to 40 years
• Maximum respondents are having graduate degree

• A majority of them believe that training is a tool to bring a
desired change as well as to increase technical change.

• Majority of respondents believe that both on – the- job as well
as off – the – job training should be provided

• A majority of respondents have attended training program
quarterly

• A majority of them are satisfied with their superior’s efforts to
identify their strength and weaknesses

• A majority of them are satisfied with the quality of training and
orientation received.

• Majority of them are satisfied with the management’s support
to improve their weaknesses.

• A majority of them believe they don’t require external training

• Many respondents feel that training leads to self – sufficiency

• Many respondents have to say that training programme does
provide return on investment

• Majority of respondents say that training aims at improving
skills as well as competency.

Suggestions

• Training should be conducted according to the employees needs
• Trainer , training place, training method , trainee are the major

things that should be considered while conducting training program

• More improvement in latest knowledge should be added in the
training program

• Appropriate and adequate facilities for training audio – visual ads,

equipment’s and good infrastructure should be provided in order to
increase the effectiveness off training program

• The in – house training programs can be improved by inviting

faculties from various private agencies and business schools for
conducting training programs.

• In addition to formal feedback and feedback from immediate
supervisors, a person’s behaviour should also be observed.

• The employees feedback must be taken.

Training and Development Questionnaire

Name:

Age:

Qualification:

Experience at HILTI:

1.)Do you have a well defined policy for training and development in your
organisation?
a.) Yes

b.) No

2.) What according to you training is:

a.) A tool to bring about a desired change

b.) An instrument to maximise profit

c.) An instrument to increase technical change

d.) A tool to bring about a change in inter – personal relationship.

3.) Which of the following methods are used for training in your organisation?
a.) on – the job methods

b.) off – the –job methods
c.) both

4.) In your organisation how often training sessions are conducted?
a.) Monthly

b.) Quarterly

c.) Half-yearly
d.) Annually

e.) As and when required

5.)Supervisor's efforts to identify your strengths and
weaknesses
a.) Very

b.) Somewhat
c.) Satisfied

d.) Dissatisfied

e.) Not applicable

6.)The quality of orientation and training received
for your current position in the company
a.) a.)
Very
Very

b.) Somewhat

b.) c.)
Somewhat
Satisfied

Dissatisfied
c.) d.)
Satisfied

e.) Not applicable

7.)The mentoring you are currently receiving from
senior peers

a.)Very
b.)Somewhat
c.)Satisfied

8.)Management's support for my efforts to improve my
weaknesses.
a.)Very
b.)Somewhat
c.)Satisfied

9.) Do you prefer external training conducted by your organisation?
a.) Interested

b.) Not – interested
10.) What do think, training enables people to self-sufficient?
a.) Yes

b.) No

11.) Is there any sequence of training programme in your organisation?
a.) Yes

b.) No

c.) Don’t know

12.) Employees selected for training really needs training and selected
without discrimination?
a.) Agree

b.) Strongly agree

c.) Uncertain
d.) Disagree

e.) Strongly disagree

13.) On what basis do you evaluate the training programme?
a.) Cost – benefit approach
b.) Return on investment

c.) Employee satisfaction
14.) In your organisation training is more based on:
a.) Soft skills

b.) Hard skills

c.) Both

15.) Do you think effective relations between trainers and trainee would
result in effective
Training
a.) Yes

b.) No

16.) Does the training technique help employees when he encounters
difficulties?

a.) Not at all

b.) True to little extent

c.) Somewhat true

d.) True to great extent
e.) Very true

17.) In last two years how many training programs have you attended?
a.) 1 to 3
b.) 4 to 6

c.) 7 to 10

d.) More than 10
18.) Training aims at:

a.) Improving organisational effectiveness

b.) Profit maximisation

c.) Skill enhancement

d.) Knowledge enhancement
e.) Both c) and d)

19.) Do you think training helps to improve quality of work?
a.) Yes

b.) No

c.) Don’t know

Bibliography

K . ASWATHAPPA ,HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, TATA MCGRAW HILL
PUBLISHING HOUSE CO. LTD NEW DELHI

V . S . P RAO , HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

STEPHENS P ROBBINS , HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

WEBLIOGRAPHY
• WWW.GOOGLE.COM

• WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM
• WWW.CITEHR.COM

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