According to Flanders “Teaching is an interaction process. Interaction means
participation of both teacher and student and both are benefited by this. The interaction
takes place for achieving desired objectives.”
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
Following are the principles of teaching:Principle of motivation : The best teacher is one who inspires the students. Motivation
is a combination of recognizing , communicating and participating. Teacher has to
recognize students as individuals , encourage their participation while teaching and
communicate enthusiasm. This principle holds good during the entire nursing
educational programme , especially during the first year period.
Principle of activity : Teaching is an active process. While teaching , teacher should be
alert , smart and follow the most suitable method of teaching. Teacher should also
participate in various activities along with the students like discussions or conducting
Teacher should arouse interest in students: To make students receptive , teacher has to
elicit interest by adopting suitable methods like telling a story , citing an example or by
There should be well defined objectives: To attain good results there should be well
defined objectives. Statement of well defined objectives in advance will make the teacher
more confident and enthusiastic.
Principle of individual difference: Good teaching always respect the individuality of
the students. Each student has to be considered as a unique individual .
Principle of creativity : By applying creativity , teacher can convert a passive teachinglearning situation into an active one.
Principle of selection: Teacher should select the appropriate content, teaching method,
teaching situation, media of instruction, A.V. aids, textbooks and journal articles for
teaching a particular subject matter in order to make teaching more meaningful and
comprehensible to students.
Principle of division: Particular teaching activity should have definite divisions based
on valid reasons. Teacher should be aware about the divisions and present the contents in
a well organized manner.
Principle of revision and practice: During a teaching session, teacher has to revise in
the middle and in the end.
Principle of connecting with life : While teaching teacher has to take care that the
transferred knowledge will not remain segregated in and the student correlate with the
previous knowledge. Correlation helps the student to develop a unified view regarding
what is taught.
Principle of correlation: While teaching , teacher has to take care that the transferred
knowledge will not remain segregated and as far as possible correlate with the previous
or related knowledge. Correlation helps the student to develop a unified view regarding
what is taught in education is proved undoubtfully and teaching is an integral part of
education , so all the teaching activities are connected with life.
MAXIMS OF TEACHING
Maxims of teaching are accepted truth or general rule of conduct or the laws
which are essentially to be followed by the teacher while teaching. Maxims include:
Proceed from known to unknown : The teacher has to correlate the learning of
the students with their experiences and previous knowledge. Teacher has to start
with something which is known to the student and then proceed to unknown.
Proceed from concrete to abstract: It is quite natural that the students learn first
the things which are seen and handled by them. Students can comprehend new
ideas only when they are taught with sufficient illustration. So every teaching
activity should be enriched with sufficient illustration.
Proceed from simple to complex: It is always better to teach the most simple
lessons first and then the complex ones.
Proceed from easy to more difficult: When explaining to teach the nursing
management of cirrhosis of liver, the teacher has to arrange the different aspects of
disease condition in an increasing order of difficulty like definition, classification,
etiology, pathophysiology etc.
Proceed inductively : In inductive teaching, teaching is made effective with the
help of a suitable example. Usually the topic is introduced to the students by way
of stating a befitting example and through analyzing the example they would be
able to understand the general rules, definitions, formulas etc.
Proceed from general to specific: While proceeding from general to specific,
general rules are explained first and from that specificity is arisen.
Proceed from specific to general: When proceeding from specific to general, first
the teacher has to present the specific facts to the students before the facts are
taught to them in general.
Proceed from indefinite to definite: The ideas in the students in the initial stages
are indefinite and vague. These ideas are to be made definite, clear, precise and
systematic by adopting effective teaching methods.
Proceed from empirical to rational: Empirical knowledge is gained through
observation and experience. One peculiarity of empirical knowledge is that it lacks
scientific background. Rational knowledge is built upon a scientific basis and is
more dignified than empirical knowledge. As a result of their day-to-day life
experiences students gain empirical knowledge. Teacher has to proceed from this
empirical knowledge to rational knowledge by explaining the scientific aspects to
Proceed from whole to parts: Whole is more meaningful to students than the
separate parts of the whole. The whole approach helps the students to understand
the relationships between different parts and the resulting correlation makes
learning more easier and meaningful. While teaching osteology, anatomy teacher
has to give a brief description of the whole skeletal system by mentioning its
functions, total number of bones etc before dealing with different individual bones.
Proceed from part to whole: In some situations, teacher has to proceed from part
to whole for providing information in a meaningful way. For example, while
teaching the qualities of an ideal chemical disinfectant, teacher proceeds from part
to whole by explaining the qualities one by one and finally explains the whole
qualities by the end of the class.
Proceed from analysis to synthesis: Analysis means breaking a problem into
component parts and synthesis is the reverse, that is putting together this separate
parts into a complete whole. This approach is widely used in teaching nursing.
Proceed from overview to details: Students can easily comprehend if the teacher
proceeds from overview to details.
Proceed from observation to reasoning: The teacher has to provide an
opportunity for the students to see and notice the factors involved in a particular
topic or context before explaining the reasons associated with it or eliciting
reasons from the students.
Proceed from psychological to logical : This is the fundamental approach in
teaching. Some of the maxims like concrete to abstract and simple to complex are
based on this approach. Psychological aspect is student centered and concerned
with the receptiveness of the students, reaction of students, recalling ability of
students, listening to students needs, etc. Logical aspect is teacher centered and
deals with the systematic arrangement of the content, decision regarding when to
teach, etc. During teaching, teacher has to consider the psychological aspect before
proceeding to logical aspects.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF TEACHER
The good teacher is expected to be well-informed in the areas in which he
teaches. He is expected to be able to communicate information needed for
background, enrichment and motivation and on many occasions to explain
relationship to children. He should permit the students to practice the knowledge
and skills they acquire in the class.
Initiating, directing and administrating
One of the most important functions of teaching is concerned with
initiating, organizing, directing and making decisions. From morning till evening,
the teacher faces and handles many problems which require the initiative, direction
and administrative abilities. In modern administration, students are associated with
decision making activities.
The teacher as the leader of the team should be able to initiate activities and get
Unifying the group
In the beginning of the session, a teacher is confronted with a number of
children who are not unified. As they live together, they become a unified group.
An important task of the teacher is that of developing a group with a group spirit,
identification with common purposes and some common concerns.
Many children are in need of warmth recognition, praise and friendly
atmosphere. There are children who feel a sense of loneliness, isolation, rejection
and economic insecurity.
The teacher should identify the needs of such children and when they need
protection, he should protect them.
Clarifying attitudes, beliefs and problems
It is a fact that many of our children are utterly confused by
social influences surrounding them. Looking at so many different ways of living
on TV, radio, movie and reading materials, etc which introduce new and unusual
ideas. Experiencing directly of variously the difficulties of a broken family having
few places to play and little opportunity to talk things over with parents who might
both be working, racial problems and ominous threat of unemployment.
The child of today must surely be very much confused. He
hears nice things from the adults but sees and hears many things which contradict
they tell him.
To help clarify these matters, the teacher creates opportunities
for children to state their attitudes interests and problems, to talk about their
purposes and aspirations,to speak their beliefs and convictions ,to indicate what
they think might and should be done, to reveal and share some of the deeper
feelings they harbor to tell about the activities in which they are engaging and
those in which they would like to share . The teacher give the children
opportunities to compare, observe, classify, interpret and puts them in a position to
analyze, criticize and summarize.
Diagnosing learning problems
There are children in every class who do not make expected
progress in their studies, growth and development .The teacher must diagnose the
learning problems of individual students and should b suggest the possible course
Making curriculum material
The curriculum in India is mostly framed at the state level
for the entire state without making provision for local variations. The teacher
should modify the curriculum in accordance with the needs of group and local
Evaluating ,recording and reporting
The teacher has to evaluate the progress of the class as a
whole and individual students by means of tests and periodical examinations. He
has to report the progress to the principal and parents.
Enriching community activity
A school is said to be the miniature form of the society. The teacher
should remain in close contact with the community in which he serves.
Harmonious relationship between school and community are a continuing and
essential part of school life .Continuous efforts should be made to enrich the
community life function of teaching.
Arranging and organizing classroom
It is an important responsibility of a teacher to make the classroom
a beautiful place for learning. Physical facilities should be appropriately provided
in the room. Arrangement should be flexible to change it to suit the different
Participating in school activities
The teacher should participate in other school activities in
addition to his routine teaching assignment. These may include excursions,
picnics, and organizing some show etc. His participation in these activities is
regarded as one of the important functions of teaching.
Participating in professional life
Every teacher is expected to enter wholly into professional life
and to make his contribution to the improvement of the profession, e.g. Nursing
ROLE OF TEACHER IN NURSING
Roles refers to the behaviours expected or
the characteristics of an individual in a given position. The role of teacher in
nursing are the following: Instructional role
The instructional roles of the teacher include the following:
a)Planning and organizing the courses i.e. selecting objectives, substantive
contents and teaching and learning activities and correlating them with the other courses
in the curriculum.
b)Creating and maintaining a desirable group climate which will
and enhance learning and will lead to the development of he learner’s self-discipline.
c)Adapting teaching and preparing instructional materials to varying interests,
abilities and needs of the students.
d)Motivating and challenging the students to pursue and sustain students to
e)Teaching by telling the information’s source, explaining, clarifying interpreting,
demonstrating the procedures, serving as resource person, supervising the students
performance and evaluating all the planned learning and teaching activities.
The role of teacher as a faculty member varies
with the size and complexity of the institution. The teacher has a variety of role as
a faculty- as a chairman or secretary or member of committees, counselor of
students, researcher, resource person to groups outside the college, a representative
of professional organization and as a public health relations agent.
The teacher as an individual person plays an
important role in the family, in the community and as a citizen
The administrative roles include participating in
educational policies, contributes to the development of philosophy and purposes of
total education program and directs the activities of other staff.
QUALITIES OF A GOOD TEACHER
Development in technologies for communicating and disseminating
information have a large potential impact on the practice of teaching because
teaching is an activity in which communicating and disseminating information
are significant aspects. But Niasbitt suggested that increase in technology create a
compensating need for more human touch. He also pointed out that without the
appropriate human touch, the adoption of new technology on a wide spread basis
is rejected. This high touch-high tech vision clearly states that nothing can
substitute or replace the human component or human interaction in teaching and to
become a good teacher demands constant and conscious effort from the teacher.
The traditional or recent concepts of teaching never disagree with below
mentioned desirable qualities of a teacher.
1. Desirable personal traits : Teacher should be a person who is just, likeable,
approachable, caring, active, have neat appearance, dress modesty, and simply,
have a sense of humour and always be a helping hand to students .
2. User of effective teaching – learning methods : A good teacher always follow
the guidelines intended for selecting appropriate method and use different
methods or effective and efficient combinations of methods for achieving
3. Creator of a good classroom environment : A good teacher always makes
the classroom a student centered environment rather than a teacher centered
one by encouraging student participation in the teaching – learning process,
paying special attention to weak students, controlling the students and
designing the teaching according to the capacities abilities and level of
4. Mastery of competencies : This include the ability to inspire students,
providing counselling and guidance as needed, possess some special skills and
abilities in teaching have knowledge and effective management skills, ability to
judge students fairly, possess leadership qualities, evaluate the performance of
students continuously, able to perform self- analysis and ability to accept
5. Professional decision maker : By utilizing the competencies, teacher has to
decide whom to teach, why to teach, what to teach, how to teach and when to
QUALITIES OF A GOOD NURSE EDUCATOR
According to Sandra DE Young , a good teacher can be
categorized under four headings namely (a) Interpersonal relationships with
students. (b) Professional competence. (c) Personal qualities.
friendly behaviour in the clinical area.
1. Interpersonal relationships with students: A good teacher is skillful in
maintaining interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationship is
demonstrated by taking a personal interest in students, being sensitive to
students feelings and problems, conveying respect for students, alleviating
students anxieties, being accessible for conferences, being fair in all
dealings with others, permitting students to express differing points of view,
creating an atmosphere in which students feel free to ask questions and
conveying a sense of warmth.
Sandra De Young believes that nursing faculty can help
students to maintain self – esteem and minimize anxities by using three
basic therapeutic approaches namely empathetic listening, acceptance and
honest communication. Through emphathetic listening teacher can view the
world through students eyes. Second approach is to accept student as they
are, whether or not one like them. By adhering to honest communication,
the teacher can easily discuss the students abilities and performance with
them and create a relaxed atmosphere in which students are able to see the
teacher as the role model. Most important aspect of honest communication
is clearly identifying the students responsibilities in the learning process by
letting the students to know exactly what is expected of them and what they
have to do to succeed.
2. Professional competence:
Sandra De Young views professional
competence as the second essential quality of a good nurse educator.
Professional competence is evidenced by knowledge regarding education
theory and research, through knowledge of the subject matter, ability to
present material in an interesting, clear and organized manner, displays
confidence in professional activities, ability to inspire students, creativity,
ability to elicits students interest in the subject and demonstration of skills
with expertise is rated high. In addition to the lessons from life experiences
and suggestions from students, Sandra De Young recommends reading,
research, clinical practice and continuing education for maintaining and
expanding knowledge of teacher. Professional competency can also be
enhanced by a willingness to learn new roles, new styles of interacting and
new teaching methods besides the ability to critique one’s own performance.
3. Personal qualities:
Teacher qualities valued by students include
enthusiasm, willingness to admit errors, cheerfullness, considerations,
honesty, calmness and poise, a sense of humour, lack of annoying
mannerisms, patience and a neat appearance.
4. Student friendly behaviour in the clinical area: In Sandra De Young’s
opinion, a good nurse educator has to exhibit certain pro student behaviours
in the clinical area in order to promote self-confidence and security feelings
among students. These behaviours include being available in the clinical
area, providing conference time, being willing to help, answering questions
freely, allowing students to recognize and correct errors, giving verbal
encouragement, showing interest in patients and their care, conveying
confidence in the learner and supervising with out taking over.