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Finale 2006 Update: Building and Customizing the Perfect Template: An Addendum to Finale, An Easy Guide to Music Notation An Addendum to Finale: An Easy Guide to Music Notation (Second Edition)
(Second Edition)

Building and Customizing the Perfect Template

What’s New in This PDF
• • • • Creating a new Custom Default File Changing a Default Font Creating a Part Template Creating a Score Template

This PDF is the update of the “Building and Customizing the Perfect Template” chapter from the first edition of the book. Some of the information contained in the original chapter is distributed to other chapters of the second edition. This PDF is designed to supplement that and provide some additional depth, without interrupting the flow of completing the chapter examples. In this chapter, we will discuss two similar types of Finale files. The Default file is the document used by Finale when creating new documents via the File > New > Default Document command or the Setup Wizard. A template is a Finale file that has been customized or personalized in some way, saved for reuse, and accessed via File > New > Document from Template. This PDF will give you a look at both types of files and how to customize them for your own work. When you use each will depend on your own projects. The importance of creating templates in Finale has changed since the first edition of our book, thanks to the Setup Wizard. Before the Wizard, scores had to be created manually—sometimes, a very time consuming and tedious process, and a speed-bump in the creative process. In pre-Finale 2000 versions, the transposition, staff name, page format, and text had to be entered manually for each document. With the Setup Wizard, the focus for templates is shifted to ways of personalizing files to eliminate the need to repeat the same steps in every file.

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Default Files: In The Beginning…
It begins with “default files.” There are seven default files located in the Components Folder, found in the Finale 2005 or 2006 folder. The default files are Finale files that serve as seeds for every new Finale file. The Maestro Default File was the starting point of most examples used in the book, except for chapter 11, which uses the Jazz Default File, and chapter 12, which uses a template that began as the Jazz Default File. Of the remaining five default files, one is for documents created with the Exercise Wizard, and another is for creating Finale Performance Assessment files. The rest serve as starting points for documents imported from Encore, Score, or through the SmartScore scanning software, which is used in chapter 8 (second edition). Selecting the Maestro or Jazz font on page 4 of the Setup Wizard determines which default file Finale opens and incorporates the information provided to the Wizard’s input fields.

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BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING THE PERFECT TEMPLATE

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An Addendum to Finale, An Easy Guide to Music Notation (Second Edition)

Finale names the new document Untitled #1, and subsequent documents are named Untitled #2, #3, etc., until you assign them specific names. The default file can be opened directly by using the Open command in the File menu, or by double-clicking the file. If changes are saved to the default file, those changes will be a part of all files made from that document. When and What to Customize List the elements and settings you find yourself performing in every file you create: text expressions, auto-positioning, font choices, and so on. You can then use this list to customize your Finale environment. There are many different ways to do this; some involve changing the default file, and some do not. As an example, I’ve been working on my own list and will create a new default file based on them. I’ll show you my choices and explain why I make them. Square One I will start by creating a new file, leaving my default file unchanged. This allows you to go back to the original and start again.
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1. 2.

3.

Choose File > New > Default Document, to create a new document. Choose File > Save As, and name it Custom_Default. Before saving, make sure the document is being saved in the Component Files folder in the Finale 2005 or 2006 folder. If you create multiple defaults, the file names should be more specific. Click Save.

A document does not have to be located in the Components folder to be used as the default, nor does it have to be in the Templates folder. But it is important that you know where it is so you can to move it to the current Finale folder when you upgrade. I have a separate folder in my Finale 2006 folder containing all my default files, templates, and libraries, for easy moving and backing up. Options Menu The best place to begin creating a new default file is the Options menu. Most of the settings that you’ll want to tweak are found there. Throughout the book, you have been editing settings in the Options menu, but there are a lot of controls there that we haven’t talked about yet. I’ll cover some of the more frequently used controls and settings. Note especially the Display in Concert Pitch item formerly in the Document Settings dialog and the Quantization Settings item for HyperScribe. Measurement Units I use EVPUs for my unit of measurement because they were originally the only units available and I have become used to them. Now, you can choose among six different units of measurement for anything in Finale that measures distance. The active unit is indicated by a check mark. To change the unit of measurement, just select the one you want from the submenu. My selection is: • Options > Measurement Units > EVPUs

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An Addendum to Finale, An Easy Guide to Music Notation (Second Edition)

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BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING THE PERFECT TEMPLATE

Enharmonics If you ever get annoyed with Finale for assuming accidentals are flats when you want sharps, get to know this menu well. Here, you can tell the program to assume flats or sharps, depending on the key in which you’re working. Since it only involves checking a preference, it’s easy to move back and forth as necessary. You can even create your own preferred spellings, using the bottom two menu items. Just click the buttons, and click OK. For this setting, I recommend leaving it set to Use Default Spelling for the template and making adjustments as the specific piece being entered dictates. Program Options are covered in the beginning of chapter 10 (second edition, pp. 191– 193). Document Options To set the Document Options, select Options > Document Options. This dialog box should be familiar territory by now. Click on a heading in the left column and the appropriate settings will be displayed in the dialog box. Many Finale users will barely scratch the surface of the parameter settings displayed here while others will embrace the ability to customize every little detail. Your appreciation of this flexibility may grow along with your Finale expertise. I’ll be making some changes, as well as pointing out other areas of interest.

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BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING THE PERFECT TEMPLATE

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An Addendum to Finale, An Easy Guide to Music Notation (Second Edition)

Accidentals These settings control the positioning of accidentals in relation to notes as well as to each other. This does not include the key signature positioning; those settings are further down the list under Key Signatures. For my template, I want Use Cross Layer Accidental Positioning to be checked. With this setting active, Finale will look at the accidentals present in all layers and properly position them as a group rather than layer by layer. In the example below, the A-flat is in Layer 1 and the G-flat is in Layer 2. On the left is the default positioning provided by Finale with Cross Layer Accidental Positioning unchecked. Checking the box in Document Settings will result in the position being changed as shown in the example on the right.

Barlines Select Barlines in the left column. The Barline settings are divided into two groups: All Barlines and Left Barlines. Checking Final Barline at End of Piece will automatically place a final bar on the last measure of the file. This will track any changes made to the length of the piece and change the barline to the appropriate measure. If you do not want a final barline, uncheck this box.

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I will leave Display on Single Staves unchecked unless I am using a layout in which the clef is only displayed on the top staff of each page. This type of layout is common in jazz and pop music when imitating the look of hand-copied music. The left barline is not necessary when the clef is present. Another convention used in hand-copied music is a double bar at the end of a phrase and another double bar on the left barline in the

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BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING THE PERFECT TEMPLATE

next measure. If you want this look, illustrated below, click the Default Style is Previous Measure’s Right Barline. That way you only have to enter the double bar one time in the last bar of the phrase.

The bottom section controls the line width and placement of the barlines. I am going to change the barline thickness to 1.73438 EVPUs (0.00602 inches). Over the years, I’ve noticed a change in the look of my Finale output. The default lines are thicker than earlier versions. I like the thinner lines, so I’ll change several line thickness settings in my new default document to match those of an older Finale document. Beams Select Beams in the left column. I want Finale to Beam Four Eighth Notes Together in Common Time but not to Include Rests when Beaming in Group of Four or Beam Three Eighth Notes Before/After an Eighth Rest. In the middle section of the dialog box, only Allow Rests To Float should be checked. The music example in this section’s dialog box allows you to preview the effect of the settings.

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An Addendum to Finale, An Easy Guide to Music Notation (Second Edition)

Clefs Select Clefs in the left column. Check Display Clef Only on First Staff System along with Display Barlines on Single Staves. I’m not going for the hand-copied look in this document, so I’ll leave the clef settings alone.

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Fonts Select Fonts in the left column. Fonts can be a very large part of creating a custom Finale look. There are many different serif and sans serif fonts on the market to choose from if you want to move away from Maestro, Times, or Arial. The Finale elements that support independent font choices are split into four categories: Lyrics, Text, Notation, and Chords. Each has its own popup menu with a list of subcategories. Some of the elements have an asterisk, which refers to a warning located just under the chord menu. To make a short warning long, here’s what it means: Say you enter some lyrics using the default 12 point Times, then decide you’d like to see them displayed in 12 point Arial. Changing the font here will not change the lyrics already entered, just the lyrics entered after the font is changed. Does that mean you have to enter all of them again to change the font? Of course, not. The Change Font’s plug-in will do the trick nicely. But you won’t have to go there at all if your favorite font is already set in the default document or template.

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Steps for Changing a Font I’m not going to make a lot of alterations here because you might not have the same set of fonts on your computer. However, there are a few tweaks I will make using Times and Arial. I prefer to use a text font for the numbers placed above multimeasure rests, instead of Maestro or Jazz. 1. 2. From the Notation menu, select Multimeasure Rest. The text under the menu will change to indicate the current default font, size, and style for the element selected. Click the Set Font button.

3. 4.

Select Times in the Font list, type “TI” to shortcut the scroll, and retain 24 point for the Size. Click OK. The new font and size will appear below the menu.

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I prefer the tuplet number to be a little larger than the 10 point size in the current default. 1. 2. From the Notation menu, select Tuplet. The text under the menu will change to indicate the current default font, size, and style for the element selected. Click the Set Font button.

3.

Increase the Point Size to 12, and click OK. The new size is now indicated in the dialog box.

I want to give the chord symbols a different font to distinguish them from the Lyrics fonts. Since the Lyrics use a serif font, I’ll change the Chord Symbol and Suffix fonts to a sans serif font. It’s a subtle difference for when the two are in close quarters, which happens frequently in lead sheets.
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1. 2. 3. 4.

In the Chord menu, click the Set Font button next to Symbol. Select Arial from the font list. Type “AR” to shortcut the scroll. Click OK. Select Suffix from the Chord menu, and repeat steps 1, 2, and 3.

There is an asterisk next to the Symbol in the menu. This means Arial will only be used for the suffixes created from this point on in the document; any existing symbols will not be changed. There are two ways of changing the suffix library. 1. 2. 3. 4. Exit Document Options by clicking OK, and select the Chord tool . Choose Chord > Change Chord Suffix Fonts. Under the Replace With heading, click Set Font, and choose 11 point Arial. Click OK. Check Fix Baseline Positioning, and click OK.

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Option 2 involves importing a new suffix library. Since Arial is one of the two main text fonts used in the Finale defaults, a suffix library already exists in the Libraries folder, including an extended version with more suffixes for extended harmonies. Since I do a lot of jazz and pop orchestra work, importing that library looks like a better choice. Loading it now would result in having two suffix libraries present in the Chord tool, and I might accidentally grab the wrong one, since the original is still in the Times font. To remove the existing library: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. With the Chord tool selected, type Shift-1 to display the Chord Definition dialog box. Click the Show Advanced button, to display the full dialog box as in the graphic below. Under the Definition and Suffix headings, click the Select button to display the Chord Suffix Selection window. With the first suffix highlighted, scroll down to the last suffix in the library and Shift-click it, to highlight all the suffixes. Press the Delete button on the right side of the dialog box. All suffixes will be erased. Click the Cancel button to exit the Selection window, then click OK to leave the Chord Definition dialog box.
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To load the new suffix library: 1. 2. Choose File > Load Library. Locate the Libraries folder inside the Finale 2005 or 2006 folder if it is not already selected.

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An Addendum to Finale, An Easy Guide to Music Notation (Second Edition)

3. 4.

Inside the Libraries folder, locate the Chord Suffixes folder and open it. Select Chord Suffix Expanded (Arial), and click Open. The library is now loaded.

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Return to the Document Options dialog box to resume customizing the settings. Click the Fonts heading again. The default music font for the file is shown here but it cannot be changed here. There is a separate item in the Options menu for this. However, changing the default music font in Options menu will also automatically change all of the elements listed here that use the default music font—in this case, Maestro. If you wanted to change the default from Maestro to Engraver, another Finale music font, you would not have to change every element listed here individually.

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Jazz Default File If you plan to use the Jazz font, begin with the Jazz Default file. There are different line settings that match the characters of the font, so the overall look of the music will be more consistent and aesthetically pleasing.

Party of the Third Part For further customization and specialization needs, there are many fonts on the market that can be used in a variety of Finale situations. These include music fonts for Gregorian Chant, hand-copied looks, and contemporary music notation. A list of these and other Finale-related products is located at http://www.rpmseattle.com/coda/. Grace Notes Select Grace Notes in the left column. If it is difficult to see the grace notes in your score, consider increasing the default size. I’ve found this to be necessary, and many artists appreciate it in live performance situations. 1. 2. Highlight the number in the Grace Note Size box. Enter a larger percentage. I’ll use 65%.

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3. 4.

Change the Grace Note Slash Thickness to 1.73538 EVPUs (0.00602 inches). Check Always Slash Flagged Grace Notes, unless you prefer not to use the slash.

I will point out the option of changing the playback duration of the grace notes. I will not change this in the custom default since it could change based on the tempo and feel of the piece. If there is a time when you wish to change it, click the Set Duration button, click on a new duration in the dialog box, and click OK. Key Signatures Select Key Signatures from the list in the left column. My preference is not to have the outgoing key signature cancelled, since it consumes extra space on the staff. • Uncheck Cancel Outgoing Key Signature
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Layers Select Layers in the left column. As shown in chapter 11 (second edition), I use Layer 3 for ensemble cues in drum set parts. If you are not entering drum set parts that require cues, skip this section. Here are the steps for setting that up: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In the Settings For menu, select Layer 3. Under the Settings heading, check Freeze Stems and Ties. From the Freeze Stems popup menu, select Up. Check Freeze Ties in the Same direction as Stems. Check Adjust Floating Rest by, and enter 8 in the Steps box. Uncheck Playback.

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Lines and Curves Select Lines and Curves in the left column. As I stated earlier, I want this default to have thinner lines to match the look of my scores created with earlier versions of Finale. This is a matter of personal preference on my part; if you prefer the lines as they are, feel free to skip this section. 1. Under the Line Thickness Heading, enter 1.84375 EVPUs (0.0064 inches) for the Enclosures. Enter 1.73438 EVPUs (0.00602 inches) for the Staff Lines. Under the Leger Lines heading, enter 1.73438 EVPUs (0.00602 inches) for the Thickness. Under the Postscript Options heading, change the underline depth to 0 (zero). Change the Underline Thickness to 0.1664 EVPUs (0.00058 inches).

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Lyrics Select Lyrics in the left column. The only change I’ll make is to the Maximum Space Between Hyphens. I don’t want multiple hyphens to appear in cases where there is a large gap between syllables. The default setting of 144 EVPUs (0.5 inches) means that Finale will enter additional hyphens after each half-inch gap between syllables. To decrease the number of hyphens, increase the distance to a size equal to or greater than the width of the page. This makes the appearance of more than one hyphen impossible. • Enter 3168 EVPU’s (11 inches) in the Maximum Space Between Hyphens box.

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Multimeasure Rests Select Multimeasure Rests in the left column. This dialog box governs selecting the shape, or symbol, used for the gathered rest, as well as several options for displaying and positioning the number. Since I changed the font for the number, I must also change the default position. If I did not do this, the number would be 32 EVPUs (0.11111 inches) above the staff instead of sitting right on top of it. • Under the Options heading, select the Vertical box and change the number from 32 EVPUs (0.11111 inches) to 0.

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Music Spacing Select Music Spacing in the left column. I’m not going to make changes for my custom default, but your work might benefit from making some changes here. There are many special situations in which the auto-spacing provided by Finale will need a little help. This is usually caused by attachments that take up extra horizontal space to the left or right of a note. The settings you should become familiar with are the currently unchecked items under the Avoid Collision of heading. Checking Articulations will help when the rolled chord indication, a wavy line to the left of the notes, is used. Finale’s spacing settings will provide extra space based on the position of the articulation. Checking chords will provide more room between entries based on the length of the chord suffix. If you work with chord symbols, you might be tempted to check this item as part of your custom settings. My experience has been that I rarely need this setting to be checked. Not every occurrence of a chord symbol or extended suffix requires extra room. In fact, sometimes the extra room can look very unnatural. I only check Chords when there is a collision of chords symbols in a score or part, and use Mass Edit to respace only those measures where there are collisions of chords. That gives me the best-looking results.
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Note Expressions are another special case. If this item is checked, every note expression will impact the spacing, and this can look unnatural. Use this option in situations where it is absolutely necessary, and only in the measures that need it. If you regularly have multiple voices and layers on a single staff, you should take note of this setting. There are three options. The first is to have no change in spacing for any unisons. The second option, which is the default, is for different noteheads to be offset, so that a half note will not be placed over a quarter note. The third option, All Noteheads, makes every note appear separately for the purpose of following voice leadings or attaching different lyrics. Adjust as your own work dictates.

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Repeat Bars Select Repeats in the left column. Here, you can choose the style of the repeat bars in your score. I prefer the curved style, so I’ve selected it. If you wish to have your repeats take wings, click on the box so it is highlighted. There are two important preferences in the bottom of the dialog box. I highly recommend them both. 1. 2. Check Add Period After Number. Under the Show On heading, click Top Staff Only. This will steer you around the situation encountered in chapter 8 (second edition), in which the repeat brackets appeared on all four staves of the “Entertainer” score. When this custom default file becomes an actual score, I can create a specific Staff List to serve as the default for that document.

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Stem Connections Select Stem Connections in the left column. In chapter 10 (second edition), I changed the Shortened Stem Length to match the Normal Stem Length. Now I will make this preference part of my default. 1. In the Shortened Stem Length box, enter 84 EVPUs (0.29167 inches). For Stem Line Thickness, enter 1.73438 EVPUs (0.00602 inches). Check the Use Stem Connections box.

2.

3.

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Clicking the Stem Connections box allows Finale, and all of us users, to set custom stem connections to non-standard noteheads. Here is a quick tour of how it works. 1. 2. Click the Stem Connections button. Select the X notehead in the Stem Connections window, and click Edit.

In the Stem Connections Editor, the stems can be dragged to the desired connection position. New characters can be added by clicking the Create button in the Stem Connections window. Then, edit the stem connections in the Editor before returning to the score.

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Tie Options Tie controls give you the opportunity to tweak every aspect of the tie placement and arc. The first dialog box controls tie placement and breaks for key and time signatures. The second dialog box is accessed by clicking the Tie Contour button. The Tie Contour dialog box controls the arc, or height, of the tie for each of three different spans (lengths). You can also control thickness. Each box has a Unit pop-up menu that allows you to change the unit of measurement independently of the unit set in the Document Settings menu. Time Signature Options Select Stem Connections in the left column. Finale automatically abbreviates the numbers for 4/4 and 2/2 time signatures. If you would prefer the numbers, select Time Signature Options from the submenu and uncheck the Abbreviate boxes.

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Tuplets Select Tuplets in the left column. I have a few alterations for the placement and appearance of the tuplets. 1. 2. Under the Default Placement heading, uncheck Avoid Staff. Under Default Appearance, select Bracket Unbeamed Notes Only.

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Take note of the options offered in the Placement and Appearance popup menus, in case they are relevant to your own work. That’s all for the Document Options dialog box. Click OK to exit, and save the document.

Additional Customization Options
Let’s move on to some more general considerations for a custom document. These items involve looking at the type of work you regularly do and preparing for as many situations as possible in advance. I’ll offer suggestions that relate to my work to use as a springboard for developing your own ideas. Creating Custom Libraries Libraries can be an important part of customizing your documents. Alterations can range from reordering the library to move the most commonly used items to the top, to adding your own settings, shapes, symbols, and expressions. Libraries can be created for Articulations, Chord Suffixes and Fretboards, Clefs, Default Fonts, Document Options, Executable Shapes, Fretboard Styles, Instruments, Key Signatures, Music Spacing, Page Format, Percussion Maps, Shapes, Shape Expressions, Staff Styles, Stem Connections,

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Text Expressions, and Text Repeats. Libraries are exported by selecting Save Library in the File menu, and imported by selecting Load Library and then selecting the desired library. Take a careful look at the libraries already in the Libraries folder of Finale 2005 or 2006, and familiarize yourself with what you already have at your fingertips. In some cases, for example Chord Suffixes and Fretboards, I’d want to have the complete collection in every document. As I add suffixes, I can create a new library and bring that into my custom default or another file I am working on so that they can all be up to date. On the other hand, having every expression imaginable in every file might be a bit cumbersome when it comes to text expressions. Consider keeping some specialized libraries that can be loaded as needed. I do a lot of symphony pops and theater work, which often calls for woodwinds instrument changes, brass mute and instrument changes, a wide range of percussion instruments, and synthesizer patch changes. I can load each one only when needed and not have to scroll through them all in every document.

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When creating custom libraries, select File > New > Document Without Libraries to start the process. There will be no entries in the library to delete before creating the custom library. Keep separate documents with names like BrassInsts.mus for easy updating and expansion.

Software Synths: A Finale 2006 Update Finale 2006 adds a new dimension to playback options, allowing software synthesizers and samplers to be accessed directly from Finale. The Garritan Personal Orchestra Sounds that come with Finale 2006 are best configured using the Setup Wizard but Finale is not limited to this group of sounds. Finale supports a number of Native Instruments VST and Audio Unit players. A full list is available on the Finale Web site (http://www. finalemusic.com/finale/features/new/nativeinstruments.aspx). The Native Instruments players can be incorporated into a template, including the loading specific sounds when the template is opened. Here are the steps for configuring a player. 1. 2. Select MIDI > Native Instruments AU/VST Setup. From the Audio Unit/VST menu, select a player. The list in the graphic below displays the players installed on my computer, including both the Finale GPO player and the full Gatrritan Personal Orchestra player. Choose a player from the menu. I’ll load Stormdrum, a drum and percussion player.

3.

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4. 5.

Click the Edit button to the right of the player selection menu. The player’s window will open. Load a sound or sounds in the player. Click the Close Window button on the player’s window when finished.

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The player and sounds will load automatically when the document is opened. If multiple documents are opened, the sounds will have to load again each time the document is made active.

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To eliminate the loading process every time the document is opened or made active, uncheck Play Finale Through Native Instruments AU/VST in the MIDI menu. Finale will not load the sounds until you enable AU/VST playback by reselecting Play Finale Through Native Instruments AU/VST in the MIDI menu. Finale retains the players and sounds you selected; that data is not lost. If the staves were set up using the Setup Wizard, Finale also configures a General MIDI sound, if one is available, so you can play back the file using the SmartMusic Softsynth.

For more information about using the Garritan Personal orchestra sounds in Finale, download the Finale 2006 Update PDF file from www.finalebook.com. Placement Options Many items in Finale have some sort of automatic placement that is editable to some degree. Text Expressions have many placement options above and below the staff. Expressions, Lyrics, and Chords have baselines that can be set. Measure numbers can

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be positioned in the Measure tool. Revisit the Document Options settings if you want to explore further, since many of the settings are located there. Smart Shape options for placement deal with shapes that attach to notes and their precise placement in relation to the notes. These settings can be accessed by selecting the Slur tool and choosing Smart Shape > Smart Shape Placement. You can change the placement by dragging the shape in the dialog box or by entering numbers in the boxes below the shape window. Positioning is available for note-attached slurs, the guitar tap, and glissando shapes. Select the notation context in the left column, then drag the shape in the right-side window.

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Staff Styles Staff Styles controls several aspects of staff appearance: the number of staff lines, the appearance of slashes and repeat markings, and changes in transposition. Finale already has 21 styles, shown in the menu graphic, that will cover most of your needs. I want to call attention to styles 17 through 20—the instrument transposition styles. These four staff styles are programmed with the option of replacing the instrument name on the left side of the score. While this serves as an indication in the score, remember to add a text expression indicating the instrument change as well, since the score indication will not be visible in the extracted parts. One transposition missing from the provided Staff Styles that I use frequently enough to add it to the custom default document is the English Horn. 1. 2. Choose the Staff tool . Select Staff > Define Staff Styles.

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3. 4. 5.

Click the New button. For Style Name, enter 22. English Horn Transposition. Next to Attributes, check Copyable. This allows the style to be copied via the Mass Edit tool.

6.

Check Full Staff Name. This box enables the name entered to appear on the first page of a score. 7. Click the Edit button for the Full Name and enter English Horn, then click OK. 8. Click the Position button and click OK, or click the check box two times. 9. Check the Abbr. Staff Name. 10. Click the Edit button for the Abbr. Name and enter “Eng. Hn.” Then click OK. 11. Click the Position button and click OK.

!

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If you wish to disable the staff name display on a Staff Style, uncheck the boxes to the left of the Full and Abbr. Staff Names.

12. Click the Transposition Select button. 13. From the Transposition popup menu, select (F) Up P5, Add 1 Sharp, then click OK.

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14. Click OK one more time to exit the Staff Styles dialog box. 15. Press Shift-5 to assign a Metatool keystroke. 16. Select English Horn Transposition in the list and click OK. Then save the document.

Metatools Metatools for most tools are already programmed. If you wish to make changes, this is the time to do so. Here is a list of tools that support Metatools and the status of each in the default document. Tools with Preprogrammed Metatools
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• • • • •

Staff tool Expression tool Articulation tool Repeat tool Clef tool

Tools with No Preprogrammed Metatools • • • • • Smart Shape tool Key Signature tool Time Signature tool Tuplet tool Chord tool

Tool with Preprogrammed and Programmable Metatools • Mass Edit tool: Metatools are limited to the 1 through 9 number keys and to the specified functions. Only the transposition keys 6 through 9 are user-programmable. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Implode Explode Beat spacing Note spacing Elapsed time Transposition Transposition Transposition Transposition

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Instrument Libraries If you use anything other than the Smart Music SoftSynth for playback, I recommend creating a custom Instrument Library. The End of the Beginning With this foundation, I can save my default and set Finale to use it to begin a new document. I will probably make other tweaks as I use this default and templates I make from it, but that is a good start. Next I’ll turn my attention to page layout, number of measures, and other visual elements. My First Finale Document As a hand copyist, I became used to many different sizes and layouts of manuscript paper for parts, and now I want that same flexibility when using Finale. How do I get Finale printouts to look like the music I’ve been turning out by hand all these years? (Minus 50 points for anyone who just said, “Enter wrong notes!”) The answer is quite simple. Finale gives me total control over page construction, size, number of staves, and reduction percentages. I only need to transfer the dimensions to Finale. I can also customize the design to make it a little more personal. My first project was creating the Finale version of my standard manuscript paper with a title space and eight staves on the first page and ten staves on each of the continuing pages. First, I need continuing pages, and to do that, I need more measures. The number of measures is not important. It is only necessary to have enough measures to create at least two full pages of music in Page View. For projects where a separate right and left page layout is required, increase the total measures so that three pages are created. To create different margins for right and left pages, see the Page Format for Score Dialog box located in the Options menu. 1. 2. 3. Select the Measure tool. Choose Measure > Add and enter 150 measures. Click OK.

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Switch to Page View if you are not already there. 1. Type z-Option-[ (Mac) or Control-Alt-[ (Windows) to fit the entire page in the window. Select View > Show Margins.

2.

Your document now looks like this. You can clearly see the page margins and the individual staff systems boxes.

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First, I’m going to adjust the Page Percentage and make it 8.5 by 11 inches, relative to the 9.5 by 12.5 inch manuscript paper I used to write on in the pen-and-ink days. 1. 2. 3. Choose the Resize Tool . Click in the upper left-hand corner of the page, away from the music. Make sure the dialog box is titled Resize Page before proceeding. Enter 88 for the percentage. Then click OK.

When formatting a document like this, always make sure Update Page Format is checked. This will update the percentage in the file’s default to match the number you enter in this dialog box. When Finale creates a new page, it will be at the proper percentage.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Choose the Page Layout Tool . Select Page Layout > Update Page Layout For Score so it is checked. This performs the same function as Update Page Format in the Resize tool. Select Page Layout > Page Margins > Edit Page Margins. Click the All Pages radio button. Change the top number to –300 EVPUs (–1.042 inches). Change the left number to 144 EVPUs (–0.50 inches). Change the bottom number to 72 EVPUs (0.25 inches) and click Apply. Then click Close.

EVPUs

Inches

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With the Page Margins set, the Staff System sizes can be set. The first goal will be to set the size of the staff. 1. 2. Choose Options > Page Format > Score. Under the System Scaling heading, change the Staff Height to 87 EVPUs (0.30208 inches), and click OK.

EVPUs

Inches

This creates a staff size that is 90% of full size. That 10% reduction will provide a little extra white space on the page between each element, making the page appear a little less crowded. I’m ready to tackle the Staff Systems. The goal is to put ten systems on a page. Once that is set, make room on page 1 for a title. Before beginning, here is a little refresher on the staff system numbers. In the following diagram, EVPUs and inches are not important, just which spaces they control. On the left of the music is the System Margins for system 1. The Top number controls the distance between the top of the system box and the staff. The Left number controls the indent of the first system. The Bottom number controls the amount of space between the staff and the bottom of the system box. To the right of the music is the System Margins for staff 2. The amount of room on top is smaller than in the first system, and there is some extra room provided by the Distance Between Systems setting. All other systems in the file have the same dimensions as system 2.

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I’ve made a few choices that will be reflected in the numbers to follow. Feel free to adopt them or to explore your own path. I am choosing not to use an indent on the first system. There are three sets of numbers to juggle for system 2. I can control the space using only the Top and the Bottom distances, and eliminate the Distance Between Systems value. Now if I want to make adjustments, there are only two numbers to change, not three. I can take that room and divide it up between the Top and Bottom staff distances. I still use Distance Between Systems in special cases when I need some extra room but it makes the math a little easier to deal with only two settings. To make it even simpler, once Top distance is set, the fine-tuning will be done using only the Bottom distance. Ready to try it? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose Page Layout > Systems > Edit Margins. Click the Select All button. Enter 80 EVPUs (0.27778 inches) in the Top box. Leave the Left and Right at 0. Enter 175 EVPUs (0.60764 inches) in the Bottom box. Click Apply, but do not close the dialog box.

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EVPUs

Inches

There is a little bit of room left at the bottom of the page. I arrived at the number using round EVPUs, and rather than trying to use every bit of space, I am leaving the excess in case I need a little extra room on a specific system or two. The next step is to create a space for the title and credits, equal to two staff systems. 6. 7. Return to the Edit system Margins dialog box, and in the Change System boxes, enter 1 thru 1. Enter 600 EVPUs (2.08333 inches) in the Top box and click Apply.

EVPUs

Inches

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There is a larger space between the bottom of staff system 8 and the bottom page margin. I’ve purposely left a little room there for a copyright notice. Page Format > Parts There are two items in the Page Format submenu: Score and Parts. Score, in this case, refers to the document we are creating. Parts refers to any document extracted from this document using the Print Parts or Extract Parts commands in File menu. This file is set up to be a single-line lead sheet or part, so I will not be extracting parts from it. Since I am planning to use this default to create scores, I will be changing the Score page values, but I want the Part values to match the current state of the file. That means entering them manually into the Parts dialog box. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Choose Options > Page Format > Parts. Change the Page Percentage to 88. Change the Staff Height to 87 EVPUs (0.30208 inches). Change the Top System margin to 80 EVPUs (0.27778 inches). Change the Bottom system margin to 175 EVPUs (0.60764 inches). Set the Distance Between Staves to 0. Under First Staff System margins, set Top to 600 EVPUs (2.08333 inches). Change Left to 0 EVPUs, click OK, and save the document.
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EVPUs

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Inches

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The last step is to position the text blocks on the first three pages. 8. 9. Select the Text tool . Drag the Title text block so that the handle is vertically aligned with the center line, and horizontally aligned with the top page margin. 10. Drag the Copyright text block up so that it is in the middle of the space between the bottom system margin and the bottom page margin. 11. Move to page 2 of the document. The page number and title boxes must be raised. To help them line up horizontally, use the Rulers. 1. 2. 3. 4. Type z-R (Mac) or Control-R (Windows) to toggle the Ruler display on. Click on the handle of the even page number text block, and drag it up to the quarter-inch mark on the left-side ruler, and on the left page margin. Click on the title text block, and drag it up to the quarter-inch mark on the left margin ruler, horizontally aligning it with the center line. Advance to page 3 of the document.

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5.

Click on the handle of the odd page number text block, and drag it up to the quarter-inch mark on the left-side ruler, horizontally aligning it with the right page margin.

When you are finished with positioning, turn the Ruler and Margins displays off. 1. 2. Select View > Hide Margins. Type z-R (Mac) or Control-R (Windows) to toggle the Ruler display off.

Final Touches If you like having your name on your music, add a text block in the lower left- or righthand corner of the page. Is there a text font you’d rather use for the existing text blocks? Perhaps you prefer the bar numbers on every bar, or positioned under the staff. Make these changes now. At this point, I am declaring my Custom Default File complete. 1. 2. Type the file name, in this case Custom Default.mus, into the Default Document box in Program Options. For Default New Operation, check Default Document. This will make opening your custom file the default action when using the z-New (Mac) or Control-New (Windows) keystroke. Click Apply.
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3.

8_10_Stave.mus

With the default in place, any time you select Default Document from the New section of the File menu, the custom file will be opened. If you use the Setup Wizard, it will still use the Maestro Default File, or Jazz Default file if you select the Jazz font. You will have to open your custom default file specifically to make any changes there. You can use the Setup Wizard from the Staff menu once your custom default is open, but the page size will not be automatically adjusted to fit the new score. To view my results, download the template files.

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Variations on a Theme
Now that I have a personalized default file, I want to build on that by creating some template files containing the same document settings. If you need more staves on a page, create a 10/12-stave page. To allow for more staves on a page, the staff system boxes will have to be made smaller. Approaching the task with the same strategy as the 8/10-staff layout, the first step will be to fit twelve systems on the page. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
10_12_Stave.mus

Select File > Save As and change the name to 10_12_Stave.mus. Choose the Page Layout tool. Select Page Layout > Systems > Edit Margins. Click the Select All button to change the entire document. Enter 80 EVPUs (0.27778 inches) in the Top box. Leave the Left and Right at 0. Enter 115 EVPUs (0.39931 inches) for the Bottom. Click Apply. For Change System, enter 1 thru 1. For Top, enter 550 EVPUs (1.90972 inches).

It is possible to create a little more space between the staves by reducing the top Page Margin to a smaller EVPU/inch amount. Take that amount and divide it by the number of systems on the page, and add that amount to each staff system. To view my results, download the template files.

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Making Manuscript Paper with Finale
Even in the music notation field, going paperless hasn’t entirely eliminated the need for manuscript paper. From working out an idea or transcription, needing to jot something down at a gig, or making some correction strips, Finale and a printer can still help get the job done. Use Staff Attributes to turn off anything that is not desired for printout. First on the list to turn off are the default whole rests, measure numbers, time signature, and if you don’t want them, barlines and clefs. 1. 2, 3. 4. Choose the Staff tool. Select Staff > Edit Staff Attributes. Under Options, uncheck Display Rests in Empty Measures. Under Items To Display, uncheck any of the following you do not want to print: Barlines, Clefs, Measure Numbers, and Time Signatures. Click OK.

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The measure numbers require one additional step to hide them. 1. 2. 3. Choose the Measure tool. Use the Select All keystroke: z-A (Mac) or Control-A (Windows). Select Measure > Measure Numbers > Hide Numbers.

Print as many pages as you need. Save this document if you want to print more at a later time. For correction strips, print on any self-adhesive labeling stock.

A Little Traveling Music?
My first job both as a copyist and as a Finale user was to create marching band parts. Begin with the Custom Default that you just created. Creating a Custom Page Size The standard flip-folder size part is 5.25 inches tall by 7 inches wide. (In this situation, it is easier to work in inches, but I’ll still list both as usual.) Since that is not a standard page size, a custom page will need to be created. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose the Page tool. Select Page Layout > Page Size. From the popup menu, select Custom. Enter 2016 EVPUs (7 inches) for the Width. Enter 1512 EVPUs (5.25 inches) for the Height. When the page height is less than the width, the Orientation setting below will automatically switch to Landscape. Click OK.
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The resulting page is a little unusual looking. The page being created is a much smaller so the page percentage must be reduced to allow more staves on a page.

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1. 2.

Select Page Layout > Resize Page (page reduction). Set the Page Resize value to 60%, and click OK.

The amount of title space between the Top page margin and Top margin of the first system must be reduced. In most cases, the room above the page margin is enough for the title, credits, and instrument name. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the handle of the first system, to highlight it. Choose Page Layout > Margins > Edit Page Margins. Enter 150 EVPUs (0.52083 inches) for the Top system value. Click Apply to update the page. Click Close to close the dialog box. Choose Page Layout > Systems > Edit Margins. Enter 80 EVPUs (0.27778 inches) for the Top value and 120 EVPUs (0.41667 inches) for the Bottom value. Click Apply to update the page. Click Close to return to the page. With the staves in position, reposition the text blocks on page 1 using the Text tool . (I turned on the Margin display for the graphic.) Advance to pages 2 and 3, and reposition the text blocks for the title and page number.

7. 8.

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Marching_Part.mus

To view my results, download the template files from the Web site.

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Printing the Finished Part
Even though Finale considers this page to be Landscape format, since the width is not larger than that of letter size (8.5 inches), it is not necessary to change anything in Page Format before printing.

Score Templates
With the introduction of the Setup Wizard, the process of creating score templates went from being tedious and time consuming to requiring less time than it takes to type the title, credits, and copyright. But, even with the Setup Wizard handling the big picture, there are still some details that you might want to use in creating future score templates.

Saving Custom Instrumentations in the Setup Wizard
The Setup Wizard allows custom instrumentations to be saved and reused. Creating a score is now as simple as selecting the desired ensemble from the menu. 1. 2. 3. 4. Select File > New > Document With Setup Wizard. Set Landscape for the Orientation. Click Next to advance to the second page. The Select an Ensemble section is located at the bottom of the dialog box. From the Name popup menu, select Jazz Band.

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In the right column, the complete instrumentation for a standard big band appears. Finale will add the numbers for the multiple instruments, Altos, Tenors, Trumpets, and Trombones, when the score is constructed. The list can be modified and then saved as a separate ensemble to be recalled in this window at any time. Ensembles can be constructed from scratch by selecting instruments from the columns on the left.

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5. 6.

Click Next twice to advance to the fourth page of the Setup Wizard. Select Jazz for the Font. Click Finish.

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The graphic above is the full page of the template just created by the Setup Wizard. The Wizard makes sure that there is ample room for the page 1 text blocks and instrumentation. Each staff is uniformly spaced, and Staff System Resizing is used to reduce the size of each system to fit in the margins. The page percentage is not reduced, as that would require changes to the size of the text to compensate for the amount of reduction. I don’t want to seem ungrateful at the amount of work the Wizard has just saved me, but there are a few things about this page I’d like to improve upon. The size of the margins is a little large, especially on the continuing pages. This forces the staves to be very small and difficult to read. Compare the above page to the graphic below, which is my template for the example in chapter 12 (second edition). Both pages are letter sized, but below I have customized the page margins and size as my own eye dictated, then saved this as a template. Instead of using the Wizard, I open this document and save it as a separate file every time I need it.

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37

Being able to tweak a score so that every bit of space is used efficiently is a good reason to create score templates instead of using the Wizard for every score. Here are the adjustments I made to the Wizard’s creation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose the Page Layout tool . Select Page Layout > Resize Page (page reduction). Set Resize Page to 58%. Click OK. Select Page Layout > Resize Staff System (system reduction). a. Under the Staff Sizing heading, set Staff Height to 96 EVPUs (0.33333 inches). b. Set Resize System to 80. Resulting System Scaling should be 80%. Click OK. 5. Choose Page Layout > Page Margins > Edit Page Margins. a. Click the All Pages button. b. Set Top to 180 EVPUs (0.625 inches). c. Set Left to 300 EVPUs (1.04167 inches). The Right and Bottom can remain at 144 EVPUs (0.5 inches). d. Click Apply, and then click Close. 6. Choose Page Layout > Systems > Edit System Margins. a. Click the Select All button. b. Set the Top value to 80 EVPUs (0.27778 inches). c. Set Left to 0. d. Click Apply, and then click Close. Now we can tighten up the distance between the staves, manually, so that they all fit comfortably on the page.

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7. 8. 9.

Choose the Staff tool . Click on the handle of each staff, beginning with the Alto Sax. 2 staff. Drag the staves up to the desired distance. When the Alto Sax. 2 staff is positioned select all staves from the bottom, up to the Tenor Sax 1 staff and repeat the process. You can reposition the staves one staff at a time, or using smaller groups if you prefer.

Name and save the document when you are finished. Remember that templates can evolve. If you feel that changes are necessary, open the template and make them, then save it. Larger Scores With large orchestra and band scores, it is common to combine several instruments on a single staff. This minimizes the number of staves and keeps the percentage of the music as large as possible. The Wizard has no way of knowing whether this is your intention, so the changes to the staff names must be made manually, in Staff tool, after the score has been created. 1. 2. 3. 4. Select File > New > Document With Setup Wizard. Click Next on page 1 of the Wizard to advance to page 2. From the Name menu, select Orchestra (Full). Click Next two more times, then click Finish.

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I will demonstrate a few Staff Name change methods on this score. First, combine Flute 1 and Flute 2 on a single staff. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Choose the Staff tool . Double-click on the Flute 1 staff to access the Staff Attributes dialog box. Click the Edit button for the Full Name. Move the entry cursor to the right side of the 1. Type a space, the ampersand (&), a space, and the 2. Click OK. Click the Edit button for the Abbr. Name and repeat steps 4 and 5. Click to highlight the staff handle on the Flute 2 Staff. Select Staff > Delete Staves and Reposition to delete the Flute 2 staff. All staves below the deleted staff will be moved up so that no gap is left between the Flute 1 and Oboe 1 staves.

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Try a two-line staff name by adding English Horn to the Oboe 2 staff name. 1. Double-click on the Oboe 2 staff to access the Staff Attributes dialog box. 2. Click the Edit button for the Full Name. 3. Move the entry cursor to the right side of the 1, and press Return. 4. Type English Horn, and click OK. 5. Click the Edit button for the Abbr. Name. 6. Type Eng. Hn., and click OK. The two-line name will no longer be centered on the staff, so tweak the position of the name. 1. 2. 3. Click the Position button for the Full Name. Click on the text in the display window and drag it up so the names are centered on the staff, keeping the Horizontal distance the same. Click OK. Click the Position button for the Abbr. Name and repeat step 8.

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Making the Big Time
Large time signatures are something used in many contemporary scores. You can create this effect by using a specific font for the numbers, turning off the Time Signature display on all but a select number of staves, and changing the positioning of the numbers on the displaying staves. Continue using the orchestra score example you’ve been using for the staff names. 1. Choose Options > Document Options and click on Fonts. From the Notation popup menu, select Time. Click the Set Font button. Select Engraver Time and enter 40 for the size. Click on Time Signature. Uncheck both Abbreviate boxes. Under the Vertical Adjustment heading, change the Top Symbol to 158 EVPUs (0.54861 inches), and change the Bottom Symbol to –158 EVPUs (–0.54861 inches). Click OK.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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To complete the process, the time signature display must be turned off, in Staff Attributes, for all but a few staves. (The process will have to be undone before extracting parts.) In the graphic below, the time signature display is turned on for the Flute 1 & 2 staff and off for the Piccolo and Oboe staves. Determine how many occurrences of the time signature are necessary for your score. A top, middle, and bottom display, or one per instrument family, usually does the trick. The quickest way to accomplish the Time Signature turn-off is by using the Global Staff Attributes plug-in. 1. 2.
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3. 4.

Locate the global Staff Attributes plug-in in the Plug-ins menu. Under the Staff Attributes heading, z-click (Mac) or Control-click (Windows) the staves where the time signature will be displayed. For this score, click the Flute 1 & 2, Horn 2 and Viola staves. Click Apply, and check the results. Make changes if needed. Click OK when you are satisfied with the results.

Creating Custom Score Paper Another possibility is to create custom score manuscript paper. This is helpful when working with a writer who is not using a computer, since the printed template can match the layout you will use in Finale. That makes for an easy visual translation to the computer. With the staves in the same layout, the chances of copying something onto the wrong staff are greatly reduced. Care must be taken with the reduction percentage so that the staves are easy to write on, with room in between for performance information. Having paper larger than letter size helps a great deal. If your printer doesn’t accommodate 11 by 17 inch paper, look for the Finale 2005 or 2006 settings, located in the Print dialog box, when you print. There, you will find Tile Pages. Tile Pages breaks up the large image (11 by 17 inches) and prints it on the necessary number of smaller (8.5 by 11 inches) sheets. These pages can

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be taped together and reproduced using a photocopier that can accommodate 11 by 17 inch paper. Template Design Questions and Dilemmas When designing templates, always ask yourself: Will the music and text be easily readable at this percentage? Are the staves too close together or too far apart? If the answer to either of these questions is yes, you might need to trade some distance between the staves for a lesser reduction factor. Other solutions include combining two instruments on a single staff, or using Optimizing the Systems so that only the instruments playing on each system are displayed (as in the Petrushka example). Consider a page orientation change. Portrait orientation will allow more staves in the score, while Landscape will fit more measures on a page. You’ll probably tweak your templates after using them for a few projects. Just remember to take proper precautions by saving backup copies of your templates, storing them in a separate folder even if that folder is placed in the Templates folder, and using the Open From Template command in the File menu to open them.

Summary
• • • • Creating a new Custom Default File Changing a Default Font Creating a Part Template Creating a Score Template
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Review
1. 2. Take the 8/10 template and create a grand staff version. Then try it with the 10/12 template. Take any piece of manuscript or printed music you have lying around, and try to reproduce one page in Finale. Starting with the page margins, measure the distance from the edge to where the music starts. (Feel free to round things a little, if needed.) Then measure the distance between the staves. Try first to get the same number of staves on the page. Experiment with the percentage tool, changing the staff and page sizes. Print and compare the two until they match. Make a list of changes you regularly make to files as you work on them. Update your Custom Default file periodically with any new changes.

3.

Finale®: An Easy Guide to Music Notation, Second Edition. Copyright © 2006 Berklee Press. All Rights Reserved.

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