Telecom Industry

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Telecom Industry in India



Telecommunications in India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about communications in India. For a more general coverage of media in India, see Media of India§. § § More than half of the mobile phones sold in India in 2 !2 "ere smart phones #ommunications in India $evenue %Total& '() **,*+ million,!Telephony Telephone (ubscribers %Total& %2 !2& Fi0ed lines %May 2 !2& Mobile phones %2 !2& Monthly telephone additions %2et& %May 2 !2& Teledensity§ %2 !2& $ural Teledensity 5ro6ected teledensity by 2 !2 ./ .. million %May 2 !2& *!.+* million .2..*1 million 3.*+ million 1..23 4 ** 4,!37 4

Internet access 5ercent household access %total&, 2 !2 5ercent broadband household access ! .24 of households %!*1 million& !.!34 of households %!7.*! million&

8roadband internet users Internet (ervice 5roviders§ %2 !2& country code top9level domain§

!7.*! million %May 2 !2&,2!++ .in§

8roadcasting Television broadcast stations %2 $adio broadcast stations %!..1& .& !,7 3

India:s telecommunication net"ork is the second largest in the "orld based on the total number of telephone users %both fi0ed and mobile phone&.,*- It has one of the lo"est call tariffs in the "orld enabled by the mega telephone net"orks and hyper9competition among them. It has the "orld:s third9largest Internet user9base "ith over !*1 million as of ;une 2 !2.,7-,+- Ma6or sectors of the Indian telecommunication industry are telephony, internet and television broadcasting. Telephone Industry in the country "hich is in an ongoing process of transforming into ne0t generation net"ork§, employs an e0tensive system of modern net"ork elements such as digital telephone e0changes§, mobile s"itching centres§, media gate"ays§ and signalling gate"ays§ at the core, interconnected by a "ide variety of transmission systems using fibre9optics§ or Micro"ave radio relaynet"orks§. The access net"ork§, "hich connects the subscriber to the core, is highly diversified "ith different copper9pair, optic9fibre and "ireless technologies. )T<§, a relatively ne" broadcasting technology has attained significant popularity in the Television segment. The introduction of private FM has given a fillip to the radio broadcasting in India§. Telecommunication in India has greatly been supported by the I2(=T§ system of the country, one of the largest domestic satellite systems in the "orld. India possesses a diversified communications system, "hich links all parts of the country by telephone, Internet, radio, television and satellite. ,/Indian telecom industry under"ent a high pace of market liberalisation and gro"th since !.. s and no" has become the "orld:s most competitive and one of the fastest gro"ing telecom markets.,1-,3- The Industry has gro"n over t"enty times in 6ust ten years, from under *1 million subscribers in the year 2 ! to over 37/ million subscribers in the year 2 !!.,!- India has the "orld:s second9largest§ mobile phone user base "ith over .2..*1 million users as of May 2 !2.,/- It has the "orld:s third9largest§ Internet user9base "ith over !*1 million as of ;une 2 !2.,7-,+The total revenue of the Indian telecom sector gre" by 14 to §23*2 1 crore§ %'(>7+ billion& for 2 ! ?!! financial year, "hile revenues from telecom e@uipment segment stood at §!!1 *. crore§ %'(>!. billion&.,.Telecommunication has supported the socioeconomic development of India and has

played a significant role to narro" do"n the rural9urban digital divide§ to some e0tent. It also has helped to increase the transparency of governance "ith the introduction of e9 governance§ in India. The government has pragmatically used modern telecommunication facilities to deliver mass education programmes for the rural folk of India.,! #ontents ,hide§! <istory§ ! 2 * !.! The 8eginning§ !.2 Further developments and milestones§ !.* Aiberalisation and privatisation§

2 (ectors§ 2.! Telephony§ ! 2 2.!.! Fi0ed Telephony§ 2.!.2 Mobile Telephony§

2.2 Internet§ * 7 + 2.2.! Wireless Internet§ 2.* )ata centres§ 2.7 8roadcasting§ B * 2e0t9generation net"orks %2C2&§ B 7 $ecent government policies and gro"th targets§ B + $egulatory environment§ B / $evenue and gro"th§

1 International§ ! 1.! (ubmarine cables§ B 3 (ee also§ B . $eferences§ B ! D0ternal links§

<istory,edit§The 8eginning,edit§-

§ § = micro"ave to"er for short distance %E+ km& communication The history of Indian telecom can be started "ith the introduction of telegraph§. The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the "orlds oldest. In !3+ , the first e0perimental electric telegraph line "as started bet"een #alcutta§ and )iamond <arbour§. In !3+!, it "as opened for the use of the8ritish Dast India #ompany§. The 5osts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the 5ublic Works )epartment,,!!- at that time. (ubse@uently, the construction of 7, miles %/,7 km& of telegraph lines connecting Folkata %then #alcutta& and 5esha"ar§ in the north along "ith=gra§, Mumbai§ %then 8ombay& through (ind"a Chats, and #hennai§ %then Madras& in the south, as "ell as Gotacamund§ and 8angalore§ "as started in 2ovember !3+*. William G:(haughnessy§, "ho pioneered the telegraph§ and telephone in India, belonged to the 5ublic Works )epartment, and "orked to"ards the development of telecom throughout this period. = separate department "as opened in !3+7 "hen telegraph facilities "ere opened to the public. In !33 , t"o telephone companies§ namely The Griental Telephone #ompany§ Atd. and The =nglo9Indian Telephone #ompany Atd. approached theCovernment of India§ to establish telephone e0changes§ in India. The permission "as refused on the grounds that the establishment of telephones "as a Covernment monopoly and that the Covernment itself "ould undertake the "ork. In !33!, the Covernment later reversed its earlier decision and a licence "as granted to the Griental Telephone #ompany§ Aimited of Dngland for opening telephone e0changes at #alcutta§, 8ombay§, Madras§ and=hmedabad§ and the first formal telephone service "as established in the country. ,!2- Gn 23 ;anuary !332, Ma6or D. 8aring, Member of the Covernor Ceneral of India§:s #ouncil declared open the Telephone D0changes in #alcutta, 8ombay and Madras. The e0change in #alcutta named the H#entral D0changeH had a total of .* subscribers in its early stage. Aater that year, 8ombay also "itnessed the opening of a telephone e0change. ,!*Further developments and milestones,edit§B 5re9!. 2 ? #able telegraph§ B !. 2 ? First "ireless telegraph§ station established bet"een (agar Island§ and (andhead§. B !. 1 ? First #entral 8attery of telephones introduced in Fanpur§.

B !.!*?!.!7 ? First =utomatic D0change installed in (himla§. B !.21 ? $adio9telegraph system bet"een the 'F and India, "ith Imperial Wireless #hain§ beam stations at Fhadki§ and )aund§. Inaugurated by Aord Ir"in§ on 2* ;uly by e0changing greetings "ith Fing Ceorge I§. B !.** ? $adiotelephone§ system inaugurated bet"een the 'F and India. B !.+* ? !2 channel carrier system introduced. B !./ ? First subscriber trunk dialling§ route commissioned bet"een Auckno"§ and Fanpur§.,citation neededB !.1+ ? First 5#M§ system commissioned bet"een Mumbai§ #ity and =ndheri§ telephone e0changes. B !.1/ ? First digital§ micro"ave§ 6unction. B !.1. ? First optical fibre§ system for local 6unction commissioned at 5une§. B !.3 ? First satellite earth station§ for domestic communications established at (ikandarabad§, '.5.§. B !.3* ? First analogue§ (tored 5rogramme #ontrol e0change for trunk lines§ commissioned at Mumbai. B !.37 ? #9)GT§ established for indigenous development and production of digital§ e0changes. B !..+ ? First mobile telephone§ service started on non9commercial basis on !+ =ugust !..+ in )elhi§. B !..+ ? Internet Introduced in India starting "ith Mumbai, )elhi, #alcutta, #hennai and 5une on !+ =ugust !..+,!7)evelopment of 8roadcastingJ $adio broadcasting "as initiated in !.21 but became state responsibility only in !.* . In !.*1 it "as given the name =ll India $adio§ and since !.+1 it has been called =kashvani.,!+- Aimited duration of television programming began in !.+., and complete broadcasting follo"ed in !./+. The Ministry of Information and 8roadcasting§ o"ned and maintained the audio9visual apparatusKincluding the television channel )oordarshan§Kin the country prior to the economic reforms of !..!§. In !..1, an autonomous body "as established in the name of5rasar 8harti§ to take care of the public service broadcasting under the 5rasar 8harti =ct. =ll India $adio and )oordarshan, "hich earlier "ere "orking as media units under the Ministry of IL8 became constituents of the body.,! 5re9liberalisation statisticsJ While all the ma6or cities and to"ns in the country "ere linked "ith telephones during the 8ritish§ period, the total number of telephones in !.73 numbered only around 3 , . 5ost independence, gro"th remained slo" because the telephone "as seen more as a status symbol rather than being an instrument of utility. The number of telephones gre" leisurely to .3 , in !.1!, 2.!+ million in !.3! and +. 1 million in !..!, the year economic reforms "ere initiated in the country. Aiberalisation and privatisation,edit§-

Aiberalisation of Indian telecommunication industry started in !.3! "hen 5rime Minister Indira Candhi§ signed contracts "ith =lcatel #IT§ of France to merge "ith the state o"ned Telecom #ompany %ITI&, in an effort to set up +, , lines per year. 8ut soon the policy "as let do"n because of political opposition.,!/- =ttempts to liberalise the telecommunication industry "ere continued by the follo"ing government under the prime9minister9ship of $a6iv Candhi§. <e invited (am 5itroda§, a '(9based 2on9 resident Indian 2$I§ and a former $ock"ell International§ e0ecutive to set up a #entre for )evelopment of Telematics§%#9)GT& "hich manufactured electronic telephone e0changes in India for the first time.,!1- (am 5itroda had a significant role as a consultant and adviser in the development of telecommunication in India.,!3In !.3+, the )epartment of Telecom§%)oT& "as separated from Indian 5ost L Telecommunication )epartment§. )oT "as responsible for telecom services in entire country until !.3/ "henMahanagar Telephone 2igam Aimited§ %MT2A& and Iidesh (anchar 2igam Aimited§ %I(2A& "ere carved out of )oT to run the telecom services of metro cities%)elhi§ and Mumbai§& and international long distance operations respectively.,!1The demand for telephones "as ever increasing and in !.. s Indian government "as under increasing pressure to open up the telecom sector for private investment as a part of Aiberalisation§95rivatisation§9Clobalisation§ policies that the government had to accept to overcome the severe fiscal crisis and resultant balance of payments§ issue in !..!. #onse@uently, private investment in the sector of Ialue =dded (ervices %I=(& "as allo"ed and cellular telecom sector "ere opened up for competition from private investments. It "as during this period that the 2arsimha $ao§9led government introduced the 2ational Telecommunications policy %2T5& in !..7 "hich brought changes in the follo"ing areasJ o"nership, service and regulation of telecommunications infrastructure. The policy introduced the concept of telecommunication for all and its vision "as to e0pand the telecommunication facilities to all the villages in India.,!.- Aiberalisation in the basic telecom sector "as also envisaged in this policy.,2 - They "ere also successful in establishing 6oint ventures bet"een state o"ned telecom companies and international players. Foreign firms "ere eligible to 7.4 of the total stake. The multi9nationals "ere 6ust involved in technology transfer, and not policy making.,!/)uring this period, the World 8ank and IT'§ had advised the Indian Covernment to liberalise long distance services to release the monopoly of the state o"ned )oT and I(2A and to enable competition in the long distance carrier business "hich "ould help reduce tariff:s and better the economy of the country. The $ao run government instead liberalised the local services, taking the opposite political parties into confidence and assuring foreign involvement in the long distance business after + years. The country "as divided into 2 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and !3 circles for mobile services. These circles "ere divided into category =, 8 and # depending on the value of the revenue in each circle. The government thre" open the bids to one private company

per circle along "ith government o"ned )oT per circle. For cellular service t"o service providers "ere allo"ed per circle and a !+ years licence "as given to each provider. )uring all these improvements, the government did face oppositions from ITI§, )oT, MT2A, I(2A and other labour unions, but they managed to keep a"ay from all the hurdles.,!/In !..1, the government set up T$=I %Telecom $egulatory =uthority of India§& "hich reduced the interference of Covernment in deciding tariffs and policy making. The political po"ers changed in !... and the ne" government under the leadership of =tal 8ihari Ia6payee§ "as more pro9reforms and introduced better liberalisation policies. In 2 , the Ia6payee government§ constituted theTelecom )isputes (ettlement and =ppellate Tribunal§ %T)(=T& through an amendment of the T$=I =ct, !..1.,2!-,22The primary ob6ective of T)(=T:s establishment "as to release T$=I from ad6udicatory and dispute settlement functions in order to strengthen the regulatory frame"ork. =ny dispute involving parties like licensor, licensee, service provider and consumers are resolved by T)(=T. Moreover, any direction, order or decision of T$=I can be challenged by appealing in T)(=T.,2*- The government corporatised the operations "ing of )oT on ! Gctober 2 and named it as )epartment of Telecommunication (ervices %)T(& "hich "as later named as 8harat (anchar 2igam Aimited§ %8(2A&. The proposal of raising the stake of foreign investors from 7.4 to 174 "as re6ected by the opposite political parties and leftist thinkers. )omestic business groups "anted the government to privatise I(2A. Finally in =pril 2 2, the government decided to cut its stake of +*4 to 2/4 in I(2A and to thro" it open for sale to private enterprises. T=T= finally took 2+4 stake in I(2A.,!/This "as a gate"ay to many foreign investors to get entry into the Indian Telecom Markets. =fter March 2 , the government became more liberal in making policies and issuing licences to private operators. The government further reduced licence fees for cellular service§ providers and increased the allo"able stake to 174 for foreign companies. 8ecause of all these factors, the service fees finally reduced and the call costs "ere cut greatly enabling every common middle9class family in India to afford a cell phone. 2early *2 million handsets "ere sold in India. The data reveals the real potential for gro"th of the Indian mobile market.,27- Many private operators, such as $eliance #ommunications§, Tata Indicom§, Iodafone§, Aoop Mobile§, =irtel§, Idea§ etc., successfully entered the high potential Indian telecom market. In March 2 3 the total C(M§ and #)M=§ mobile subscriber base in the country "as *1+ million, "hich represented a nearly + 4 gro"th "hen compared "ith previous year. ,2+- =s the unbranded #hinese cell phones "hich do not have International Mobile D@uipment Identity§ %IMDI& numbers pose a serious security risk to the country, Mobile net"ork operators§ therefore suspended the usage of around * million mobile phones %about 34 of all mobiles in the country& by * =pril. 5hones "ithout valid IMDI cannot be connected to cellular operators.,2/- +?/ years the average monthly subscribers

additions "ere around . + to .! million only and the total mobile subscribers base in )ecember 2 2 stood at ! .+ millions. <o"ever, after a number of proactive initiatives taken by regulators and licensors, the total number of mobile subscribers has increased rapidly to over .2. million subscribers as of May 2 !2. India has opted for the use of both the C(M %global system for mobile communications&§ and #)M= %code9division multiple access&§ technologies in the mobile§ sector. In addition to landline§ and mobile phones, some of the companies also provide the WAA§ service. The mobile tariffs in India have also become lo"est in the "orld. = ne" mobile connection can be activated "ith a monthly commitment of '(> .!+ only. In 2 + alone additions increased to around 2 million per month in 2 *? 7 and 2 7? +.,citation needed(ectors,edit§Ma6or sectors of telecommunication industry in India are telephony, internet, )ata centers and broadcasting. Telephony,edit§§ § Market share of ma6or operators in India as on 2. February 2 !2 § § Market share of ma6or operators in India as on 2. February 2 !2 The telephony segment is dominated by private9sector and t"o state9run businesses. Most companies "ere formed by a recent revolution and restructuring launched "ithin a decade, directed by Ministry of #ommunications and IT§, )epartment of Telecommunications§ and Minister of Finance§. (ince then, most companies gained 2C§, *C§ and 7C§ licences and engaged fi0ed9line, mobile and internet business in India. Gn landlines, intra9circle calls are considered local calls "hile inter9circle are considered long distance calls. Foreign )irect Investment policy "hich increased the foreign o"nership cap from 7.4 to 174.2o" it is ! 4. #urrently Covernment is "orking to integrate the "hole country in one telecom circle. For long distance calls, the area code prefi0ed "ith a Mero is dialled first "hich is then follo"ed by the number %i.e. To call )elhi§, !! "ould be dialled first follo"ed by

the phone number&. For international calls, H H must be dialled first follo"ed by the country code§, area code§ and local phone number§. The country code for India is .!. (everal international fibre9optic links include those to ;apan, (outh Forea, <ong Fong, $ussia, and Cermany. (ome ma6or telecom operators in India include =irtel, Iodafone, Idea, =ircel, 8(2A, MT2A, $eliance #ommunications, T=T= Teleservices, Infotel, MT(, 'ninor, T=T= )o#oMo, Iideocon, =ugere, Tikona )igital. Fi0ed Telephony,edit§'ntil the 2e" Telecom 5olicy "as announced in !..., only the Covernment9o"ned 8(2A§ and MT2A§ "ere allo"ed to provide land9line phone services through copper "ire§ in India "ith MT2A§ operating in )elhi§ and Mumbai§ and 8(2A§ servicing all other areas of the country. )ue to the rapid gro"th of the cellular phone industry in India, landlines are facing stiff competition from cellular operators. This has forced land9line service providers to become more efficient and improve their @uality of service. Aand9 line conne0ions are no" also available on demand, even in high density urban areas. India has over *! million main line customers. Mobile Telephony,edit§(ee alsoJ Aist of mobile net"ork operators of India§, Aist of countries by number of mobile phones in use§, and Aist of mobile net"ork operators§ § § #ellular phone to"er atop the roof of a building § § Typical signboards of (T) booths %kiosks from "here (T)§ calls can be made& and internet kiosks in India § § =I$ $adio To"er

In =ugust !..+, #hief Minister of West 8engal, (hri ;yoti 8asu§ ushered in the cellphone revolution in India by making the first call to 'nion Telecom Minister (ukhram.,21(i0teen years later 7th generation services "ere launched in Folkata.,23With a subscriber base of more than .2. million, the Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the "orld and it "as thro"n open to private players in the !.. s. C(M "as comfortably maintaining its position as the dominant mobile technology "ith 3 4 of the mobile subscriber market, but #)M= seemed to have stabilised its market share at 2 4 for the time being. 8y May 2 !2 the country had .2. million mobile subscribers, up from *+ million 6ust 7 months earlier. The mobile market "as continuing to e0pand at an annual rate in e0cess of 7 4 coming into 2 ! . =ccording to data provided by Minister of (tate for #ommunications and IT§ Milind )eora§, as of * 2ovember 2 !2, India has 1*/,/+7 base transceiver stations§ %2C§ C(M§ L #)M=§, and *C§&. Gf those, ./,2!2 base transceiver stations provide *C mobile and data services. Gut of India:s /7 districts§, /! districts are covered by *C services as of * 2ovember 2 !2.,2.The country is divided into multiple Mones, called circles %roughly along state boundaries&. Covernment and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. #ompetition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the "orld.,* - The rates are supposed to go do"n further "ith ne" measures to be taken by the Information Ministry.,*!- In (eptember 2 7, the number of mobile phone conne0ions crossed the number of fi0ed9line conne0ions and presently d"arfs the "ireline segment by a ratio of around 2 J!. The mobile subscriber base has gro"n by a factor of over a hundred and thirty, from + million subscribers in 2 ! to over .2. million subscribers as of May 2 !2. India primarily follo"s the C(M§ mobile system, in the . M<M band. $ecent operators also operate in the !3 M<M band. The dominant players are =irtel§,$eliance Infocomm§, Iodafone§, Idea cellular§ and 8(2A§NMT2A§. There are many smaller players, "ith operations in only a fe" states. Internationalroaming§ agreements e0ist bet"een most operators and many foreign carriers. The government allo"ed Mobile number portability§ %M25& "hich enables mobile telephone users to retain their mobile telephone numbers "hen changing from one mobile net"ork operator to another.,*2- India is divided into 22 telecom circlesJ,**Telecom circle =ndhra 5radesh =ssam 8ihar L ;harkhand )elhi Cu6arat L )aman L )iu 2.** .2 .+/ 2.. !.32 Wireline subscriber base in million%May 2 !2&






<aryana <imachal 5radesh ;ammu and Fashmir Farnataka Ferala L Aakshad"eep Folkata Madhya 5radesh L #hhattisgarh MumbaiO 2orth Dast POO§ Grissa 5un6ab $a6asthan Tamil 2adu%including #hennai since 2 +&,*7'ttar 5radesh%Dast& 'ttar 5radesh%West& L 'ttarakhand West 8engal%e0cluding Folkata&OOO

.+. .* .2 2.73 *.!3 !.!3 !.!* *. .2+ .7 !.77 !.!7 *.!/ !.2 .1. ./2






2+.2 1!.


Maharashtra L Coa %e0cluding Mumbai & 2./7










PO§ 5opulation statistics are available state9"ise only. POO§ 2orth east circle includes =runachal 5radesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, MiMoram, 2agaland, L Tripura POOO§West 8engal circle includes =ndaman92icobar and (ikkim Internet,edit§(ee alsoJ Internet censorship in India§ , Aist of Internet users by country§, and Aist of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptions§ § §

Internet cafe in Iaranasi§, 2


The history of the Internet in India started "ith launch of services by I(2A§ on !+ =ugust !..+. They "ere able to add about ! , Internet users "ithin / months.,*+<o"ever, for the ne0t ! years the Internet e0perience in the country remained less attractive "ith narro"9band connections having speeds less than +/ kbitNs %dial9up&. In 2 7, the government formulated its broadband policy "hich defined broadband as Han al"ays9on Internet connection "ith do"nload speed of 2+/ kbitNs or above.H,*/- From 2 + on"ard the gro"th of the broadband sector in the country accelerated, but remained belo" the gro"th estimates of the government and related agencies due to resource issues in last9mile access "hich "ere predominantly "ired9line technologies. This bottleneck "as removed in 2 ! "hen the government auctioned *C§ spectrum follo"ed by an e@ually high profile auction of7C§ spectrum that set the scene for a competitive and invigorated "ireless broadband market. 2o" Internet access in India is provided by both public and private companies using a variety of technologies and media including dial9up %5(T2&, 0)(A, coa0ial cable, Dthernet, FTT<, I()2, <()5= %*C&, WiFi, WiM=Q, etc. at a "ide range of speeds and costs. The country has the "orld:s third largest§ number of Internet users§ "ith over !2! million users %+.4 of "hom only access the Internet via mobile devices& in )ecember 2 !!.,*1=s of )ecember 2 !!, total Internet connections stood at 22.*. million,,2- "ith estimated users e0ceeding !2! million. The number of broadband subscribers at the end of May 2 !* "as !+.!* million.,*3- #umulative =nnual Cro"th rate %#=C$& of broadband during the five9year period bet"een 2 + and 2 ! "as about !!1 per cent.,*/- )(A§, "hile holding slightly more than 1+4 of the local broadband market, "as steadily losing market share to other non9)(A broadband platforms, especially to "ireless broadband. There "ere !/! Internet (ervice 5roviders§ %I(5s& offering broadband services in India as of *! May 2 !*. The top five I(5s in terms subscriber base "ere 8(2A %.../ million&, 8harti =irtel %!.7 million&, MT2A %!. . million&, <ath"ay % .*/ million& and Rou 8roadband % .*! million&.,*3- #yber cafes§remain the ma6or source of Internet access. In 2 ., about *1 per cent of the users access the Internet from cyber cafes, * per cent from an office, and 2* per cent from home. <o"ever, the number of mobile Internet users increased rapidly from 2 . on and there "ere about 217 million mobile users at the end of (eptember 2 ! , "ith a ma6ority using 2C mobile net"orks.,*/- Mobile Internet subscriptions as reported by the Telecom $egulatory =uthority of India§ %T$=I& in March 2 !! increased to *3! million. Gne of the ma6or issues facing the Internet segment in India is the lo"er average band"idth of broadband connections compared to that of developed countries. =ccording to 2 1 statistics, the average do"nload speed in India hovered at about 7 F8 per second %2+/ kbitNs§&, the minimum speed set by T$=I, "hereas the international average "as +./ MbitNs during the same period. In order to attend this infrastructure issue the

government declared 2 1 as Hthe year of broadbandH.,*.-,7 - To compete "ith international standards of defining broadband speed the Indian Covernment has taken the aggressive step of proposing a >!* billion national broadband net"ork to connect all cities, to"ns and villages "ith a population of more than + in t"o phases targeted for completion by 2 !2 and 2 !*. The net"ork "as supposed to provide speeds up to ! MbitNs in /* metropolitan areas and 7 MbitNs in an additional *+2 cities. =lso, the Internet penetration rate in India is one of the lo"est in the "orld and only accounts for 3.74 of the population compared to the rate in GD#)§ counties, "here the average is over + 4. ,7-,7!-,72- =nother issue is the digital divide§ "here gro"th is biased in favour of urban areasS according to 2 ! statistics, more than 1+ per cent of the broadband connections in the country are in the top * cities.,*/- $egulators have tried to boost the gro"th of broadband in rural areas by promoting higher investment in rural infrastructure and establishing subsidiMed tariffs for rural subscribers under the 'niversal service obligation§ scheme of the Indian government. Wireless Internet,edit§2nd Ceneration Internet§ is the most prevalent in India. Wireless I(5s in India use both #)M=§ and Ddge§ technologies for 2C. India:s "ireless Internet Fre@uencies are,7*B 2C J C(M . M<M, C(M !3 B *C J 'MT( 2! M<M B 7C J T)9ATD§ 2* M<M )ata centres,edit§B B B B B B B B B 8(2A Internet )ata #enters, in collaboration "ith )imension )ata,77(ify Technologies Aimited #trl( )atacenters Atd Tata #ommunications Aimited 2etmagic (olutions $eliance )atacenter Web Werks I)# 2et7 )atacenter $ack8ank )atacenter M<M

8roadcasting,edit§Main articlesJ Media of India§, Television in India§, and Aist of Indian television stations§

§ § I2(=T9!8 satelliteJ 8roadcasting sector in India is highly dependent on I2(=T§system. Television broadcasting began in India in !.+. by )oordarshan§, a state run medium of communication, and had slo" e0pansion for more than t"o decades.,7+- The policy reforms of the government in !.. s attracted private initiatives in this sector, and since then, satellite television has increasingly shaped popular culture and Indian society. <o"ever, still, only the government o"ned )oordarshan has the licence for terrestrial television broadcast. 5rivate companies reach the public using satellite channelsS both cable television§ as "ell as )T< has obtained a "ide subscriber base in India. In 2 !2, India had about !73 million TI homes of "hich !2/ million has access to cable and satellite services.,7/-

Follo"ing the economic reforms in !.. s, satellite television channels from around the "orldK88#§, #22§, #28#§, and other private television channels gained a foothold in the country.,! - There are no regulations to control the o"nership of satellite dish§ antennas and also for operating cable television systems in India, "hich in turn has helped for an impressive gro"th in the vie"ership. The gro"th in the number of satellite channels "as triggered by corporate business houses such as (tar TI§ group and Tee TI§. Initially restricted to music and entertainment channels, vie"ership gre", giving rise to several channels in regional languages§, especially <indi§. The main ne"s channels available "ere #22 and 88# World§. In the late !.. s, many current affairs and ne"s channels sprouted, becoming immensely popular because of the alternative vie"point they offered compared to )oordarshan. (ome of the notable ones are =a6 Tak§ %run by the India Today§ group& and (T=$ 2e"s§, #229I82§, Times 2o"§, initially run by the 2)TI§ group and their lead anchor, 5rannoy $oy§ %2)TI§ no" has its o"n channels, 2)TI 2701, 2)TI 5rofit and 2)TI India&. Gver the years, )oordarshan services also have gro"n from a single national channel to si0 national and eleven regional channels. 2onetheless, it has lost the leadership in market, though it under"ent many phases of moderniMation in order to contain tough competition from private channels.,! Today, television is the most penetrative media in India "ith industry estimates indicating that there are over ++7 million TI consumers, 7/2 million "ith satellite conne0ions, compared to other forms of mass media such as radio or internet.,71- Covernment of India has used the popularity of TI and radio among rural people for the implementation of many social9programmes including that of mass9education. Gn !/ 2ovember 2 /, the Covernment of India released the community radio policy "hich allo"ed agricultural centres, educational institutions and civil society organisations to apply for community based FM broadcasting licence. #ommunity $adio is allo"ed ! Watt Dffective $adiated 5o"er %D$5& "ith a ma0imum to"er height of * metres. The licence is valid for five years and one organisation can only get one licence, "hich is non9transferable and to be used for community development purposes. 2e0t9generation net"orks %2C2&,edit§<istorically, the role of telecommunication has evolved from that of plain information e0change to a multi9service field, "ith Ialue =dded (ervices %I=(& integrated "ith various discrete net"orks like 5(T2§, 5AM2§, Internet 8ackbone etc. <o"ever, "ith decreasing =$5'§ and increasing demand for I=( has become a compelling reason for the service providers to think of the convergence of these parallel net"orks into a single core net"ork "ith service layers separated from net"ork layer.,73- 2e0t9generation net"orking§ is such a convergence concept "hich according to IT'9T§isJ,7.= ne0t9generation net"ork %2C2& is a packet§9based net"ork§ "hich can provide services including Telecommunication (ervices and able to make use of multiple

broadband§, @uality of (ervice§9enabled transport technologies and in "hich service9 related functions are independent from underlying transport9related technologies. It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. It supports generaliMed mobility "hich "ill allo" consistent and ubi@uitous provision of services to users. =ccess net"orkJ The user can connect to the I59core of 2C2 in various "ays, most of "hich use the standard Internet 5rotocol %I5&. 'ser terminals such as mobile phones§, personal digital assistants§ %5)=s& and computers can register directly on 2C29core, even "hen they are roaming§ in another net"ork or country. The only re@uirement is that they can use I5 and (ession Initiation 5rotocol§ %(I5&. Fi0ed access§ %e.g., )igital (ubscriber Aine§ %)(A&, cable modems§, Dthernet§&, mobile access %e.g. W9#)M=§, #)M=2 §, C(M, C5$(§& and "ireless access %e.g.WA=2§,WiM=Q§& are all supported. Gther phone systems like plain old telephone service§ and non9compatible IoI5§ systems, are supported through gate"ays§. With the deployment of the 2C2, users may subscribe to many simultaneous access9providers providing telephony, internet or entertainment services. This may provide end9users "ith virtually unlimited options to choose bet"een service providers for these services in 2C2 environment.,73The hyper9competition in telecom market, "hich "as effectively caused by the introduction of 'niversal =ccess (ervice %'=(& licence in 2 * became much tougher after *C and 7C competitive auction§. =bout /1 , route9kilometer %7!., mile& of optical fibres§ has been laid in India by the ma6or operators, including in the financially nonviable rural areas and the process continues.,citation needed- Feeping in mind the viability of providing services in rural areas, the government of India also took a proactive role to promote the 2C2 implementation in the countryS an e0pert committee called 2C2 e#G "as constituted in order to deliberate on the licensing, interconnection and Uuality of (ervice %Uo(& issues related to 2C2 and it submitted its report on 27 =ugust 2 1. Telecom operators found the 2C2 model advantageous, but huge investment re@uirements have prompted them to adopt a multi9phase migration and they have already started the migration process to 2C2 "ith the implementation of I59based core9net"ork.,73$ecent government policies and gro"th targets,edit§-


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B =ll villages shall receive telecom facilities by the end of 2 2.,dated infoB = #ommunication #onvergence 8ill introduced in the 5arliament on *! =ugust 2 ! is presently before the (tanding #ommittee of 5arliament on Telecom and IT. ,dated infoB 2ational Aong )istance (ervice %2A)& is opened for unrestricted entry.,"henV-

B The International Aong )istance (ervices %IA)(& have been opened to competition.,"henVB The basic services are open to competition.,"henVB In addition to the e0isting three, a fourth cellular operator, one each in four metros and thirteen circles, has been permitted.,"henV- #ellular operators have been permitted to provide all types of mobile services including voice and non9voice messages, data services and 5#Gs§ utilising any type of net"ork e@uipment, including circuit andNor package s"itches that meet certain re@uired standards. B 5olicies allo"ing private participation have been announced as per the 2e" Telecom 5olicy %2T5&, !... in several ne" services, "hich include Clobal Mobile 5ersonal #ommunication by (atellite %CM5#(& (ervice, digital 5ublic Mobile $adio Trunked (ervice %5M$T(& and Ioice MailN =udiote0N 'nified Messaging (ervices. B Wireless Aocal Aoop %WAA&§ has been introduced to provide telephone conne0ions in urban, semi9urban and rural areas promptly.,"henVB T"o telecom 5('s, I(2A and <TA have been disinvested.,"henVB (teps are being taken to fulfill 'niversal (ervice Gbligation %'(G&, funding, and administration.,"henVB = decision to permit #ommunity 5hone (ervice has been announced.,"henVB Multiple Fi0ed (ervice 5roviders %F(5s& licensing guidelines "ere announced. ,"henVB Internet (ervice 5roviders %I(5s& have been allo"ed to set up International Internet Cate"ays, both (atellite and Aanding stations for submarine optical fibre cables.,"henVB T"o categories of infrastructure providers have been allo"ed to provide end9to9 end band"idth and dark fibre, right of "ay, to"ers, duct space etc.,"henVB Cuidelines have been issued by the Covernment to open up Internet telephony %I5&.,"henVB 2ational Gptical Fibre 2et"ork§ %2GF2&, a pro6ect aimed to ensure broadband connectivity to over t"o lakh§ %2 , & gram panchayats§ of India by 2 !/. $egulatory environment,edit§AI$2Dasia§:s Telecommunications $egulatory Dnvironment %T$D& inde0, "hich summarises stakeholders: perception on certain T$D dimensions, provides insight into ho" conducive the environment is for further development and progress. The most recent survey "as conducted in ;uly 2 3 in eight =sian countries, including 8angladesh, India, Indonesia, (ri Aanka, Maldives, 5akistan, Thailand, and the 5hilippines. The tool measured seven dimensionsJ i& market entryS ii& access to scarce resourcesS iii& interconnectionS iv& tariff regulationS v& anti9competitive practicesS and vi& universal servicesS vii& @uality of service, for the fi0ed, mobile and broadband sectors. The results for India, point out to the fact that the stakeholders perceive the T$D to be

most conducive for the mobile sector follo"ed by fi0ed and then broadband. Gther than for =ccess to (carce $esources the fi0ed sector lags behind the mobile sector. The fi0ed and mobile sectors have the highest scores for Tariff $egulation. Market entry also scores "ell for the mobile sector as competition is "ell entrenched "ith most of the circles "ith 7?+ mobile service providers. The broadband sector has the lo"est score in the aggregate. The lo" penetration of broadband of mere *.31 against the policy ob6ective of . million at then end of 2 1 clearly indicates that the regulatory environment is not very conducive.,+ In 2 !* the home ministry§ stated that legislation must ensure that la" enforcement agencies are empo"ered to intercept communications.,+!$evenue and gro"th,edit§The total revenue in the telecom service sector "as §3/12 crore§ %'(>!*.. billion& in 2 +? / as against §1!/17 crore§ %'(>!!.+ billion& in 2 7?2 +, registering a gro"th of 2!4 "ith estimated revenue of FR:2 !! of §3*+ crore§ %'(>!* million&. The total investment in the telecom services sector reached §2 // crore§ %'(>*2.! billion& in 2 +? /, up from §!133*! crore§%'(>23./ billion& in the previous fiscal.,+2Telecommunication is the lifeline of the rapidly gro"ing Information Technology industry. Internet subscriber base has risen to more than a !2! million in 2 !!.,+*- Gut of this !!.71 million "ere broadband conne0ions. More than a billion people use the Internet globally. 'nder the 8harat 2irman 5rogramme§, the Covernment of India "ill ensure that //,322 revenue villages in the country, "hich have not yet been provided "ith a Iillage 5ublic Telephone %I5T&, "ill be connected. <o"ever doubts have been raised about "hat it "ould mean for the poor in the country.,+7It is difficult to ascertain fully the employment potential of the telecom sector but the enormity of the opportunities can be gauged from the fact that there "ere *.1 million 5ublic #all Gffices in )ecember 2 +,++- up from 2.* million in )ecember 2 7. The Total $evenue of Indian Telecom (ervices company is likely to e0ceed §2 crore§ %'(>*2 billion& % '(> 77 8n appro0& for FR !!?!2 based on FR ! ?!! nos and latest @uarterly results. These are consolidated numbers including foreign operation of 8harti =irtel. The ma6or contributions to this revenue are as follo"sJ,+/B B B B B B B B =irtel§ §/+ / %'(>!, & $eliance #ommunications§ §*!7/3 %'(>+ & Idea §!/.*/ %'(>21 & Tata #ommunications §!!.*! %'(>!. & MT2A §7*3 %'(>1 & TTMA §2273 %'(>*/& 8(2A §*2 7+ %'(>+! & Iodafone India§ §!3*1/ %'(>2. &


TataTeleservice§ §.2 %'(>!+ & =ircel §1./3 %'(>!* & ((TA §/ %'(>../ & 'ninor §// %'(>!!& Aoop §+/ %'(>.. & (tel §/ %./W '(& <F#A §2 7 %'(>*.* & Iideocon Telecom §2+7 %'(>7.! & )8 DtisalatN =llianM §71 %1+W '(& Crand Total §2 !..1 crore§ %'(>*2 billion&

International,edit§B 2ine satellite earth stations ? 3 Intelsat§ %Indian Gcean& and ! Inmarsat§ %Indian Gcean region&.Micro"ave§ B 2ine gate"ay e0changes operating from Mumbai§, 2e" )elhi, Folkata§, #hennai§, ;alandhar§, Fanpur§, Candhinagar§, <yderabad§ and Drnakulam§. (ubmarine cables,edit§B AG#GM§ linking #hennai to 5enang§, Malaysia B India9'=Dcable§ linking Mumbai§ to =l Fu6ayrah§, '=D. B (D=9MD9WD 2§ %(outh Dast =sia9Middle Dast9Western Durope 2& B (D=9MD9WD *§ %(outh Dast =sia9Middle Dast9Western Durope *& ? Aanding sites at #ochin§ and Mumbai§. #apacity of ./ CbitNs. B (D=9MD9WD 7§ %(outh Dast =sia9Middle Dast9Western Durope 7& ? Aanding sites at Mumbai§ and #hennai§. #apacity of !.23 TbitNs. B Fibre9Gptic Aink =round the Clobe§ %FA=C9FD=& "ith a landing site at Mumbai %2 &. Initial design capacity ! CbitNs, upgraded in 2 2 to 3 CbitNs, upgraded to over ! TbitNs %2 +&. B TII(#(§ %Tata Indicom India9(ingapore #able (ystem&, also kno"n as TI# %Tata Indicom #able&, #hennai to (ingapore. #apacity of +.!2 TbitNs. B i2i§ ? #hennai to (ingapore. #apacity of 3.7 TbitNs. B (D=#GM§ From Mumbai to the Mediterranean, via (outh =frica. It currently 6oins "ith (D=9MD9WD 7§ off the "est coast of (pain to carry traffic on"ard to Aondon %2 .&. #apacity of !.23 TbitNs. B I9MD9WD§ %India9Middle Dast9Western Durope& "ith t"o landing sites at Mumbai %2 .&. #apacity of *.37 TbitNs. B DIC§ %Durope9India Cate"ay&, landing at Mumbai %due U2 2 ! &. B MD2=§ %Middle Dast 2orth =frica&. B TC29Durasia§ %=nnounced& Aanding at Mumbai %due 2 ! V&, #apacity of !.23

TbitNs B TC29Culf§ %=nnounced& Aanding at Mumbai %due 2 !!V&, #apacity 'nkno"n. (ee also,edit§B B B B B T$=I§ Indian Telecommunication (ervice§ Aist of Indian "ireless communications service providers§ Telecommunications (tatistics in India§ Mobile phone industry in India§

$eferences,edit§! 2 P ;ump up toJa§ b§ c§ Telecom India§, ImaginMor P ;ump up toJ§

Aist of Telecom #ompanies in India = =ircel #ellular Aimited§ =ish"arya Telecom Atd§ =ksh Gptifibre Atd.§ =nco #ommunications Atd.§ =stra Micro"ave 5roducts Atd.§ =vaya Clobalconnect Atd§ 8 8hagyanagar India Atd.§ 8harti =irtel§8harti Teletech§8irla Dricsson Gptical Atd.§ # #able #orporation of India Atd.§#MI Atd.§#ybele Industries Atd.§ ) )elton #ables Atd.§)hanus Technologies Atd.§ D Dider Infotech Atd.§Dricsson§Dsskay Telecom Atd.§ F F#I GD2 #onnectors Atd.§Finole0 #ables Atd.§

C Cemini #ommunications Atd.§Coldstone Infratech Atd§C$ #ables Atd.§CTA Infrastructure Atd.§Cu6arat Gptical #ommunication Atd.§ < <artron #ommunications Atd.§<ath"ay 8ha"ani #abletel L )atacom Atd§<F#A Infotel Atd§<imachal Futuristic #ommunications Atd.§<industan #ables Atd.§ I Idea #ellular Atd.§Intergrated )igital Info (ervices Atd§ITI Atd§ITI Atd.§ F Faleidoscope Films Atd§Favveri Telecom 5roducts Atd.§Frone #ommunications Atd.§ M Mahanagar Telephone 2igam Atd§MI# Dlectronics Atd.§Mobile Tele #ommunications Atd§Motorola§M5 Telelinks Atd.§Munoth #ommunication Atd§ 2 2elco Atd.§2okia India§2okia (iemens 2et"orks§2ortel§2u Tek India Atd§ G Gptel Tecommunications Atd§ 5 5aramount #ommunications Atd.§5recision Dlectronics Atd.§5un6ab #ommunications Atd.§ U Uualcomm India§

$ $eliance #ommunications Atd.§$5C #ables Atd§ ( (hyam Telecom Atd§(outhern Gnline 8io Technologies Atd§(pice #ommunications Atd.§(pice Mobiles Atd§(terlite Technologies Atd.§(u6ana To"ers Atd§(urana Telecom L 5o"er Atd§(urana Telecom Atd.§ T Tamilnadu Telecommunications Atd§Tata Teleservices %Maharashtra& Atd.§Tata#ommunications Atd§Telecom $egulatory =uthority of India§Telecommunications #onsultants India Atd.§Telephone #ables Atd.§Telephone #ables Atd.§Tulip Telecom Atd§ I Ialiant #ommunications Atd.§Iidesh (anchar 2igam Atd.§Iindhya Telelinks Atd§Iodafone Croup 5lc§ Q QA Telecom L Dnergy Atd.§

#GM5=2R 5$GFIADJ 8harti =irtel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8harti =irtel Aimited § Type§ Traded as§ Industry Founded Founder%s& <ead@uarters =rea served Fey people 5roducts $evenue Gperating income§ 5ublic§ 8(D§J +*27+7§2(D§J 8<=$TI=$TA§ 8(D (D2(DQ #onstituent§ Telecommunications§ 1 ;uly !..+,!(unil 8harti Mittal§ 8harti #rescent, !, 2elson Mandela $oad§, 2e" )elhi, India,!(outh =sia§, =frica§, and the#hannel Islands§ (unil 8harti Mittal§ %#hairman and M)§& Fi0ed line§ and mobile telephony§,broadband§ and fi0ed9line internet services, digital television§ and I5TI§ I2$§ 7!..*! billion %2 !2&,2!*1.+3 billion %2 !2&,2-

5rofit§ Total assets§ Total e@uity§ Dmployees 5arent§


million %2 !2&,2-

/*+.+. billion %2 !2&,2!3..3 billion %2 !2&,22!,2.. %2 !2&,28harti Dnterprises§ %+2.14&,*-,7(ingTel§ %!+.+14&,*-,7Iodafone§ %7.74& =irtel =frica§ =irtel )igital TI§ =irtel (ri Aanka§ =irtel 8angladesh§ """§



8harti =irtel Aimited, commonly kno"n as =irtel, is an Indian multinational telecommunications§ services company head@uartered in 2e" )elhi, India§. It operates in 2 countries across (outh =sia§, =frica§, and the #hannel Islands§. =irtel has a C(M net"ork§ in all countries in "hich it operates, providing 2C§, *C§ and 7C§ services depending upon the country of operation. =irtel is the "orld:s third largest§ mobile telecommunications company by subscribers, "ith over 21+ million subscribers across 2 countries as of ;uly 2 !*.,+- It is the largest cellular service provider§ in India, "ith !.2.22 million subscribers as of =ugust 2 !*.,/- =irtel is the third largest in9country mobile operator by subscriber base, behind #hina Mobile§ and #hina 'nicom§. =irtel is the largest provider of mobile telephony§ and second largest provider of fi0ed telephony§ in India, and is also a provider of broadband§ andsubscription television§ services. It offers its telecom services under the HairtelH brand, and is headed by (unil 8harti Mittal. 8harti =irtel is the first Indian telecom service provider to achieve #isco§ Cold #ertification.,1- It also acts as a carrier for national and international long distance communication services. The company has a submarine cable landing station at #hennai, "hich connects the submarine cable connecting #hennai§and (ingapore. =irtel is credited "ith pioneering the business strategy of outsourcing§ all of its business operations e0cept marketing, sales and finance and building the :minutes factory: model of lo" cost and high volumes. The strategy has since been copied by several operators.,3- Its net"orkKbase stations, micro"ave links, etc.Kis maintained by Dricsson§ and 2okia (iemens 2et"ork§,.- "hereas IT support is provided by I8M§,,! and transmission to"ers are maintained by another company %8harti Infratel Atd. in India&.,!!- Dricsson agreed for the first time to be paid by the minute for installation and maintenance of their e@uipment rather than being paid up front, "hich allo"ed =irtel to provide lo" call rates of !Nminute %'(> . 2Nminute&.,!2- )uring the last financial year

%2 .?! &, 8harti negotiated for its strategic partner =lcatel9Aucent§ to manage the net"ork infrastructure for the tele9media business. Gn *! May 2 !2, 8harti =irtel a"arded the three9year contract to =lcatel9Aucent§ for setting up an Internet 5rotocol§ access net"ork %mobile backhaul& across the country. This "ould help consumers access internet at faster speed and high @uality internet bro"sing on mobile handsets.,!*#ontents ,hide§B B B ! <istory§ 2 #orporate (tructure§ * World"ide presence§

7 Mobile (ervices§ ! 2 * 7 + / 1 7.! *C§ 7.2 7C§ 7.* WiFi§ 7.7 airtel Money§ 7.+ (mart)rive§ 7./ 2et"ork D0perience #entre§ 7.1 i5hone§ B + Telemedia§ B / )igital Television§

1 Dnterprise§ ! 2 * 1.! Mobile data service§ 1.2 Dnterprise business solutions§ 1.* =ndroid9based tablet§

3 International Gperations§ 7 + / 1 3.! =frica§ 3.2 8angladesh§ 3.* (ri Aanka§ 3.7 #hannel IslandsJ ;ersey and Cuernsey§

. (ubscriber 8ase§ 3 ..! India§


! Gne 2et"ork§

!! =c@uisitions and mergers§ ! 2 * 7 !!.! MT2 Croup merger negotiations§ !!.2 Tain§ !!.* Telecom (eychelles§ !!.7 Wireless 8usiness (ervices 5rivate Aimited§

!2 ;oint Ientures§ + !2.! =irtel9Dricsson§ B !* $ebranding§ B !7 (ponsorship§ B !+ (ignature Tune§ B !/ Creen Initiative§ B !1 Timeline§ B !3 (ee also§ B !. $eferences§ B 2 D0ternal links§



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(unil 8harti Mittal founded the 8harti Croup. In !.3*, Mittal "as in an agreement "ith Cermany:s (iemens to manufacture push9button telephone models for the Indian market. In !.3/, Mittal incorporated 8harti Telecom Aimited %8TA&, and his company became the first in India to offer push9button telephones, establishing the basis of 8harti Dnterprises. 8y the early !.. s, (unil Mittal had also launched the country:s first fa0 machines and its first cordless telephones. In !..2, Mittal "on a bid to build a cellular phone net"ork in )elhi. In !..+, Mittal incorporated the cellular operations as 8harti Tele9Ientures and launched service in )elhi. In !../, cellular service "as e0tended to <imachal 5radesh. In !..., 8harti Dnterprises ac@uired control of ;T <oldings, and e0tended cellular operations to Farnataka and =ndhra 5radesh. In 2 , 8harti ac@uired control of (kycell #ommunications, in #hennai. In 2 !, the company ac@uired control of (pice #ell in #alcutta. 8harti Dnterprises "ent public in 2 2, and the company "as listed on 8ombay (tock D0change and 2ational (tock D0change of India. In 2 *, the cellular phone operations "ere rebranded under the single =irtel brand. In 2 7, 8harti ac@uired control of <e0acom and entered $a6asthan. In 2 +, 8harti e0tended its net"ork to =ndaman and

2icobar. This e0pansion allo"ed it to offer voice services all across India. In 2 ., =irtel launched its first international mobile net"ork in (ri Aanka. In 2 ! , =irtel ac@uired the =frican operations of the Fu"ait based Tain§Telecom. In March 2 !2, =irtel launched a mobile operation in $"anda. ,!7§ § =irtel #entre, Curgaon =irtel launched H<ello TunesH, a #aller ring back tone service %#$8T&, in ;uly 2 7 becoming to the first operator in India to do so. The =irtel theme song, composed by =.$. $ahman, "as the most popular tune on that year.,!+Gn 2/ February 2 !*, =irtel announced that it had deployed Dricsson§Xs Mobile 8roadband #harging %M8#& solution and completely moderniMed its prepaid services for its subscribers in India. =s a part of the deal, DricssonXs multi service M8# suite allo"s prepaid customers to have personaliMed profile based data charging plans. 5repaid customers "ill be able to customiMe their data plans across mobility, fi0ed line and broadband by cross bundling across multiple domains %2C, *C, 7CNATD L Wi9Fi&. It "ill also offer fle0ible multi service charging in geographical redundant mode, making =irtel the first operator to implement geographical redundancy at such a large scale.,!/- In May 2 !*, 8harti Infotel paid $s + , as compensation to a customer Hfor unfair trade practicesH. The customer alleged that the company continued to aggressively demand payment despite customer re@uests for disconnection of service.,!1#orporate (tructure,edit§-


This section does not cite§ any references or sources§. 5lease help improve this sources§. 'nsourced material may be challenged and removed§. %Gctober 2 !2

=irtel:s initial corporate structure concentrated on the hierarchy of the operations inside the company as a "hole. The structure depicted the corresponding operationNregion of different in9charges and it didn:t hold anyone responsible for each of its services. (o, the company found it better to restructure its corporate hierarchy. The transformed organisational structure has t"o distinct #ustomer 8usiness 'nits %#8'& "ith clear focus on 82#§ %8usiness to #ustomer& and 828§ %8usiness to 8usiness& segments. 8harti =irtel:s 82# business unit "ill comprehensively service the retail consumers, homes and small offices, by combining the erst"hile business units 9 Mobile, Telemedia, )igital TI, and other emerging businesses %like M9commerce, M9health, M9advertising etc.&. The 82# organiMation "ill consist of #onsumer 8usiness and Market Gperations. World"ide presence,edit§-

§ § #overage map of 8harti =irtel across 2 countries =irtel is the one of the largest mobile operator in the "orld in terms of subscriber base and has a commercial presence in 2 countries and the #hannel Islands§. Its area of operations includeJ B The Indian (ubcontinent§J ! =irtel 8angladesh§, in 8angladesh 2 =irtel, in India * =irtel (ri Aanka§, in (ri Aanka B =irtel =frica§, "hich operates in !1 =frican countriesJ ! 8urkina Faso, #had, )emocratic $epublic of the #ongo, $epublic of the #ongo, Cabon, Chana, Fenya, Madagascar, Mala"i, 2iger, 2igeria, $"anda, (eychelles, (ierra Aeone, TanMania, 'ganda and Tambia. B The 8ritish #ro"n )ependency§ islands of ;ersey and Cuernsey, under the brand name =irtel9Iodafone§, through an agreement "ith Iodafone§. =irtel operates in the follo"ing countriesJ #ountry 8angladesh 8urkina Faso #had )emocratic the #ongo Cabon Chana India $epublic of (ite =irtel 8angladesh§ =irtel 8urkina Faso§ =irtel #had§ =irtel )$#§ =irtel Cabon§ =irtel Chana§ =irtel§ $emarks

=irtel 8angladesh had about 3 million customers as on ( =irtel 8urkina Faso is the dominant player "ith !,7**, market share.,!.-

=irtel #had is the Y! operator "ith /.4 market share.,!

=irtel is the market leader "ith almost + million custom needed=irtel Cabon has 32.,

customers and its market shar

=irtel Chana had about !.1/ million customers at the en

=irtel is the market leader "ith almost !.*.7 million cu

Fenya Madagascar Mala"i 2iger 2igeria $epublic of $"anda (eychelles (ierra Aeone (ri Aanka TanMania 'ganda Tambia #hannel ;ersey Cuernsey Islands§Z J the #ongo

=irtel Fenya§ =irtel Madagascar§ =irtel Mala"i§ =irtel 2iger§ =irtel 2igeria§ =irtel $"anda§ =irtel (eychelles§

=irtel Fenya is the second largest operator and has 7 mi =irtel holds second place in the mobile telecom market share and over !.7 million customers.,!.-

=irtel Mala"i is the market leader "ith a market share o

=irtel 2iger is the market leader "ith a /34 market sha

=irtel #ongo 8§ =irtel #ongo is the market leader "ith a ++4 market sh

=irtel launched services in $"anda on * March 2 !2.,

=irtel is the leading comprehensive telecommunications market share of mobile market in (eychelles.,2+-

=irtel (ierra Aeone§ =irtel (ri Aanka§

=irtel (ri Aanka commenced operations on !2 ;anuary 2 mobile customers at the end of 2 ! .,2!-

=irtel TanMania§ =irtel TanMania is the market leader "ith a *34 market =irtel 'ganda§ =irtel Tambia§ =irtel Iodafone§

=irtel 'ganda stands as the Y2 operator "ith a market s

=irtel Tambia is the market leader "ith /.4 market sha

=irtel operates in the #hannel Islands under the brand n agreement "ith Iodafone.

Z;ersey and Cuernsey are 8ritish #ro"n )ependencies. They are not independent countries. Therefore, =irtel:s countries of operation is considered to be 2 . Mobile (ervices,edit§=irtel operates in all telecom circles of India. Its net"ork is present in +,!2! census to"ns and 7+1, +* non9census to"ns and villages, covering appro0imately 3/./4 of the countryXs population as of (eptember 2 !2.,2/- =irtel is the largest operator in rural India "ith 3*.32 million subscribers as of =pril 2 !*.,21=irtel is the /th most valued brand according to an annual survey conducted by 8rand Finance§ and The Dconomic Times§ in 2 ! .,23-,2.*C,edit§Gn !3 May 2 ! , the *C spectrum auction§ "as completed and =irtel paid the Indian government §!22..+ billion %'(>2. billion& for spectrum in !* circles, the most amount spent by an operator in that auction. =irtel "on *C licences in !* telecom circles of IndiaJ )elhi§, Mumbai§, =ndhra 5radesh§, Farnataka§, Tamil 2adu§, 'ttar 5radesh %West&§, $a6asthan, West 8engal§, <imachal 5radesh,8ihar§, =ssam, 2orth Dast§, and ;ammu L

Fashmir§.,* - =irtel also operates *C services in Maharastra§ L Coa§ and Folkata§ circles through an agreement "ith Iodafone§ and in Cu6arat§ through an agreement "ith Idea§. This gives =irtel a *C presence in !+ out of 22 circles in India. =irtel is fined by )oT *+ #rores for not stopping offering *C (ervices through $oaming 5acts outside its Aicensed Tones in (even #ircles. Gn 2 (eptember 2 ! , 8harti =irtel said that it had given contracts to Dricsson India§, 2okia (iemens 2et"orks§ %2(2& and <ua"ei Technologies§ to set up infrastructure for providing *C services in the country. These vendors "ould plan, design, deploy and maintain *C?<(5= %third generation, high speed packet access& net"orks in !* telecom circles "here the company had "on *C licences. While =irtel a"arded net"ork contracts for seven *C circles to Dricsson India, 2(2 "ould manage net"orks in three circles. #hinese telecom e@uipment vendor <ua"ei§ Technologies "as introduced as the third partner for three circles.,*!Gn 27 ;anuary 2 !!, =irtel launched *C services in 8angalore§, Farnataka K its largest circle by revenue. With this launch, =irtel became the third private operator %fifth overall& to launch its *C services in the country follo"ing Tata )ocomo§ and $eliance #ommunications§.,*2- Gn 21 ;anuary 2 !!, =irtel launched *C in #hennai§ and #oimbatore§ in Tamil 2adu§. Gn 21 ;uly 2 !!, *C services "ere launched in Ferala§:s * largest cities 9 Fochi§, FoMhikode§ and Thiruvananthapuram§.,**=irtel *C services are available in 2 cities through its net"ork and in + cities through intra9circle roaming arrangements "ith other operators. =irtel had about +.7 million *C customers of "hich 7 million are *C data customers as of (eptember 2 !2.,2/7C,edit§Gn !. May 2 ! , the broadband "ireless access %8W=& or 7C§ spectrum auction in India§ ended. =irtel paid §**.!7*/ billion %'(>+* million& for spectrum in 7 circlesJ Maharashtra§ and Coa§,Farnataka§, 5un6ab§ and Folkata§.,*7- The company "as allocated 2 M<M of 8W= spectrum in 2.* C<M fre@uency band. =irtel:s T)9ATD§ net"ork is built and operated by TTD§ in Folkata§ and5un6ab§, <ua"ei§ in Farnataka, and 2okia (iemens 2et"orks§ in Maharashtra and Coa.,*+- Gn ! =pril 2 !2, =irtel launched 7C services using T)9ATD§ technology in Folkata, becoming the first company in India to offer 7C services. The Folkata launch "as follo"ed by launches in 8angalore§ %1 May 2 !2&,,*/- 5une§ %!3 Gctober 2 !2&,,*1- and #handigarh§, Mohali§ and 5anchkula§ %2+ March 2 !*&.,*3=irtel plans to provide voice services for its T)9ATD subscribers through its e0isting C(M net"ork, "hich "ould make it the only operator in India to combine voice "ith T)9ATD services through C(M net"ork. =irtel selected 2okia (iemens 2et"orks to deploy its #ircuit ("itched§ Fall8ack %#(F8& voice solution in =irtelXs T)9ATD net"ork in 5une. With #(F8, the net"ork can transfer customers to C(M platform to make and receive voice calls "hile retaining the T)9ATD net"ork for data services.,*.- In

)ecember 2 !* 8harti =irtel announced that it is ready to introduce much9a"aited voice calling facility on its e0isting 7C ATD net"ork in 8angalore.,7 =irtel had 2 , 7C subscribers as of March 2 !*.,7!=irtel obtained 7C licences and spectrum in the telecom circles of )elhi, <aryana, Ferala and Mumbai after ac@uiring Wireless 8usiness (ervices 5rivate Aimited, a 6oint venture founded by Uualcomm, "hich had "on 8W= spectrum in those circles in the 7C spectrum auction.,72WiFi,edit§=irtel has plans to launch WiFi§ services in India. It intends to start offering WiFi services in )elhi 2#$, Mumbai and 8angalore in initial phase. =ll plans "ill be on secure "ireless broadband internet "ith unlimited usage and "ill be session or time based. 'sers can use the service by finding a hotspot§, selecting :airtel WiFi Tone:, activating the voucher and then login to start bro"sing. =irtel intends to partner "ith establishments to set up hotspots "hich "ill be termed WiFi <angout for an establishment o"ner and WiFi 5artner for the cafe and restaurant o"ners. =irtel WiFi 5artners can offer services at Mero investments and can earn commission on every WiFi session sold.,7*airtel Money,edit§=irtel has started a ne" m#ommerce§ platform called =irtel Money in collaboration "ith Infosys and (martTrust %no" Ciesecke L )evrient&. The platform "as launched on + =pril 2 !2, at Infosys: head@uarters in 8angalore. 'sing =irtel Money, users can transfer money, pay bills and perform other financial transactions directly on the mobile phone. ,77(mart)rive,edit§(mart)rive is navigation app e0clusive to =irtel customers. The app features voice9based turn by turn navigation§, real time information update on traffic, appro0imate time of the travel on the basis of the traffic situation on the various routes and also lets users see their location on the map and plan the 6ourney accordingly. It also suggests the subscriber an alternate route in case of traffic congestion on the normal route. =ccording to =irtel, (mart)rive calculates the traffic on the basis of the number of C5( devices§ used on a particular road, their average speed, as "ell as historical trends of traffic on that route. (mart)rive also allo"s users to search for points of interest like restaurants, theatres and shopping malls. The app also allo"s users to keep a record of all trips they make "hen using voice navigation for later reference through the :Trip $ecorder: feature, Wikipedia information of places for "hich information is available and the ability to add fre@uently visited locations to favorites, in addition to "eather information about the place. =irtel "ill offer navigation at ! per day or .. per month. Aive traffic "ill be cost * per

day or 7. per month. (earch and map vie"er are available for free. The costs do not include data charges. =irtel states in (mart)rive:s F=U§ that data is only used "hen the user performs searches or calculates routes. The app is developed by Wisepilot§, a mobile navigation solutions provider and uses 2avte@§ Maps for location and traffic info.,7+- It "as launched on !2 (eptember 2 !2. ,7/- =t the time of launch, it "as available only in 8angalore§, Mumbai§ and 2#$§.,71(ervices are currently available in #hennai§.,73- (ervice "ill be e0panded to 5une and <yderabad by )ecember 2 !2. 2et"ork D0perience #entre,edit§=irtel has a 2et"ork D0perience #entre %2D#& "hich observes end to end customer e0perience, in near real time, along "ith the standard net"ork elements on =irtel:s operations. The 2D# is located in Manesar§, <aryana§ and "ent live on *! Gctober 2 !2. It is the first such facility in India and "ill be able to monitor =irtel:s net"ork performance across mobile, fi0ed line, broadband,)T<§, M9#ommerce§, enterprise services, International #able (ystems§ and internet peering points from a single location. It "ill monitor all =irtel and partner 2G#s. In case of an emergency, the 2D# "ill enable the operator to prioritiMe actions to restore normalcy and reduce resolution time. The 2D# houses a video "all§ "ith */ s@uare feet of solid state AD) screen§ to monitor =irtel:s telecom net"ork. This is the "orld:s biggest video "all for a telecom operator. Dach cube in this "all is !./m0!.2 m and there are !1+ cubes arranged in a 2+01 matri0.,7.- The clear span of the roof is 7. m 0 !3 m and the beams, "hich are fireproof and about 3 feet deep, have been specially designed to hold the structure "ithout columns. The 2D# "as designed specifically to be used as a command center in case of national emergencies and natural catastrophes. The facility is earth@uake proof and also provides for a single control of command and a fully redundant technology layout.,+ i5hone,edit§The i5hone *C§ "as rolled out in India in 2 3 by =irtel. <o"ever, high prices and contract bonds discouraged consumers and it "as not as successful as the i5hone§ is in other markets of the "orld. =irtel introduced the i5hone 7§ on 21 May 2 !! and the i5hone +§ on 2 2ovember 2 !2.,+!Telemedia,edit§§ § =irtel 8roadband 8locking T58§ 'nder the Telemedia

segment, =irtel provides broadband internet access through )(A, internet leased lines as "ell as M5A( %multiprotocol label s"itching& solutions, as "ell as I5TI§ and fi0ed line telephone services. 'ntil !3 (eptember 2 7, 8harti provided fi0ed line telephony and broadband services under the Touchtel brand. 8harti no" provides all telecom services including fi0ed line services under a common brand airtel. =s of (eptember 2 !2, =irtel provides Telemedia services to *.* million customers in 31 cities.,2/- =s on * 2ovember 2 !2, =irtel had !.*. million broadband subscribers.,+2=irtel 8roadband provides broadband and I5TI§ services. =irtel provides both capped as "ell as unlimited do"nload plans. <o"ever, =irtel:s unlimited plans are sub6ect to free usage policy %F'5&, "hich reduces speed after the customer crosses a certain data usage limit. In some plans, =irtel provides only 2+/kbitNs beyond F'5, "hich is lo"er than the T$=I specified limit of half the subscriber:s original speed.,+*-,+7- The ma0imum speed available for home users is !/MbitNs. In May 2 !2, =irtel 8roadband and some other Indian I(5s temporarily blocked file sharing "ebsites such as vimeo§.com§,§ etc. "ith out giving any legal information to the customers. The block "as due to a Madras <igh #ourt§ issued [;ohn )oeX order taken by #hennai9based #opyright Aab.,++- In response to a petition filed by Iinay 8, a resident of (himoga§, Farnataka§, the )istrict #onsumer )isputes $edressal Forum ordered =irtel to pay 2 , to the petitioner for Hdeficiency in internet serviceH thereby causing mental agony to the complainant. H8y misinterpreting the Madras <igh #ourt order, =irtel blocked entire "ebsites. It is needless to say that the companyXs actions amount to deficiency in service as "ell as unfair trade practice,H said the forum.,+/-,+1)igital Television,edit§Main articleJ =irtel digital TI§ The )igital TI business provides )irect9to9<ome %)T<& TI services across India under the brand name =irtel digital TI§. It started services on . Gctober 2 3 and had about 1.. million customers at the end of )ecember 2 !2.,+3Dnterprise,edit§The Dnterprise business provides end9to9end telecom solutions§ to corporate customers and national and international long distance services to telcos through its nation"ide fiber optic backbone, last mile connectivity in fi0ed9line and mobile circles, I(=Ts, I(5 and international band"idth access through the gate"ays and landing stations. It has t"o sections under it. Mobile data service,edit§The different services under mobile data are 8lack8erry services, a "eb9enabled mobile email solution "orking on :5ush Technology:, '(8 modem that helps in getting instant

access to Internet and corporate applications, =irtel )ata #ard that gives the liberty to access the internet anytime, Dasy Mail is a platform that provides access to personalNcorporate e9mails independent of handset operating system and application services that shorten the @ueues at the billing section, off9load the pressure on the billing staff and bring convenience to the user. Dnterprise business solutions,edit§There are t"o kind of solutions offered by =irtel. Gne is C5$( 8ased (olutions like mobile applications tools for enterprise, TrackMate, automatic meter reading solutions etc. and the other is (M( 8ased (olutions like interactive sms, bulk sms, inbound call center solutions. =ndroid9based tablet,edit§8eetel Teletech Atd., a unit of 8harti Dnterprises Atd., on !3 =ugust launched a .,... %>22 & 19inch tablet in India based on Coogle Inc.:s =ndroid operating system. The offering is intended to capitaliMe on the e0pected demand for cheap computing devices in the "orld:s fastest9gro"ing and second9largest mobile phone market.,+.International Gperations,edit§=frica,edit§Main articleJ =irtel =frica§ =irtel =frica is a subsidiary of Indian telecommunications company =irtel, that operates in !1 countries across =frica§. It operates a C(M§ net"ork in all countries, providing 2C§ or *C§ depending upon the country of operation In March 2 ! , 8harti§ struck a deal to buy the Fu"aiti firm:s mobile operations in !+ =frican countries, in India:s second biggest overseas ac@uisition after Tata (teel:s >!* billion buy of #orus in 2 1. 8harti =irtel completed its >. billion ac@uisition of =frican operations from Fu"ait:s Tain§, making the firm the "orld:s 2o. + "ireless carrier by subscribers. Gn !! =ugust 2 ! , 8harti =irtel announced that it "ould ac@uire a ! 4 stake in Telecom (eychelles§ for '(>/2 million taking its global presence to !. countries. Telecom (eychelles began operations in !..3 and operates *C, Fi0ed Aine, ship to shore services satellite telephony, among value added services like I(=T and Cate"ays for International Traffic across the (eychelles under the =irtel brand. The company has over +14 share of the mobile market of (eychelles§.,/ - =irtel announced plans to invest '(>! million in its fi0ed and mobile telecoms net"ork in the (eychelles over three years, "hilst also participating in the (eychelles Dast =frica submarine cable %(D=(& pro6ect. The '(>*7 million (D=( pro6ect is aimed at improving the (eychellesX global connectivity by building a 2, km undersea high speed link to )ar es (alaam in TanMania.,/!-

8angladesh,edit§Main articleJ =irtel 8angladesh§ =irtel 8angladesh Atd. is a C(M§9based cellular operator in 8angladesh§. =irtel is the si0th mobile phone carrier to enter the 8angladesh market, and originally launched commercial operations under the brand name HWarid TelecomH on May ! , 2 1. Warid Telecom International AA#§, an =bu )habi§ based consortium§, sold a ma6ority 1 4 stake in the company to India§:s 8harti =irtel Aimited for '(>* million.,/28harti =irtel made a fresh investment of '(>* million to rapidly e0pand the operations of Warid Telecom and have management and board control of the company. This is the largest investment in 8angladesh by an Indian company. )habi Croup continues as a strategic partner retaining * 4 shareholding and has its nominees on the 8oard of the #ompany. (ri Aanka,edit§Main articleJ 8harti =irtel Aanka§ 8harti =irtel Aanka %5vt& Atd is a subsidiary of 8harti =irtel Aimited, the third largest mobile operator in the "orld§, "ith over 27 million mobile customers as of )ecember 2 !!.,/*- 8harti =irtel has been featured in Forbes =sia:s Fab + list, rated amongst the best performing companies in the "orld in the 8usinessWeek IT ! list 2 1, and voted as India:s most innovative company in a survey by The Wall (treet ;ournal§ =irtel Aanka commenced commercial operations of services on !* ;anuary 2 .. Cranted a licence in 2 1 in accordance "ith the (ri Aanka Telecommunications =ct 2o. 2+ of !..!, it is also a registered company under the 8oard of Investment (ri Aanka§. 'nder the license, the company provides digital mobile services to (ri Aanka. This is inclusive of voice telephony, voice mail, data services and C(M based services. =ll of these services are provided under the airtel brand. #hannel IslandsJ ;ersey and Cuernsey,edit§Main articleJ =irtel9Iodafone§ Gn ! May 2 1, ;ersey =irtel and Cuernsey =irtel, both "holly o"ned subsidiaries of the 8harti Croup§, announced they "ould launch mobile services in the 8ritish #ro"n )ependency§ islands of;ersey§ and Cuernsey§,/7-,/+- under the brand name =irtel9 Iodafone§ after signing an agreement "ith Iodafone§. =irtel9Iodafone operates a *C net"ork in ;ersey and Cuernsey. (ubscriber 8ase,edit§8harti =irtel has about 27*.**/ million subscribers "orld"ideK2*2..+ million in India and (outh =sia and + ..7. million in =frica as of the end of )ecember 2 !!. The

numbers include mobile services subscribers in !. countries and Indian Telemedia services and )igital services subscribers.,+India,edit§The =irtel "ireless subscriber base according to Telecom $egulatory =uthority of India %T$=I& as of 2ovember 2 !2 "asJ Metros B B B B )elhi§ ? .,! +,1!3 Mumbai§ ? *,+3,1 / Folkata§ ? *,/ /,/!/ #hennai§ ? *,723,2.*

H=H #ircle B B B B B =ndhra 5radesh§ ? !3, 7!,. 7 Cu6arat§ ? /,.21,7+. Farnataka§ ? !/, 77,./7 Maharashtra§ ? .,37.,.1* Tamil 2adu§ ? ! , .7,2.*

H8H #ircle B B B B B B B B <aryana§ ? 2,2/1,!// Ferala§ ? *,*.*,3/3 Madhya 5radesh§ ? .,/1+,2*. 5un6ab§ ? /,3+!,**3 $a6asthan§ ? !7,*3+,1/2 'ttar 5radesh§ %Dast& ? !+,! +,7++ 'ttar 5radesh§ %West& ? /,++/, +2 West 8engal§ ? ., 37,*1!

H#H #ircle B B B B B B =ssam§ ? *,3 .,2!3 8ihar§ ? !3,+21,7/ <imachal 5radesh§ ? !,.!+,7 + ;ammu and Fashmir§ ? 2,* ,2/3 2orth Dast India§ %e0cluding =ssam& ? 2,++!,!*7 Grissa§ ? /,/./,/3!

=irtel is the market leader in India "ith about !3* million "ireless subscribers in India or about 2 ./24 market share at the end of 2ovember 2 !2. In 2 !* version of the The 8rand Trust $eport§published by Trust $esearch =dvisory, =irtel is placed as the most trusted mobile operator brand in India. Gne 2et"ork,edit§Gne 2et"ork is a borderless mobile phone net"ork across all =irtel operating countries "hich enables customers to move freely bet"een the countries in "hich =irtel operates, and be treated as HvirtualH local customers of the visited net"ork in terms of pricing, "hile retaining their home net"ork service functionality. It is the "orldXs first free intercontinental incoming roaming service. =irtel customers in =frica not need to register for the Gne 2et"ork service or buy ne" (IM cards as the is enabled automatically. Gne 2et"ork allo"s customers traveling to Gne 2et"ork countries to make outgoing callsN(M( at the same rates as local customers and recharge "ith local top9up cards or "ith home net"ork top up cards "hile using the same number and (IM. $eceiving incoming calls is free.,//=irtel offers the service currently to its =frica customers traveling to any of the follo"ing 21 countries. In 3 of these countries, the Gne 2et"ork is operated in partnership "ith other mobile operators. =irtel plans to e0tend the service to its (outh =sia customers soon. (. 2o. ! 2 * 7 + / 1 3 . ! !! !2 !* 8urkina Faso 8angladesh #had #hannels IslandsJ ;ersey and Cuernsey )emocratic $epublic of the #ongo Cabon Chana India Fenya Madagascar Mala"i 2iger 2igeria #ountry 2et"ork =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel

!7 !+ !/ !1 !3 !. 2 2! 22 2* 27 2+ 2/ 21

$epublic of the #ongo (ierra Aeone (eychelles (ri Aanka TanMania 'ganda 8ahrain Ira@ ;ordan Fu"ait (audi =rabia (udan (outh =frica Dgypt

=irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel =irtel Tain Tain Tain Tain Tain Tain§ #ell #§ Mobinil§

=c@uisitions and mergers,edit§MT2 Croup merger negotiations,edit§In May 2 3, it emerged that =irtel "as e0ploring the possibility of buying the MT2 Croup§, a (outh =frica§9based telecommunications company "ith operations in 2! countries in =frica and theMiddle Dast§. The Financial Times§ reported that 8harti "as considering offering '(>7+ billion for a ! 4 stake in MT2, "hich "ould be the largest overseas ac@uisition ever by an Indian firm. <o"ever, both sides emphasiMed the tentative nature of the talks. The Dconomist§ magaMine noted, HIf anything, 8harti "ould be marrying up§H, as MT2 had more subscribers, higher revenues and broader geographic coverage.,/1- <o"ever, the talks fell apart as MT2 Croup tried to reverse the negotiations by making 8harti almost a subsidiary of the ne" company.,/3In May 2 ., =irtel confirmed that it "as again in talks "ith MT2 and both companies agreed to discuss the potential transaction e0clusively by *! ;uly 2 ..,/.- =irtel said in a statement H8harti =irtel Atd is pleased to announce that it has rene"ed its effort for a significant partnership "ith MT2 CroupH.,1 - The e0clusivity period "as e0tended t"ice up to * (eptember 2 .. Talks eventually ended "ithout agreement and on * (eptember 2 ., 8harti released a statement saying that it had decided to disengage from discussions "ith the MT2 Croup "hen the e0clusivity period ended. Informa§ analyst Matthe" $eed, noted that a reported factor in the failure "as (outh =fricaXs "orry that control of MT2, "hich is perceived as a national champion, could pass into foreign hands. The (outh =frican government§ is MT2Xs biggest shareholder. 8harti said in a

statement regarding the failure, HWe hope the (outh =frican government "ill revie" its position in the future and allo" both companies an opportunity to re9engageH.,1!= solution "as proposed "here the ne" company "ould be listed on 2 stock e0changes, one in (outh =frica and one in India. <o"ever, dual9listing§ of companies is not permitted by Indian la".,12Tain,edit§In March 2 ! , 8harti§ struck a deal to buy Tain§:s mobile operations in !+ =frican countries, in India:s second biggest overseas ac@uisition after Tata (teel:s >!* billion buy of #orus in 2 1. 8harti =irtel completed its >! .1 billion ac@uisition of =frican operations from Fu"aiti firm, making the =irtel the "orld:s fifth largest "ireless carrier by subscriber base. =irtel has reported that its revenues for the fourth @uarter of 2 ! gre" by +*4 to '(>*.2 billion compared to the previous year, ne"ly ac@uired Tain =frica division contributed '(>.!! million to the total. <o"ever, net profits dropped by 7!4 from '(>71 million in 2 . to '(>2.! million 2 ! due to a '(>!33 million increase in radio spectrum charges in India and an increase of '(>! / million in debt interest.,citation neededTelecom (eychelles,edit§Gn !! =ugust 2 ! , 8harti =irtel announced that it "ould ac@uire ! 4 stake in Telecom (eychelles for '(>/2 million taking its global presence to !. countries. Telecom (eychelles began operations in !..3 and operates *C, Fi0ed Aine, ship to shore services satellite telephony, among value added services like I(=T and Cate"ays for International Traffic across the (eychelles under the =irtel brand. The company has over +14 share of the mobile market of (eychelles§.,/ - =irtel announced plans to invest '(>! million in its fi0ed and mobile telecoms net"ork in the (eychelles over three years, "hilst also participating in the (eychelles Dast =frica submarine cable %(D=(& pro6ect. The '(>*7 million (D=( pro6ect is aimed at improving the (eychellesX global connectivity by building a 2, km undersea high speed link to )ar es (alaam in TanMania.,1*Wireless 8usiness (ervices 5rivate Aimited,edit§Gn 27 May 2 !2, =irtel announced an agreement to ac@uire a 7.4 stake in Wireless 8usiness (ervices 5rivate Aimited %W8(5A& at an investment of . 1 crore %'(>!/+ million&. =irtel bought 2/4 in W8(5A from Clobal <olding #orporation and Tulip Telecom and the balance 2*4 by subscribing to fresh e@uity of Uualcomm. Clobal <olding #orporation and Tulip Telecom had bought !*4 each in the 8W= entities for '(>+1.12 million %about 2/3 crore& in 2 ! .,17-,1+-,1/-,11-,13-,1.- W8(5A "as a 6oint venture founded by Uualcomm, and held 8W= spectrum in the telecom circles of )elhi§, <aryana§, Ferala§ and Mumbai§.,3 - Uualcomm had spent '(>! billion to ac@uire 8W= spectrum in those 7 circles.,3!- The deal gave =irtel a 7C presence in 3 circles.,17,1/-,11-,13-,1.-,32- =t the time of purchasing the 8W= spectrum, Clobal <olding #orp and Tulip Telecom had a !*4 stake each in the company, "hile Uualcomm =sia 5acific

had the remaining 174 stake. Uualcomm =sia 5acific gradually reduced its stake to /.++4, "hile =irtel ac@uired a .*.7+4 stake.,3*- Gn 7 ;uly 2 !*, =irtel announced that it had ac@uired an additional 24 e@uity share capital %making its stake +!4&,37- in all the four 8W= entities of Uualcomm, thereby making them its subsidiaries.,3+- Gn !3 Gctober 2 !*, =irtel announced that it had ac@uired ! percent e@uity shares of W8(5A for an undisclosed sum,,3/-,31- making it a "holly o"ned subsidiary.

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