The Hidden Value of Curriculum Reform

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The Hidden Hidden Value Value of Curriculum Reform Do States and Districts Receive the Most Bang for Their Their Curriculum Buck? By Ulrich Boser, Matthew Chingos, and Chelsea Straus

 

October 2015

WWW.AMERICANPROGRESS.ORG

 

The Hidden Value Hidden Value of Curriculum Reform Do States and Districts Receive the Most Bang for Their Curriculum Buck? By Ulrich Boser, Matthew Chingos, and Chelsea Straus

October 2015

 

Contents

  1 Introduction and summary   4 Background   8 How curriculum decisions are made  12 Spending on instructional materials  14 The relationship relationship between price and quality   19 Findings   22 Recommendations   27 Conclusion  29 Appendix A  32 Appendix B: Case studies   50 Endnotes

 

Introduction and summary Curriculum plays an imporan role in how sudens are augh, and here is a srong body o evidence ha shows ha puting a high-qualiy curriculum in he hands o eachers can have significan posiive impacs on suden achievemen. Furhermore, curriculum reorm is ypically inexpensive, and some o he highesqualiy elemenary school mah curricula cos only around $36 per suden.1 In shor, curriculum reorm is a low-cos, high-reurn educaional invesmen. o promoe curriculum reorm󲀔and make beter use o educaion dollars󲀔 his repor provides new insigh on how curricula curr icula are seleced in every sae across he counry and examines he coss o hose curricula. Troughou his repor, he auhors use “curriculum “curriculum”” o reer o he insrucional maerials such as exbooks, workbooks, and sofware used by eachers. In compiling his repor, he auhors conduced exensive research research󲀔including 󲀔including inerviews wih w ih sae and disric officials, along wih an examinaion o curricula price liss󲀔  which provides a deai deailed led pic picure ure o how publi publicc schools could increa increase se he reurn on invesmen, or ROI, o axpayer dollars. Te repor’s key findings include: •

Higher-quality curriculum in elementary school math can come at a relatively low cost. Te auhors analyzed six pairs o

curricula, where each pair included a lower-qualiy and higher-qualiy version. Te auhors looked a how much i would cos or a school o swich sw ich rom a lower-qualiy produc o a higherqualiy one in elemenary school mah and ound here’ here’ss no much o a cos. In ac, he daa ha he auhors colleced rom 19 saes indicae ha publishers end o charge all saes roughly he same price.  Tese findings mean ha nearly all opporuniies or boosing ROI are a mater o choosing he bes produc, no finding a beter price. 2



More rigorous elementary school math curricula can deliver far more ROI than other reforms. In compiling his repor, he auhors compared he cos-effecive-

  o six pairs o elemenary mah curricula   ness raio or each ha had been sub jec o a rigorous evaluaion evaluaion sponsored by he U U.S. .S. Deparmen o Educaio Educaion. n. 1

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Reviewing hese daa in ligh o an influenial sudy by economis Doug Harris, he auhors deermined ha swiching o a higher qualiy curriculum has a huge ROI relaive o oher educaional policies󲀔in large par because curricula cos so litle. Tere are oher acors a play, o course, and gains in mah, or insance, can be easier o achieve relaive o oher subjecs. Bu wha’s clear is ha he averagee cos-effeciveness raio o swiching curriculum was almos 40 imes averag  imes ha o class-size reducion in a well-known randomized experimen. •

When it comes to math curricula in the early grades, cost does not always equal quality. Tere is litle relaionship beween he cos and qualiy

o insrucional producs. Prices do no vary widely w idely across producs, wih he mos expensive produc in he same governmen-sponsored sudy cosing only $13 per suden more han he  he leas expensive produc. I anyhing, he higher-qualiy producs end o cos less, and in some insances, he mos expensive curriculum was among he leas effecive and he leas expensive  was among he mos effecive. •

Policy decisions do not consider rigorous measures of curricula quality. Sae

  adopion decisions are ofen based on limied assessmens o qualiy quali y and weak proxies or alignmen o sae sandards.  Furhermore, poliics ofen dominae he discussion over he adopion o exbooks and oher insrucional maerial, and issues such as he  he eaching o evoluion are ofen cener sage. Tere is also a clear gap beween he realiy o which w hich curricula are effecive or aligned o sae sandards and he curricula ha publishers adverise as such. 3

Many saes are moving orward wih w ih implemening he new Common Core sandards, and his process offers imporan opporuniies or he creaion o innovaive, cos-effecive insrucional producs. However, However, hese new producs will no add much value i schools canno accuraely separae he whea rom he chaff. Tus, he auhors recommend he ollowing: •

Invest in better product research. I is hard or observers o judge curricula

qualiy i here is litle evaluaion o mos producs’ effeciveness. Te ederal governmen has a significan role o play in coninuing o suppor his imporan research, including unding randomized experimens ha clearly show which curricula produce he larges achievemen gains. Jus as i does wih medicine, he ederal governmen should und comparaive effeciveness research. Sae educaion agencies also have a role o play in collecing he necessary daa and making hem available or sudies o curricula qualiy.

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Improve the state textbook adoption process. Nineeen saes have a curricu-

lum adopion process ha produces a lis o producs ha schools eiher mus use or are encouraged o use.  When hard evidence on curriculum qualiy is available, i should supersede he ofen vague impressions o sakeholder groups ha requenly dominae he process. p rocess. Addiionally Addiionally,, saes should replace heir ofen limied approaches o measuring alignmen o sae sandards by commissioning 4

proessional alignmen sudies o proposed curricula. Saes wihou an adopion process should consider creaing one ha provides acionable inormaion o aid disrics in selecion decisions. Louisiana, or insance, allows disrics o have complee auonomy over he selecion o all heir insrucional maerials,  bu he sa saee pro provides vides dis disrics rics wi wihh anno annoae aedd review reviewss o iinsruci nsrucional onal rresour esources ces and groups maerials ino iers based on heir qualiy.  All saes should coninue o allow schools o selec he insrucional producs ha are righ or hem bu should also provide clear and accurae inormaion abou qualiy ha obviaes he need or every disric o deermine he effeciveness o insrucional maerials. 5



Improve the selection process in school districts. For years, school disrics

have sruggled o make inormed curriculum decisions, in large par due o a lack o reliable inormaion on produc qualiy. Improving he adopion process a he sae level will be an imporan sep in he righ direcion; bu disrics sill need o choose he righ produc rom he lis o opions provided by he  he sae, or anoher produc when appropriae. One promising sraegy sraegy currenly used in some disrics is o pilo new producs alongside exising producs in order o produce evidence on effeciveness e ffeciveness beore commiting o he new produc.   Disrics can also benefi by increasing inormaion sharing across disrics abou experiences wih differen insrucional insruc ional producs. 6



Create a competitive grant program devoted to creating high-quality curricula.  

 Alhough he Comm  Alhough Common on Co Core re pr presens esens an impo imporan ran op opporuniy poruniy oo impr improve ove insrucional maerials, some publishers are making overly zealous claims abou heir maerials’ alignmen o he sandards.  Philanhropiss and oher independen groups should spur he creaion o high-qualiy exbooks and oher insrucional maerials by creaing a compeiive gran program. Nonprofis, small publishing companies, and innovaors would hen be able o apply or grans o develop and scale-up promising high-qualiy, openly licensed, Common Corealigned curricula. Te gran program would reward innovaion, scalabiliy, and evidence-based research supporing he key componens o each curriculum. 7

In educaion, i is rare or a reorm o show srong oucomes and be relaively inexpensive. However, However, curriculum reorm is boh cos-effecive and worhwhile and should become a more cenral par par  o he effor o improve he naion’ naion’s schools. 3

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Background For he pas several years, public schools in he Unied Saes have been under significan pressure o do more wih less. In oher words, policymakers and he public wan schools o increase heir produciviy󲀔he reurn on invesmen o axpayer dollars. Daa showing wide gaps in produciviy beween similar school disrics srongly sugges ha increased produciviy is, in ac, possible. Previous research by he Cener or American Progress has shown ha some disrics produce more bang or heir buck han ohers. According o a 2014 CAP analysis, “only slighly more han one-hird o he disrics in he op hird in spending  were also als o in he op hird in achieve achievemen. men.””8   As educaion researchers Mathew Mathew Chingo Chingoss and Grover (Russ (Russ)) Whiehurs argued in a 2012 paper, curriculum reorm is one o he bes areas or produciviy gains, since insrucional maerials can provide relaively high increases in suden achievemen or relaively low coss.9 Moreover  Moreover,, as mos saes are moving orward  wih implemening he Common Core Core sandards, local leaders are are already on he lookou or high-qualiy maerials. Tis makes curriculum reorm a logical place or schools and disrics o look or gains in suden oucomes.  Y  Ye e or oo long, resear researchers, chers, academics, and oher educaion educaion reormers have simply no ocused on curriculum and is associaed effeciveness. Te mos recen recen major sudy o ake a naional in-deph look a he policy issues surrounding ex books and curriculum, or insance, was published in 2004.10 Plus mos curricula have no been subjec o rigorous impac evaluaions, evaluaions, and daa do no exis on he insrucional producs used in he vas majoriy o saes. Some expers have called or daa collecion effors ha will wil l enable more effeciveness sudies so ha saes and disrics can make beter inormed decisions. 11 

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Specifically, Chingos and W Specifically, Whiehurs hiehurs propose ha saes begin by collecing daa on he curricula adoped by all disrics in he sae. No a single sae currenly conducs his pracice. Knowing wha producs are used is he firs sep oward assessing curriculum effeciveness by linking he curriculum-use daa o he longiudinal suden-level daabases ha mos saes now have in place.12  While daa collecion effors should cerainly be underaken, his repor will w ill address a relaed se o quesions: How are curriculum adopion decisions made? How much do differen insrucional producs cos, and do saes pay differen amouns or he same produc? Is here any relaionship beween curriculum price and qualiy? How does he reurn on invesmen o adoping new curricula compare o ha o oher educaional inervenions? iner venions? Saes, school disrics, and schools need answers o hese quesions i he resuls o curriculum effeciveness sudies󲀔boh exising and new󲀔are o leverage curriculum reorm as a sraegy o improve suden learning in a cosresrained environmen.

Methodology Tis repor examines wheher here is significan variaion in how much differen saes pay or he same insrucional maerials as well as wheher so-called recommend saes and sugges saes󲀔which are defined in a subsequen secion o his repor󲀔pa repor󲀔payy similar prices or he same exbooks. In order o deermine he answers o hese quesions, he auhors colleced price daa on adoped elemenary mah insrucional maerials rom 19 saes: Alabama,  Arkansas,  Arkansa s, Calior Caliornia, nia, Fl Florida, orida, Georgia, Idaho, Kenucky, Mississipp Mississippi,i, Norh Carolina, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Souh Carolina, ennessee, exas, Uah, Virginia, and Wes Virginia. Te auhors firs compiled all o he readily available price daa rom exbook adopion liss ha were posed on sae educaion agencies’, or SEA’s, websies, and hen recorded he produc name; inernaional sandard book number, number, or ISBN; grade level; and year o adopion, or each primary insrucional maerial lised on a sae’s sae’s adopion lis. Te auhors decided no o include ancillary maerials. I a price lis or elemenary elemenar y mah exbooks was no available on a exbook adopion sae’s websie, hen he auhors sen an email o he sae’s lised conacs or curriculum and communicaions requesing a lis o adoped elemenary mah insrucional maerials.

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Te auhors hen convered all prices o 2014 dollars and convered muli-suden  bundles ino per-suden prices by dividing he bundle price by he number o sudens. Te auhors ocused on he 114 producs ha appear on he lis o a leas wo saes and mached producs across saes using heir ISBN. Tey also analyzed he relaionship beween price and qualiy by collecing price daa or insrucional insruc ional maerials included in he U.S. Deparmen o Educaion’s Insiue o Educaion Sciences’, Sciences’, or IES’, randomized conrolled rial on he effeciveness o insrucional maerials. Price daa were colleced rom publishers’ websies or he our curricula included in he RC and hen he auhors compared he qualiy differences o he price differences or six pairs o producs. Tey hen compared he relaive cos and benefi o swiching o a new curriculum o oher educaional policies ha were included in an influenial paper by economis Doug Harris.

Limitations

Tis repor provides new evidence ev idence on how curricula are seleced across he counry, as well as a comprehensive analysis o how schools could increase suden achievemen hrough curriculum reorm. Howe However, ver, here are a ew caveas ha he auhors believe are imporan o acknowledge. For one, he auhors did no examine digial or oher online curricula.  Also, due o he lac lackk o highhigh-quali qualiyy sudie sudiess on cu curricul rriculum um effec effeciveness, iveness, he auhors relied on a single sudy or heir analysis o he  he relaionship beween price and qualiy qualiy.. Specifically, hey looked a he Mahemaica Policy Research and SRI Inernaional sudy, an RC ha was sponsored by he Insiue o Educaion Sciences, or IES, and released in 2010. Te sudy is a randomized conrolled rial, which is ofen called he gold sandard in educaion research  because i all allows ows researcher researcherss o isolae he caus causal al effec o an iner venion by ru rulling ou all oher possible conounding acors. Tis paricular RC sudy allows one o examine, or a limied se o producs, wheher here is any relaionship  beweenn pric  bewee pricee and qquali ualiyy and w wha ha ROI sch schools ools may rece receive ive rom invesing in  beter producs. produ cs. Tere are a han handul dul o high-qu high-qualiy aliy non-ex non-experimen perimenal al sud sudies ies on curriculum effeciveness, bu he auhors did no include hese sudies in heir analysis because hese sudies do no rule r ule ou he poenial or bias o he same degree ha RCs do. In ac, i is no unusual or he findings o RCs o conradic he findings o non-experimenal sudies. 13 

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Te IES sudy isel has some limiaions. For insance, i only examined a paricular group o sudens, who w ho were rom relaively disadvanaged amilies, a one 14 poin in ime.  Also, wihin he IES sudy, he same curricula had varying vary ing impac  beween firs and second grade. For For example, he Inves Invesigaions igaions in N Number, umber, Da Daa, a, and Space curriculum had he same effec on firs-grade achievemen as he Scot Foresman-Addison Wesley Mahemaics, or SFAW, curriculum, bu second-grade sudens assigned o he Invesigaions curriculum perormed .09 grade levels beer a he end o he year han sudens augh using SFAW.15  Tese inconsisen resuls across grade levels and populaions suppor he need or more research on curriculum effeciveness, as well as disaggregaed effeciveness resuls by grade level and demographic acors. In oher words, a curriculum ha has a rack record o success or firs graders in Beverly Hills, Caliornia, will no necessarily yield he same posiive suden-achievemen gains gains in a firs-grade class in Los Angeles or even anoher grade wihin he Beverly Hills school disric. Sudies on curriculum effeciveness e ffeciveness have oher caveas. Tere simply is no enough evidence o make clear conclusions abou pedagogy pedagogy,, alhough some o he he 16 curricula do ake differen approaches o eaching mah.  I is also imporan o noe ha alignmen beween a curriculum and is assessmen could affec esimaes o curriculum effeciveness.17 Finally, because he manner in which eachers ranslae curricula ino insrucion unolds in classrooms, ha exac ranslaion remains beyond he scope o his repor.18  In erms o calculaing he ROI o curricula and oher educaional inervenions, here are oher caveas. For insance, his repor compares a low-cos inervenion󲀔buying new insrucional maerials󲀔o many high-cos high-cos inervenions. A school can easily spend $1,000 per suden on class-size reducion, or insance,  bu i would be very unlikely o spend ha much on exbooks. However, However, he daa make he case ha swiching o a higher-qualiy curriculum is a worhwhile reorm o improve suden achievemen.

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How curriculum decisions are made Te process o curriculum adopion varies widely. Across he counry, 19 saes have a sae-level adopion process or insrucional maerials bu leave he final selecion decisions o individual disrics.19 In mos o he oher saes, disrics selec maerials wih no direc inpu rom he sae. Finally Finally,, here are saes ha dey easy caegorizaion󲀔such as Indiana, which recommends elemenary reading primary exbooks bu no oher insrucional maerials.  Wh ile researc  While researchh suggess ha he conen in included cluded in exbook exbookss shapes wha iiss augh in classrooms, individual eachers ulimaely deermine how o implemen seleced maerials.20 eachers deermine which sudens use which maerials and how hese sudens use hose maerials. Ta issue, however, however, is ouside he scope o his repor. Tis repor firs provides a comprehensive look a how saes are involved󲀔or no involved󲀔inn curriculum selecion in each o he 50 saes. O he 19 saes wih involved󲀔i any ormal process, 9 compile a lis o maerials rom which school disrics are required or srongly encouraged o use when selecing a curriculum. Saes ha use his process are called recommend saes.21 For example, disrics in Souh Carolina choose exbooks rom a comprehensive sae-approved sae-approved lis o maerials and submi heir exbook orders direcly o he sae.22 Florida requires disrics o spend a leas 50 percen o heir insrucional maerials unding allocaion rom he sae on approved maerials unless disrics op o conduc heir own adopion process.23 And Alabama also has a sae-approved lis, bu i allows disrics o reques permission o use oher maerials.24  Te oher 10 saes wih some kind o ormal process p rocess provide a lis o maerials  bu do no require ha saes saes choose rom he lis. Saes Saes ha ollow his model are designaed as sugges saes. For example, he adopion process in exas is   ofen poliically raugh, bu disrics are ree o adop any maerials maerials hey preer.25  Caliornia has a similar policy or grades K-8, bu he adopion o maerials or 26

grades 9-12 is lef compleely o disrics.  

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Te map below shows ha, wih some eexcepions, xcepions, recommend and sugges saes are locaed largely in he Souh, wih w ih Norhern saes more likely o have so-called open adopion policies. In recen years, a number o saes have decenralized heir exbook adopion decisions by providing disrics wih more flexibiliy flexibi liy in selecing insrucional maerials. Saes such as Caliornia and exas now allow disrics o choose exbooks ha have no been adoped by he sae, and Arkansas 27

decided o sop is adopion process alogeher alogeher..   FIGURE 1

State textbook adoption classifications

Open Suggest Recommend

Source: The authors classified states based on information provided on state education agencies' websites and through the following sources: State Instructional Materials Review Association, "State Resources," available at http://simra.us/wp/state-links/ http://simra.us/wp/state-links/ (last accessed September 2015); Personal communication with State Education Agencies; Catherine Gewertz, comment on "Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts," comment posted on January 27, 2015, available at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curricuhttp://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2015/01/textbook_authority_shifting_ lum/2015/01/textbook_aut hority_shifting_from_states_to_di from_states_to_districts.html. stricts.html.

TABLE 1

Textbook adoption process classifications Recommend state

Districts choose textbooks from a recommended list prepared by the state or request permission to select a textbook that t hat is not on the state’s adoption recommended recommended list.

Suggest state

Districts choose textbooks from a recommended list prepared by the state education agency, or SEA, but local school boards can freely opt to use textbooks that are not approved by the SEA.

Ope pen n sta state te

Tex extb tbo ook ado adopt ptio ion n de deci cisi sio ons are are m mad adee at at tth he loc local al lev level. el.

Source: The authors created the three textbook adoption process classifications based on an analysis of states’ textbook adoption policies.  The authors collected information information on textbook adoption policies icies from state education agencies’ websites and through through the following sour sources: ces: State Instructional Materials Review Association, “State “State Resources,” av available ailable at http://simra.us/ http://simra.us/wp/state-links/ wp/state-links/ (last accessed September 2015); Personal communication with State Education Agencies; Catherine Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts, ” comment posted on January 27, 2015, available at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2015/01/t http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2015/01/textbook_authority_shiftextbook_authority_shifting_from_states_to_districts.html.

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Te auhors carried ou case sudies o he adopion process in hree recommend saes and wo sugges saes. Te adopion processes in hese five saes are described in deail in Appendix B, bu all ollow a similar ouline: Saes aim o adop maerials in specified subjecs a semi-regular inervals, which range rom five o eigh years. However, someimes sae unding issues can delay he adopion process. Te However, sae appoins reviewers responsible or evaluaing he maerials, which are usually submited by publishers. Te main crierion used by reviewers is a maerial’s alignmen o he sae’s sandards. Each sae’s board o educaion or commissioner o educaion makes he final adopion decisions based on he reviewers’ recommendaions and he public’s commens.  Alhough saes do review review curriculum maerials, hey ypically yp ically rely on limied measures o qualiy. A number o saes, or insance, evaluae alignmen beween he sandards and he curriculum using a checklis-like approach raher han a deep evaluaion.28 Evaluaors also ofen rely on maerial produced by he publishers hemselves o judge alignmen.29 Tis means ha here is ofen litle reason or publishers o work hard o produce high-qualiy curriculum. However, However, publishers also have litle incenive o exclude conen ha is only loosely relaed o he sae sandards, since alignmen and qualiy measures generally do no penalize publishers or including exraneous conen.30  More broadly, a number o sudies have shown ha he adopion process does no sufficienly look a issues o effeciveness. 31 Par o he issue is poliical, and when i comes o exbooks, wha ends o make headlines are issues relaed o religion or ho-buton science opics. In exas, exas, or insance, a recen adopion process ocused on debaes over wheher or no Moses inspired America’s Founding Fahers.32 Tere have also been debaes over he role o evoluion and climae change in exbooks. 33  Such heaed poliical debaes debaes are a y ype pe o disracion, and saes ofen ail o ocus in any significan way on issues o effeciveness. Poliics may also help explain why issues o alignmen are ofen overlooked, and a number o recen sudies show ha he supposedly Common Core-ali Core-aligned gned exbooks are no 34 all ha aligned.  Moreover, a ew large saes wih highly poliicized exbook adopion processes󲀔such as exas󲀔ofen hold a lo o sway in he exbook  business because o heir “marke clou.”35 

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In open-adopion saes, disrics are responsible or selecing insrucional maerials wihou being provided a lis o possibiliies by he sae. Previous research indicaes ha some open-adopion saes ake a more acive role in selecion decisions han ohers, bu ha in hese saes “one o he mos rused r used resources  was daa rom ‘disrics ‘disrics like us’ us’󲀔neighboring 󲀔neighboring or demogr demographically aphically similar disrics.  Almos hal o … [disric] [disric] curriculum leaders conaced conaced colleagues in oher dis36

rics o discover which programs hey should be seriously considering.”   Te auhors o his repor conduced case sudies o eigh disrics locaed in five open-adopion saes. (see (see Appendix B) As par o heir analysis, hey looked a disrics in Alaska, Arizona, Ar izona, Nebraska, Io Iowa, wa, and Illinois, and hey ound ha he adopion process was largely he same across he disrics. Specifically, he process generally begins wih appoining a commitee ha includes some mix o sakeholders󲀔such as eachers, adminisraors, school board members, parens, sudens, and communiy members. Te commitee eiher makes he final adopion decision or reviews maerials and makes recommendaions o he school board,  which hen makes he final decision. wo excepions sood ou among he eigh case sudies. Te firs was Chicago Public Schools, which does no have a ormal, disricwide adopion process or insrucional maerials. Insead, individual schools make hese decisions and he disric provides some schools wih supplemenal maerials. However, he Chicago disric is currenly developing a ormal process as par o Common Core implemenaion. 37  Te second excepion was Lincoln Public Schools in Nebraska, which conducs lenghy implemenaion sudies beore adoping new insrucional maerials. Tese sudies involve ideniying wo ses o schools ha are represenaive represenaive o he disric’s suden populaion populaion and piloing wo ses o insrucional maerials wihin he seleced schools. Te disric hen decides which program o adop based on achievemen daa and eedback rom  rom eachers.38  Te example o Lincoln Public Schools highlighs he ac ha disrics seeking relevan, evidence-based inormaion on qualiy ofen need o produce i hemselves. An official rom he Lincoln disric pu i blunly: “Every exbook company will say hey’re 100 percen aligned o he sandards, bu hey’re hey ’re no.”39 None o he case sudies revealed examples o saes or disrics looking or objecive, independen research on he relaive qualiy o producs. However, However, i is difficul o deermine wheher his resuls more rom he dearh o such inormaion or he lack o an ineres in using i.

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Spending on instructional materials  Wh en i co  When comes mes o ins insruci rucional onal maeria maerials, ls, he here re are wo wo poen poenial ial ways ha ha school sysems can increase he reurn on invesmen o public invesmens: choosing beter producs or negoiaing beter prices. In order o consider  wheherr here is signi  whehe significan fican room or saes o negoiae bbeter eter pric prices, es, he auhors examined wheher here is significan variaion in how much differen saes pay or he same insrucional maerials. o make ha deerminaion, he auhors colleced price pr ice daa or individual elemenary mah maerials rom 19 saes: Alabama, Arkansas, Caliornia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kenucky, Mississippi, Norh Carolina, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Souh Carolina, ennessee, exas, Uah, Virginia, and Wes  Virginia. All prices were convered convered o 2014 dollars and he auhors convered convered 40 muli-suden bundles ino per-suden prices.  Te auhors ocused on he 114 producs rom 17 saes ha appear on he lis o more han one sae and mached producs across saes using heir Inernaional Sandard Book Number.41 Tese producs have an average price o $34 per suden or 0.32 percen o a school disric’s average average spending per pupil.42 However, he auhors’ calculaions do no accoun or he digial componens, However, ancillary maerials, eacher proessio proessional nal developmen aligned o curricula, curr icula, and eachers’ ediions used in classrooms. Given he lack o cos variaion var iaion among primary insrucional producs, here is litle reason o believe ha he exbook supplemens or digial offerings would vary significanly in erms o cos, alhough o course hey can add o he overall cos. During he research or his repor, he auhors ound a wide w ide range o maerials on sae adopion liss. In some areas, he sae provides a very long and deailed lis o recommended iems.43 Tere is very litle evidence ev idence ha differen saes pay markedly markedly differen prices or he same produc. Te difference beween he minimum and maximum paid or each produc averaged $1.47, or abou 5 percen o he minimum price. I is imporan o noe, however however,, ha even a large difference in percenage erms

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 would sill ranslae ino a small difference difference in dollars, given how litle is spen on insrucional producs. Te figure below shows ha he difference beween he lowes and highes prices paid by saes was less han 1 percen or 30 percen o producs. Te range in prices was less han 10 percen or 85 percen o producs. Tis finding is consisen wih evidence rom he adopion case sudies, where he auhors ound ha many saes require publishers o give hem he lowes price 44

available naionwide.   FIGURE 2

The difference between the lowest and highest instructional materials prices paid by states <1%

30%

1–5%

35%

5–10%

20%

10–15%

15%+

9% 6%

Note: Price data represent 114 elementary math materials from 17 states that appear on the list of more than one st ate. The price lists were either available on a state education agency's website or sent to the authors by a state education agency's curriculum director or press contact. The authors matched products across states using their ISBN number, converted all prices to 2014 dollars, and converted multistudent bundles into per-student prices All data are on file with the authors. Source: The authors first compiled all of the readily available price data from textbook adoption lists that were posted on state education agencies’, or SEA’s, websites. If a price list for elementary math textbooks was not available on a textbook adoption state’s website, then the authors sent an email to t he state’s listed contacts for curriculum and communications requesting a list of adopted elementary math instructional materials.

In heir research, he auhors esed an addiional hypohesis ha recommend saes migh be able o negoiae a beter price han sugges saes because disrics are required o buy rom a sae-approved lis in recommend saes bu no in sugges saes. Te repor finds no correlaion beween recommend or sugges saus and prices o insrucional maerials. For he 224 observaions o 69 unique producs sold in boh a sugges sae and a recommend sae, on average, he price is $0.12 lower in he recommend sae, a small and saisically insignifican difference.

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 Th e rel  The relat atio ions nshi hip p be bett we ween en price and quality Tere is very litle rigorous rese research arch on he qualiy o mos insrucional maerials used in schools oday, and ha leaves review commitees o rely on publishers’ markeing and heir own judgmens. Tere is presenly only one randomized experimen o he effeciveness o insrucional maerials, he previously menioned Mahemaica Policy Research and SRI Inernaional randomized conrolled rial carried ou or he Insiue o Educaion Sciences.45  Tis sudy ound ha classes randomly assigned o cerain curricula ared much  beter on mah ess a he end o fifirs rs and second grad gradee han classes ran randomly domly assigned o oher curricula. Te auhors used his sudy o deermine wheher here is a relaionship beween price and qualiy quali y o insrucional maerials. Combining he average effecs on mah es scores in firs and second grade, he  wors produc o he our was Scot Scot Fores Foresman-Addison man-Addison W Wesley esley Mahemaics, or SFAW. Compared o classrooms using SFAW, classrooms using Invesigaions in Number,, Daa, and Space perormed 0.05 grade levels beter a he end o he year, Number hose using Mah Expressions did 0.12 grade levels beter, and hose using Saxon Mah perormed 0.13 grade levels beter beter..46 TABLE 2

The effectiveness of four early elementary school math curricula Cu rricu lu m

F i r s t - gr a d e e f f e c t

S e co n d - gr a d e e f f e c t

Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

0.00

0.09

Math Expressions

0.11

0.12

Saxon Math

0.07

0.17

Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics

0.00

0.00

Note: Effects are calculated relative to the lowest-performing curriculum, which is assigned an effect of 0.00. Source: Roberto Agodini and others, “A “Achievement chievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula: Findings for First and Second Graders” (Princeton, (Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and SRI International, 2010), available at http://www.mat http://www.mathematica-mpr hematica-mpr.com/~/  .com/~/  media/publications/PDFs/Education/ media/publications/ PDFs/Education/mathcurricula_fstsn mathcurricula_fstsndgrade.pdf. dgrade.pdf.

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For his repor, he auhors merged he effeciveness resuls rom he RC wih curricula price daa, using prices rom publishers’ websies.47 Te merged qualiyprice daa were used o address hree relaed quesions: 1. Is here a relaionsh relaionship ip beween price and qualiy? In oher words, do higher qualiy producs cos more? 2. Is i a good use o resources or schoo schools ls o hrow ou he curren curriculum in order o buy a new curriculum? Does a larger improvemen in qualiy cos more? 3. How does he reurn on invesmen o curriculum compare o he ROI o oher educaional inervenions? Tere are six pairs o producs ha can be compared o each oher using he RC. Te figure below compares he qualiy differences o he price differences or all six pairs o producs. For example, he lef-mos daa poin shows ha, or he pair o producs where Saxon Mah is higher qualiy and Mah Expressions is lower qualiy, Saxon Mah produces suden achievemen 0.01 grade levels higher a a price ha is $1.16 lower per suden.

FIGURE 3

The relationship between price and quality differences for instructional materials $0 -$3    e    c    n    e    r    e     ff     i     d    e    c     i    r     P

-$6 -$9

-$12 -$15 0.00

0.03

0.06

0.09

0.12

0.15

Improvement in quality in grade levels Intervention: ➊ Choose Investigations in Number, Data, and Space over Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics ➋ Choose Math Expressions over Investigations in Number, Data, and Space ➌ Choose Math Expressions over Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics ➍ Choose Saxon Math over Investigations in Number, Data, and Space ➎ Choose Saxon Math over Math Expressions ➏ Choose Saxon Math over Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics Note: The authors collected price data for all curricula included included in the only high-quality curriculum effectiveness effectiveness study, which is a randomized controlled trial carried out by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research and SRI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Science, or IES. The price data for the four curricula included in the IES study came from prices listed on publishers’ websites. Source: Roberto Agodini and others, “Achievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula: Findings for First and Second Graders” (Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and SRI International, 2010), available at http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/Education/mathcurricula_fstsndgrade.pdf.

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 Alhough he  Alhough here re ar aree only six da daa a poin poins s in h his is su sudy dy,, her heree does no app appear ear oo be much o a relaionship beween price and qualiy. All o he differences in price are quie small󲀔no more han $13 per suden. An increase in qualiy does no appear o ranslae ino an increase in price. I anyhing, he higher-qualiy producs end o cos less, as shown by he ac ha all o he price differences are negaive.48   A second approa approach ch is o as askk wheher i ma makes kes sens sensee or scho schools ols o hr hrow ow ou he produc hey currenly use in order o buy a higher-qualiy produc. From his perspecive, he school has o pay he ull cos o he higher-qualiy produc󲀔no jus he difference beween he wo producs󲀔because wha i spen on he old produc is a sunk cos. Te figure below shows, or he same six pairs o producs, how much i would cos o abandon he old produc and buy a higher-qualiy produc. For example, he lef-mos daa poin in he figure below is or he same wo producs cied above: Saxon Mah and Mah Expressions. A school considering swiching o he beter produc󲀔Saxon Mah󲀔would expec o gain 0.01 grade levels in suden achievemen and ace he ull per-suden cos o Saxon Mah, $36.13.49

FIGURE 4

Relationship between price and quality for instructional materials $40

$39

$38       e       c          i       r          P

$37

$36

$35 0.00

0.03

0.06

0.09

0.12

0.15

Improvement in quality in grade levels Intervention: ➊ Switch Investigations in Number, Data, and Space to Math Expressions ➋ Switch Investigations in Number, Data, and Space to Saxon Math ➌ Switch Scott Foresman-Addison Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics to Investigations in Number, Data, and Space ➍ Switch Scott Foresman-Addison Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics to Math Expressions ➎ Switch Scott Foresman-Addison Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics to Saxon Math ➏ Switch Math Expressions to Saxon Math Note: The authors collected price data for all curricula included in the only high-quality curriculum effectiveness study, which is a randomized controlled trial carried out by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research and SRI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Science, or IES. The price data for the four curricula included in the IES study came from prices listed on publishers’ websites. Source: Roberto Agodini and others, “Achievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula: Findings for First and Second Graders” (Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. and SRI International, 2010), available at http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/Education/mathcurricula_fstsndgrade.pdf.

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Once again, here is litle relaionship beween price and qualiy. I anyhing, a larger improvemen in qualiy may come a a slighly lower cos. However, However, i is imporan o noe ha here is no much opporuniy opporuni y or a subsanively imporan relaionship beween price and qualiy given g iven ha here is no much variaion in prices. Tese daa also al so show ha educaionally meaningul improvemens in qualiy o up o 0.13 grade levels can be achieved or a very modes cos: less han 50

$40 per suden, or abou 0.4 percen o averag averagee curren spending per suden.  Anoher way o hin hinkk abou his idea is ha schools m make ake financ financial ial radeo radeoffs ffs among differen possible uses o heir money money,, and hus hey should compare he expeced impac o spending a dollar on a new curriculum o spending ha same dollar on new echnology echnology,, lower class sizes, or higher eacher salaries, o cie jus a ew possibiliies. Consequenly Consequenly,, schools mus compare he coss and  benefiss o he  benefi hese se compe compeing ing aler alernaives. naives. Te auhors use heir qualiy-price daa on elemenar elemenaryy mah curricula included in he RC o compare he relaive coss and benefis o swiching o a new curriculum o implemening oher educaional policies, drawing rom an influenial paper by economis Doug Harris.51 Te figure below shows he ROI o swiching o a higher-qualiy curriculum󲀔as measured by he benefi-cos raio󲀔or he six curriculum comparisons and various oher educaional inervenions, such as smaller class sizes. As noed above, he key issue here is ha curriculum reorm is much cheaper han oher inervenions. iner venions. In oher words, he auhors are no  arguing ha saes and disrics should rerain rom eacher reorms or preschool iniiaives. Raher, hey are simply arguing ha curriculum reorm can deliver good  bang or he buck, and hey find ha swiching o a higher-qualiy higher-qualiy curriculum has a large ROI relaive o oher educaional policies. Across he six curricula comparisons, he average cos-effeciveness raio󲀔also reerred o here as ROI󲀔is 1.95,  which is 39 imes he ROI o class-size reducion.52 

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FIGURE 5

The return on investment of educational policies Cost-effectiveness ratio Class size (STAR) 0.05 Computer-aided instruction 0.54 Peer and adult cross-age tutoring 0.81 Peer cross-age tutoring 1.26 Adult cross-age tutoring 0.27 Abecedarian child care 0.01 Instructional time 0.36 Success for All 0.07

Switch Investigations in Number, Data, and Space to Math Expressions 1.88 Switch Investigations in Number, Data, and Space to Saxon Math 2.08 Switch Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics to Investigations in Number, Data, and Space 1.18 Switch Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics to Math Expressions 3.08 Switch Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics to Saxon Math 3.32 Switch Math Expressions to Saxon Math 0.14 Note: The authors adjust all of the cost-effectiveness ratio—the measure referred to as ROI in this report—reported in Harris’ study by inflating costs to 2014 dollars. The authors collected price data for all curricula included in the only high-quality curriculum effectiveness study, which is a randomized controlled trial carried out by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research and SRI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences, or IES. The price data for the four curricula included in the IES study came from prices listed on publishers’ websites. Source: Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31 (1) (2009): 3–29.

Tese daa make a compelling case ha i schools have access o objecive and reliable inormaion on curriculum qualiy, hey should hrow ou a lower qualiy produc and buy a higher qualiy produc wihou hesiaion. Similarly, invesinvesmens ino research on curriculum effeciveness also can produce a very high ROI  by enabling schools o make make such ROI-enha ROI-enhancing ncing decisions.

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Findings Tis repor invesigaes he curren curricula landscape and deermines wheher curriculum reorm is an effecive and producive sraegy o improve suden achievemen. Below are he repor’s major findings.

Higher-quality instructional materials in elementary school math can come at a relatively low cost For he same six pairs o producs, he auhors looked a how much i would cos or a school o swich rom a lower-qualiy produc o a higher-qualiy one in elemenary school mah. Te coss were relaively low or swiching o a higher-qualiy produc. For insance, he highes-qualiy elemenary school mah curriculum coss jus $36 per suden. 53 Plus, publishers end o charge all saes roughly he same price or heir maerials.54 Tis means ha nearly all opporuniies or boosing reurn on invesmen invesmen are a mater o choosing he  bes produc, p roduc, nno o findi finding ng a beter price.  Anoher way o hink abou his idea is ha ha swiching curricula is a producive  way or schools o experience subsanial subsanial suden-achievemen suden-achievemen gains or a small cos. I a school allos approximaely 0.4 percen o he average curren spending per suden o purchase beter insrucional insruc ional maerials, he daa sugges ha he school will have significan improvemens in suden achievemen.

More rigorous elementary school math curricula can deliver far more bang for the buck than other reforms   Te auhors compared he cos-effeciveness raio or each o he six pairs o elemenary mah curricula ha have been subjec o a rigorous evaluaion, and hey ound ha swiching o a higher-qualiy curriculum has a huge produciviy  boos. Across Ac ross he six cu curricul rriculaa compari comparisons sons incl included uded in a high-q high-qualiy ualiy curri curricuculum effeciveness sudy, he average cos-effeciveness cos-effeciveness raio is almos 40 imes he ROI in class-size reducion.55  19

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 As par par  o h heir eir research, he au auhors hors al also so looked o see i ROI resuls would change significanly significanly by using he findings rom a differen curriculum sudy ha also looked a effecs on suden oucomes. Specifically, Specifically, hey analyzed he hree curricula comparisons rom a recen sudy in Indiana and ound ha he average cos-effecivenesss raio remains he same, around 40 imes he ROI o class-size cos-effecivenes reducion.56 In oher words, he average ROI o he Indiana comparisons is very similar󲀔even slighly higher󲀔han higher󲀔han he averag averagee cos-effeciveness raio or he Insiue o Educaion Sciences sudy. sudy. Boh o hese sudies provide ev evidence idence ha curriculum reorm presens a cos-effecive way o improve suden achievemen given is affordabiliy and efficacy.

When it comes to math curriculum in the early grades, you do not get what you pay for Tere is litle relaionship beween cos and qualiy o insrucional producs,  wih he mos mos exp expensive ensive pproduc roduc in he sam samee governme governmen-sponsored n-sponsored sudy cosing abou $13 per suden more han he leas expensive produc. I anyhing, he higher-qualiy producs end o cos less, and in some cases, he mos expensive curriculum was among he leas effecive and he leas expensive was among he mos effecive. Given ha higher-qualiy producs end o cos less, i may be hard o undersand  why schools do no adop more effecive producs. producs. How However, ever, as noed eearlier arlier in his repor, he issue wih curriculum selecion is no he cos o high-qualiy producs, bu he lack o research on curriculum effeciveness.

Policy decisions often do not consider rigorous measures of curriculum quality Te discussion o he adopion o exbooks and oher insrucional maerial ofen seems o be dominaed by poliics raher han subsance, and evaluaors ofen do no appear o make use o he limied evidence base on curriculum qualiy ha exiss. ex iss. Insead, adopio adopionn decisions are ofen based on limied assessmens o qualiy and weak proxies or alignmen o sae sandards. sandards. Tis repor ound, or insance, ha exbooks in exas need o cover only 50 percen o he

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sae’s grade-level sandards, and reviewers in he sae don’ consider wheher or no he exbook conains exraneous maerial.57 In oher words, he sae’s exbooks can cover a lo o maerial ha’s no in he sandards. In Caliornia, reviewers ofen rely on “sandard maps” provided by he publisher hemselves.58  Te resul is ha schools ofen use misaligned exbooks, and sudies have shown ha here is a clear gap beween wha publishers59 say is aligned o sae sandards or effecive and wha ruly fis hose crieria.  Te auhors’ research or his repor reveals anoher wrinkle o his research, and i appears ha some disrics are aware o he ac ha publishers will wi ll exaggerae heir exbooks’ alignmen o he sae sandards. However, disric leaders also say ha eachers wih an in-deph undersanding o he curriculum and sandards are able o assess alignmen o he sandards o he curriculum.60 

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Recommendations Based on he analysis and findings o his repor, he auhors propose he ollowing recommendaions recommendaions..

 The fede dera rall go gove vern rnme ment nt sh shou ould ld in inve vest st  Th e fe in rigorous curriculum studies I is hard or observers o judge he qualiy o curriculum c urriculum i here is litle evidence ev idence on he effeciveness o mos producs. While curren law prohibis he ederal governmen rom exercising “any “any direcion, supervision, or conrol over he curriculum,”” he law does no preclude he ederal governmen rom researching curriculum, curricula ha are already available o saes and disrics.61 Te ederal governmen has a clear role o play in coninuing o suppor his his research hrough he Insiue o Educaion Sciences. Randomized experimens󲀔alhough expensive o conduc󲀔can have large reurns on invesmen since he resuls can immediaely inorm selecion and purchasing decisions around effecive insrucional insruc ional maerials ha benefi millions o sudens and housands o disrics. Te ROI o curriculum reorm is many imes ha o invesmens in oher policies. Te ac is ha here has been only o one RCabove. o curricular effeciveness hard o jusiy in ligh heederally evidenceunded discussed Te auhors believe ha he ederal governmen should approach curricular sudies similar o he way ha he U.S. Food and Drug Adminisraion ves producs: by aggressively aggressiv ely evaluaing and publicizing heir heir qualiy and research base base.. An RC on curriculum effeciveness coss approxima approximaely ely $10 mi million󲀔or llion󲀔or .01 percen o he Deparmen o Educaion’s discreionary appropriaions. 62 A relaively small research invesmen invesmen can have a subsanial ROI by providing saes and disrics  wih impora imporan n inor inormaion maion on he eff effecivene eciveness ss o ins insrucio rucional nal maeria maerials󲀔al ls󲀔alll  while barely mak making ing a de den n in he he overal overalll educa educaion ion budge budge..

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Sae educaion agencies, or SEAs, also have a role o play in collecing and making available he daa needed or sudies o curriculum qualiy quali y. However However,, effeciveness sudies are only possible i here are daa on which schools are using which producs. Saes should enhance heir longiudinal educaion daabases o include his inormaion in order o enable researchers o examine curricular effeciveness across a range o conexs and suden populaions.

Improve adoption processes at the state level Nineeen saes have have a cur curriculum riculum adopion process ha yields a lis o producs ha schools eiher mus use o selec insrucional maerials or are encouraged o use when adoping producs. Tese processes ollow a similar patern across saes, and in mos places, hey have been ollowed or decades. Tese processes overly emphasize impressionisic judgmens o qualiy based on checklis approaches o measuring alignmen. Moreover, many o he exbooks ha are adoped are no acually aligned wih sandards; his is a long-sanding problem ha has been highlighed by he implemenaion o he new Common Core sandards.63  When hard evidence on curriculum qualiy is available in some areas, educaors should use hose daa as opposed o making adopion decisions based on sales piches and he prevailing poliical headwinds. Addiionally Addiionally,, saes should dich heir largely haphazard approaches o measuring alignmen and insead commission proessional alignmen sudies o proposed curricula. A model or his work is some o he research on he alignmen beween sae ess and sae conen sandards, which has ound ha only hal o he conen o sae ess is par o he sandards.64 Te cos o developing and implemening rigorous measures o curriculum alignmen beseveral relaively small on a per-suden basis, considering ha adopion cycleswould run or years. In he subsanial number o saes ha do no have an adopion process, individual disrics have o evaluae insrucional maerials on heir own. Tere would be significan efficiencies in creaing a saewide process ha would help disrics narrow down he lis o considered producs and provide acionable inormaion o aid in selecion decisions. Te auhors recommend ha every sae become a sugges sae, so ha disrics receive recommendaions rom he sae bu are ree o ignore hem. Tis, in ac, is why he auhors do no endorse saes becoming recommend saes: Disrics should have some flexibiliy when i comes o curriculum.

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In his regard, Louisiana is a shining sar. Te sae iniially delayed is adopion process due o a lack o high-qualiy maerials, as well as issues wih Common Core alignmen.65 Afer resuming he process, Louisiana published annoaed reviews o insrucional maerials and grouped maerials ino hree iers: exemplifies qualiy, approaching qualiy, and no represening qualiy quali y.66  Looking orward, all saes should coninue o allow schools o selec he produc ha bes serves ser ves is sudens’ needs, bu hey mus also provide clear and accurae inormaion inormaion abou qualiy ha obv obviaes iaes he need or every disric o figure his ou on is own.

Improve selection decisions at the district level School disrics have long sruggled o make inormed curriculum decisions, in large par due o a lack o good inormaion on qualiy. Improving he adopion process a he sae level will be an imporan sep in he righ direcion. Bu disrics sill need o choose he righ produc rom he lis o opions provided by he sae or anoher produc when appropriae. Te number o choices can be overwhelming, and given he flaws o exising adopion processes, i is difficul or disrics o know wheher o rus he recommendaions embodied in he sae’s adopion decisions. And o course no such inormaion is provided in open-adopion saes. One promising sraegy currenly in use in some disrics is o pilo new producs alongside exising producs in order o produce evidence on effeciveness  beore commiting com miting o he he new produc. 67 I done well, pilo p ilo sudies can measure how well he produc works as implemened in a given disric, which may be more relevan atracive han evidence on how i worked someplace else. Tis approach is paricularly in larger disrics ha can pilo differen producs and have he inernal capaciy o evaluae he resuls.  Anoher promising promising pr pracice acice is h hee developme developmen n o rubrics. A Achieve, chieve, a W Washingo ashingon, n, D.C., educaion reorm organizaion, or insance, sared he Educaors Evaluaing he Qualiy o Insrucional Producs, or EQuIP, iniiaive, which allows educaors o evaluae Common Core insrucional maerials using he EQuIP rubrics.68 Te reorm group Change he Equaion has developed a rubric in he science, echnology, engineering, and mahemaics, or SEM, fields o evaluae “programs ha are mos likely o ... maximize he impac o heir invesmens.”69 Saes and ouside organizaions could build on hese programs and creae rubrics specifically ailored o evaluaing he efficacy o various curricula. In urn, hese rubrics could be validaed using suden achievemen daa.

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Given he curren dearh o high-qualiy evidence ev idence on curriculum qualiy, disrics can also improve heir capaciy o make well-inormed curriculum adopion decisions by creaing neworks or sharing inormaion across disrics wihin a sae.  While judgmens o qualiy by an individual indiv idual disric are likely o be somewha impressionisic, aggregaing aggregaing inormaion across muliple disrics disr ics can increase is reliabiliy.. In any case, inormaion based on ex reliabiliy experience perience using a produc is likely o be superior o claims made by is publisher or a casual review o he prined or digial maerials. Sae educaion agencies could publish disric reviews o insrucional maerials on heir websies so ha he inormaion is readily available or disrics o uilize during he exbook adopion process.

Establish a competitive grant initiative for high-quality curricula Te Common Core presens an opporuniy or disrics and saes o share insrucional maerials and ideniy promising curricula aligned o he sandards. However, Howeve r, i is difficul or hose making adopion decisions o deermine which maerials are boh effecive and aligned o he sandards. Some publishers, or insance, claim heir maerials are Common Core-aligned when he subsance o heir exbooks deviaes rom he sandards.70  Independen groups such as philanhropies should implemen a compeiive gran program whereby nonprofis, small publishing p ublishing companies, and oher innovaors could apply or unding o develop and scale-up promising and effecive curricula. Te gran program would increase he number o high-qualiy maerials in he Common Core markeplace markeplace and provide saes and disrics wih a wider array o opions when selecing insrucional insruc ional maerials. Te gran program should include subsanial unds or rigorous evaluaions and reward innovaion, scalabiliy, and evidence-based research. Disrics would pilo hese maerials, and he resuls o all pilo programs would be available online or saes and disrics o review when making adopion decisions. Te gran program could also und randomized conrol rials, which would compare he effeciveness o differen curricula. eachers, parens, and sudens could also have he opion o boh raing and posing reviews o hese maerials in order o ensure ha sakeholders have access o relevan inormaion beore selecing insrucional maerials. Tis eaure would be similar o he American Federaion o eachers’ “Share My Lesson”  websie,  websie, where eachers are able o provide oher educaors wih

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classroom resources resources as well as rae insrucional resources.71 Finally, he gran could require ha he resuling documens be Common Core aligned, as well as openly licensed, which would help spark reorm and drive down coss. Tere have been some promising soluions in his space. Te K-12 OER Collaboraive is helping o creae openly licensed, sample unis aligned o he Common Core, or insance.72 Te New York Sae Educaion Deparmen helped creae EngageNY EngageNY, which provides high-qualiy cur curricula ricula unis ha schools can make heir own and evenually led o he Eureka Mah curriculum.73 Suden  Achievemen Parners󲀔a Parners󲀔a New Y York ork Ciy nonprofi󲀔launche nonprofi󲀔launchedd Achieve he Core, an online bank o Common Core-aligned lessons.74 Despie hese examples, he auhors believe ha more needs o be done in he curriculum c urriculum space, paricularly around developing demonsraively effecive exbooks, and a compeiive program would help oser he creaion o beter insrucional maerial.

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Conclusion Te widespread adopion o he Common Core sandards has creaed creaed a naional marke or insrucional maerials. Publishers will wi ll no longer need o creae producs aligned o he sandards o 50 differen saes, which will creae opporuniies o inves more significanly in he creaion o new producs and open up he marke o smaller players who previously could no compee on a sae-by-sae basis. Pu simply, he need or high-qualiy research research on curriculum qualiy has never  been greaer, and an d he ederal gover governmen nmen ha hass a cl clear ear role o play in su suppor pporing ing gold-sandard gold-sanda rd research. Sae governmens can also make imporan conri buions hrough daa collec collecion ion and inormaion dissemina disseminaion. ion. Due o he near-universaliy near-univers aliy o he Common Core, saes, disrics, and philanhropic organizaions can inves in new ools or eliciing eedback rom users and sharing evidence abou maerials’ effeciveness. Producing in-deph inormaion on curriculum qualiy and using i o inorm decisions ha improve suden learning migh no ge as much atenion rom policymakers as more visible vi sible reorms such as reorming eacher evaluaion sysem sysemss or expanding aferschool programs. However, However, policymakers who care abou he U.S. educaion sysem would be remiss o pass up an opporuniy o have meaningul impacs on educaional qualiy a an affordable cos.

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About the Authors Ulrich Boser is a

Senior Fellow a he Cener or American Progress, where he analyzes educaion, criminal jusice, and oher social policy issues. Prior o joining he Cener,, Boser was a conribuing edior or U.S. News & World Report.  His wriings Cener have appeared in many publicaions, including Te New York imes, Wall Street  Journal, and Te Washington Post. He is working on a book on learning. Matthew Chingos is a senior ellow a he Urban Insiue, where he sudies edu-

caion-relaed opics a boh he K-12 and pos-secondary levels. Beore joining caion-relaed he Urban Insiue, Chingos was a senior ellow a he Brookings Ins Insiuion. iuion. His America’s Public Universities ,  book, Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America’s coauhored wih William G. Bowen and Michael S. McPherson, was published by Princeon Universiy Press in 2009. His work has also been published in academic  journals including he Journal of Public Economics , , Journal of Policy Policy Analysis and and  Management  , Educational Evaluation Evaluation and and Policy Analysis Analysis , and Education Finance Finance and Policy. Chingos received a B.A. in governmen and economics and a Ph.D in governmen rom Harvard Universiy. Chelsea Straus is a Policy Analys or he K-12 Educaion Policy eam a American

Progress. Prior o joining American Progress, Sraus was an educaion policy Progress. inern a he American A merican Enerprise Insiue. Sraus previously compleed inernships on he Hill wih w ih boh he House Commitee on he Judiciary and Rep. Jo John hn H. Adler (D-NJ). She graduaed rom Bucknell Universiy in May 2012 wih a  bachelor’ss degree in psychology and a minor in American poliics. SSraus  bachelor’ raus is a coauhor o his repor and auhored he case sudies in he appendix.

Acknowledgments Te auhors would like o hank Caherine Brown and Carmel Marin or heir invaluable eedback and suppor. We would also like o hank  hank he saes and disrics ha alked o us abou heir exbook adopion processes and answered numerous quesions. Morgan Polikoff, Jennier Wole, Doug Harris, and Claus  Von  Von Zasrow also provided helpul eedback. eedback.

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Appendix A TABLE A1

State textbook adoption classifications Sta te

C la s s i fic a tio n

Alabama

Recommend

Alaska

Open

Arizona

Open

Arkansas

Open

California

Suggest

Colorado

Open

Connecticut

Open

Delaware

Open

Florida

Recommend

Georgia

Suggest

No t e s Local school districts can also request permission to adopt a textbook that is not on the state’s adoption list, provided that the textbook is not on the rejected list.

Textbooks are not adopted at the high school level.

As much as 50 percent of annual textbook funding may be used for the purchase of instructional materials that are not included on the state’s adopted list. Alternatively, districts may undertake their own adoption processes independent of the state’ss process. This option was added to the Florida statute state’ in 2013 and expanded in 2014, but districts continue to use state-adopted materials.

Hawaii

Recommend

Hawaii conducted a thorough statewide adoption process for Common Core instructional materials and selected a specific set of instructional materials for each grade level. However, schools may opt to use other materials by filing an exception request and outlining an implementation plan. There are no statewide adoption processes for non-Common Core subjects.

Idaho

Suggest

The state recommends—but does not require—that districts choose materials from the list of vetted and approved materials.

Illinois

Open

Indiana

Open

Iowa

Open

Kansas

Open

Indiana only adopts materials for elementary school reading, which districts are required to use.

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Sta te

C la s s i fic a tio n

No t e s

Recommend

Districts must complete a notification process in order to purchase materials that are not on a state list.

Louisiana

Suggest

In Louisiana, all districts are able to purchase instructional materials that are best for their local communities. In order to support districts with these decisions, the Louisiana Department of Education conducts an informal review of instructional materials.

Maine

Open

Maryland

Open

Massachusetts

Open

Michigan

Open

Minnesota

Open

Mississippi

Suggest

Missouri

Open

Montana

Open

Nebraska

Open

Kentucky

Nevada does not actually conduct the adoption process; Nevada

Open

New Hampshire

Open

New Jersey

Open

instead, it requires districts to submit textbooks to the state for approval and adoption.

A minimum of 50 percent of textbook funding may be spent on primary instructional materials that are included on the state’ss authorized adopted list. state’

New Mexico

Recommend

New York

Open

North Carolina

Suggest

North Dakota

Open

Ohio

Open

Oklahoma

Recommend

As much as 20 percent of allocated textbook funds may be used for textbook repair or for student materials that are not adopted.

Oregon

Suggest

School districts may adopt and use textbooks or other instructional materials in place of or in addition to those adopted by the Oregon State Board of Education, provided they meet the state’ss guidelines and criteria. state’

Pennsylvania

Open

Rhode Island

Open

South Carolina

Recommend

South Dakota

Open

Tennessee

Recommend

Once the Tennessee State Board of Education approves the list of textbooks, school districts may choose to adopt a book from the state-approved state-approv ed list or apply for a waiver to use a different text.

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Sta te Texas

C la s s i fic a tio n

No t e s

Suggest

Utah

Suggest

Vermont

Open

Virginia

Suggest

Washington

Open

West Virginia

Recommend

Wisconsin

Open

Wyoming

Open

Districts are encouraged to use funds designated for state instructional materials to purchase materials on the recommended instructional materials list, or for advanced placement, International Baccalaureate, concurrent enrollment, and college-level course materials.

Local school boards can use textbooks that are not approved by the Virginia Board of Education, but a local textbook review process must be conducted that includes components similar to the state-level review.

Source: The authors classified states based on information provided on State Education Agencies’, or SEAs’, websites and through the following sources: State Instructional Materials Review Association, “State “State Resources,” av available ailable at http://simra.us/ http://simra.us/wp/state-links/ wp/state-links/ (last accessed September 2015); Personal communication communication with representatives representatives from SEAs, see endnotes 22, 23, 28, 29, 71, 76, 78, 88, 97, 107, 112, 118, 125, 129, 134, 139, and 147; Catherine Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts,”comment posted January 27, 2015, available at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2015/01/te http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2015/01/textbook_authority_shifting xtbook_authority_shifting_from_states_t _from_states_to_districts. o_districts. html (accessed February 19, 2015).

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Appendix B: Case studies State case studies

Alabama: Instructional materials adoption process in a recommend state Overview 

exbooks in Alabama are adoped a he sae level, bu disrics may reques permission o use oher insrucional insruc ional maerials ha he sae did no adop. However However,, disrics may no use any exbook rejeced by he sae board o educaion.75   Adop optition on pro ces s  Ad

 Alabama ypic  ypically ally adops nnew ew exb exbooks ooks in each subjec subjec area eve every ry six year years. s. Te adopion process sars in January wih publishers receiving an “inviaion o bid.” Te sae board o educaion appoins 14 educaors and he governor nominaes 9 members rom across he sae o serve on he 23-person Sae exbook Commitee. In he spring, Sae exbook Commitee members atend orienaion and raining. Publishers hen submi exbooks, and he commitee mees over he course o a ew monhs o review submissions using a rubric o evaluae alignmen o he sae sandards.76  In July, he Sae exbook Commitee holds publisher hearings o gain inormaion abou he exbooks ha are under consideraion. Afer holding a public hearing in Sepember, he Sae exbook Commitee voes and submis recommendaions o he sae superinenden o educaion. Te sae superinenden hen makes a recommendaion o he sae board o educaion. Tese recommendaions are publicly announced and he general public may submi commens on hese maerials. In December, he sae board o educaion ulimaely voes on  which insrucional maerials o approve approve or he adopion.77 

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Following he online publicaion o he sae’s insrucional maerials adopion lis, school disrics creae local commitees o review adoped exbooks. Local commitees mus finish heir adopion processes no laer han April 30 and submi a local adopion repor o he sae wihin 30 days. I a disric ops o adop a exbook ha is no on he sae’s adopion lis, he disric mus reques a leter rom he publisher wih an explanaion as o why he insrucional maerial was no included in he sae’s adopion process. Te leter is hen submited o he sae or review and approval. Classroom insrucional maerials mus be adoped by he local board o educaion based on a local exbook commitee’s recommendaion. 78  Changes to adoption process

 An inernal ask or orce ce is curre currenly nly reviewing Al Alabama abama’’s adopio adopionn proces process. s. Acco According rding o Marin Dukes, educaion adminisraor or insrucional services wih he  Alabama Deparmen Deparmen o Educaio Educaion, n, he sa sae e hopes oo sre sreamline amline he in insrucional srucional maerials review process in order o beter serve local school disrics.79   When asked abou uure changes, Dukes explained ha he does no oresee oresee any immediae changes o Alabama’s exbook adopion process; however, he noed ha i would be valuable o move oward an ongoing review process. Dukes menioned ha a “consumer guidebook” or insrucional maerials would allow saes and disrics o effecively move away rom a ormal adopion process where exbooks are only adoped in each subjec area every six years.80 

California: Instructional materials adoption process in a suggest state Overview 

exbooks in Caliornia are adoped a hemaerials sae levelrom in grades K-8,s bu disrics are no required o purchase insrucional he sae’ sae’s adopion lis. In grades 9-12, disrics are solely responsible or evaluaing and adoping insrucional maerials.81   Adop on pro ces s  Ad optition

Caliornia aims o adop exbooks in he primary curriculum subjecs every eigh  years.. H  years Howev owever, er, he s sae ae ssuspend uspended ed is adopi adopion on pr process ocess in 2009 due o budge budge 82 consrains.  While he suspension lifs his year, he legislaure previously approved he sae o move orward wih adoping mah and English language ars, or ELA, Common Core-aligned maerials.83 Te sae adoped Common Core-aligned mah insrucional maerials in January 2014 and plans o adop Common Core-aligned English language ars, or ELA, insrucional maerials in November 2015. 84 

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Center ffor or American Progress |   The Hidd en Val ue of o f Curri Cu rriculu culu m Re form

 

Te adopion process begins when he sae board o educaion selecs insrucional maerials reviewers, or IMRs, and conen review expers, ex pers, or CREs, and holds an inviaion o submi meeing. IMRs are primarily eachers and school adminisraors, while CREs have he conen experise o serve as a resource or research-based research-b ased quesions. Boh ypes o reviewers apply online and are seleced by he sae board o educaion. A he inviaion o submi meeing, he Sae Board o Educaion walks publishers hrough he adopion process, answers any quesions, and provides he publishers wih all he necessary orms.85  IMRs and CREs are hen rained over our days and publishers presen heir submited maerials. maerials. Publishers disribue samples o heir producs and provide reviewers wih compleed sandar sandards ds maps demonsraing heir producs’ alignmen o Caliornia’s sandards. IMRs and CREs use hese sandards maps o evaluae wheher an insrucional maerial mees each sandard. During his independen review period, he submited maeri maerials als are accessible or vviewing iewing a Learning Resource Display Ceners hroughou he sae and he suden maerials are available or public viewing v iewing online. Te Caliornia Deparmen o Educaion websie displays displays he links o where hose suden maerials may be  viewed or each program subm submission. ission. Te Tese se maerial maerialss remain ppublicly ublicly available unil he sae board o educaion makes is adopion decisions.86  Following he independen review period, IMRs and CREs mee or deliberaions and assemble a repor o heir findings. Nex, he Insrucional Qualiy Commission, or IQC, conducs public hearings and makes final recommendaions. Te sae board o educaion ulimaely adops maerials based on IQC recommendaions.87   According o Cliff R Rudnick udnick, , insr insrucional ucional resources uni uni admini adminisraor sraor w wih ih he Caliornia Deparmen o Educaion, he percenage o submited maerials ha are ulimaely adoped varies widely. During he previous adopion cycle, c ycle, he 88 sae adoped 31 o 35 submited mah programs.  Caliornia Educaion Code specifies ha he sae mus “a “adop dop a leas five basic insrucional maerials” in each subjec area.89 However, he sae board o educaion only received hree submissions during he 2002 adopion cycle or English Language Ars and adoped wo o hose submited programs.90 

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Changes to adoption process

In erms o uure changes o he adopion process, Rudnick menioned ha publishers currenly canno aler maerials once hey are submited.91 However, he sae board o educaion proposed regulaions ha would allow publishers o updae adoped maerials hrough a process and schedule oulined in he Caliornia Code o Regulaions.92 A public hearing and review o proposed regulaions was held in May 2015, and he sae board o educaion is expecing final approval rom he Office o Adminisraive Law his all.93 Proposed regulaion moved orward ollowing he public hearing wih only a minor change speciying ha he updaing process would be opened “a “a leas” once every wo years󲀔as opposed o sricly being opened only once every wo years.94

Florida: Instructional materials adoption process in a recommend state Overview

exbooks in Florida are adoped a he sae level and disrics mus spend a leas 50 percen o heir insrucional maerials allocaion on sae-approved curricula maerials. However, However, disrics have he opion o conducing heir  heir own adopions and hose disrics are exemp rom he 50 percen rule.95   Ad optition  Adop on pro ces s

Florida has a five-year adopion cycle. Te process begins each all when he Florida Deparmen o Educaion sends publishers a lis wih w ih subjec areas or  which he sae is soliciing adopions. adopions. In midwiner midwiner,, publishers inorm he sae abou maerials hey plan o submi, and hey ener heir final offerings beore  June 15. Publishers are required required o provide Florida wih he lowes price o ha 96

ile rom across he counry counr y.   Each submited insrucional maerial is hen evaluaed by wo sae-level conen exper reviewers rev iewers who are appoined by he commissioner o educaion and ypically have a leas a graduae degree and/or cerificaion in he designaed subjec area. A hird conen exper will w ill examine any piece o maerial where here is a discrepancy beween be ween he wo reviewers. All publishers can record  virual  vir ual presenaions p resenaions o heir submited maer maerials ials in order o in inorm orm sae sae-level -level reviewers’ recommenda recommendaions. ions.97 

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Sae-level reviewers hen complee heir reviews hrough an elecronic evaluaion sysem and are responsible or assessing he maerials’ alignmen wih Florida’s conen sandards. Reviewers use he course-specific secion o a wo-par rubric o assess alignmen o and coverage o he sae sandards. Afer his assessmen, disric-level reviewers evaluae he recommended maerials. Tese reviewers are experienced eachers or supervisors wih w ih conen-are conen-areaa experise who are appoined by school disric superinendens. Teir disric-level disr ic-level review consiss o an elecronic evaluaion; i is i s less conen-specific and insead ocused on he insrucional usabiliy o maerials. For a wo-week period during his review, he public is invied o submi online evaluaions o he maerials.98  Te commissioner o educaion ulimaely decides which maerials o adop  based on hese recommendaions, recommendaions, and he Florida Deparmen o Educaion, or FLDOE, assembles a lis o adoped maerials ha is posed on is websie and disribued o publishers. Te sae does no aim o adop a predeermined number o maerials in each subjec area. According o Karina Figget, FLDOE direcor o insrucional suppor, “Teoreically, everyhing could ail or everyhing ever yhing could pass. …We’r …We’ree looking or insrucional maerials ha are correcly aligned. Someimes ha may be 12 books and someimes ha may be 2. 2.””99 

Florida’s district-level selection of instructional materials

Disrics have an insrucional maerials allocaion provided by he sae and a leas hal o hese unds mus be spen on maerials adoped by he sae. FLDOE does no help disrics wih selecion decisions because i views is role as limied o “saying hese are aligned maerials … disrics should choose he maerials ha are bes suied or heir communiy, hey may o course choose somehing ha’s no on he adoped lis.” 100 Changes to the adoption process

In 2013, Florida included he opion or disrics o conduc heir own adopion processes. However, However, Fig Figget get says ha she does no know o any disric ha is implemening is own process.101  Te sar o he 2014-15 fiscal year marked a significan change o Florida’s Florida’s adopion process: Disrics are now required o spend a leas 50 percen o heir insrucional maerials allocaion on digial maerials. Tese maerials do no need o be rom he sae’s lis o adoped maerials. Ho However, wever, saring in FY 2015-16 fiscal year, a leas 50 percen o disrics’ annual exbook allocaion mus go oward digial maerials adoped by he sae.102

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 Anoher reorm, according according o Figg Figget, et, is ha he legislaure ““made made i explici ha disrics are responsible or heir insrucional maerials choices. … Ta’s Ta’s somehing ha’s ha’s always been implici bu his year hey waned o make i explici wih addiional language in he saue.”103 Alhough many disrics already conduced public review and parenal objecion processes, Florida legislaors made hese processes mandaory mandaory or all disrics in 2014.104 

South Carolina: Instructional materials adoption process in a recommend state Overview

exbooks in Souh Carolina are adoped a he sae-level, and disrics can choose exbooks rom a comprehensive lis o sae-approved insrucional maerials.105  Ad optition  Adop on pro ces s

Te insrucional maerials adopion process sars wih a meeing o he sae’ sae’ss Curriculum and Insrucional Maerials Advisory Commitee o decide which subjec areas should be included in he upcoming exbook adopion cycle. Te Commitee hen recommends hese subjec areas o he sae board o educaion. exbooks are y ypically pically adoped every six years in each subjec area. Conracs las six years, bu here is he opion o exend a conrac or an addiional year. However, Howeve r, Souh Carolina ends o adop exbooks more requenly in he career and echnical educaion areas: Ideally, Ideally, hese exbooks are updaed every hree  years, bu wheher or no hese updaes happen depends on available available unds.106  Afer he Sae Board Board o Educaion approves approves subjec areas ha ha will ge new ex books, he Commitee solicis solicis candidaes or ea each ch insrucional maerials review panel rom he sae board o educaion, disric superinendens, and he Souh Carolina Deparmen o Educaion, or SCDE. Te sae superinenden hen issues a call or bids, which w hich conains insrucions and inormaion or publishers and vendors paricipaing in he  he adopion cycle. Afer Aferwards, wards, recommendaions or Insrucional Maerials Review Panel members are made o he sae board o educaion. A ew days laer, he SCDE opens publishers’ publi shers’ bids. Publishers are hen scheduled o presen in ron o individual review panels and mus send all maerials o he SCDE and all al l review panel members. Following presenaio presenaions, ns, bid abulaions are disribued o panel members and available o publishers. Souh Carolina requires requires ha publishers provide he sae wih he lowes price o ha ile rom across he counry, per specificaions o he Mos Fa Favored vored Naion Clause o he Souh Carolina Code o Laws.107 

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Insrucional maerials review panels hen mee o make final recommendaions on publishers’ submited maerials. Panel members cas voes on each insrucional maerial based on alignmen o he sae sandards; insrucional maerials approved by wo-hirds o panel members are included in he recommendaions repor ha he panel aciliaors submi o he adopion coordinaor. coordinaor. Te lis o recommendaions recommenda ions is hen sen o publishers, and suden ediions o exbooks are shipped o public review sies whereby he public has 30 days o review recommended exbooks.108  Souh Carolina ses up is public review sies a 23 o 30 privae pr ivae and public colleges ha have approved eacher educaion programs, and he general public is invied o submi heir commens online. Te review panel’ panel’ss recommendaions as  well as a public review summary repor are hen sen o he sae board o educaeducaion or approval and adopion. Te SCDE hen poss a lis o he newly approved insrucional maerials ha he sae board o educaion adoped; approximaely wo-hirds o insrucional maerials originally submited by publishers end up on he final lis o adoped maerials.109  Following he posing o adoped maerials, SCDE aciliaes wha is dubbed he Insrucional Maerials Caravan, Caravan, during which publishers presen heir maerials o school and disric saff across he sae in order o provide hem wih relevan inormaion on he newly adoped maerials. Te publishers und he caravan and he SCDE manages he enire process as ar as providing disrics wih necessary inormaion, managing regisraion, regisraion, and seting up all he sies. Each January January,, here are anywhere rom 10 o 13 sies where publishers provide exbook samples and presen heir maerials. Schools and disrics hen selec and purchase insrucional maerials or he upcoming school year.110  Changes to the adoption process

Souh Carolina recenly esablished a proviso or digial insrucional maerials  whereby an exra po o money is se aside or disrics o use on insrucional maerials, devices, and Inerne bandwidh. Tere are $12 million available or he 2014-15 school year󲀔as compared o $4 million las year󲀔and unds are allocaed in a manner similar o a per-pupil allocaion. Disrics have up unil January 15 o order maerials and hen hey receive he remaining amoun o money or ull allocaion o use oward devices and bandwidh. Las year, he bulk o money  wen sraigh o he disrics or devices. Tese unds are supplemening supplemening he $29 million ha is available solely or echnology purposes.111 

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Souh Carolina’ Carolina’s insrucional maerials adopion coordinaor, Kriss Sewar, said ha he sae is always searching or ways o improve he adopion process. “We’ll  be looking more and more o o sreamline he process, reduce reduce he imeline, and make sure disrics have he flexibiliy ha hey need and he maerials hey need or heir sudens,” Sewar explained.112 

 Texas: IInstr nstructi uctional onal mater materials ials adop adoption tion proce process ss in i n a sugge suggest st state s tate Overview 

exbooks in exas are adoped a he sae level, bu disrics are no required o purchase insrucional maerials rom he sae’ sae’ss adopion lis. 113   Adop optition on pro ces s  Ad

exas adops exbooks in he oundaion curriculum areas󲀔English language ars and reading, mah, science, and social sudies󲀔every eigh years or more depending on unding availabiliy and wheher here  here have been recen revisions o he exas exas Essenial Knowledge and Skil Skills, ls, or EKS.114 exas had no adoped new social sudies insrucional maerials since 2003, bu he sae finally reviewed rev iewed social sudies exbooks in summer 2014 and adoped recommended insrucional maerials in November 2014.115 According o Kelly Callaway Callaway,, division direcor o insrucional maerials and educaional echnology, he sae hopes o develop a new process hrough which new EKS would only be implemened when unding  unding is available or insrucional maerials ha mee hose new sandards. Te adopion process officially begins when he sae board o educaion issues a proclamaion requesing requesing bids in paricular subjec areas and speciying speci ying conen requiremens. Publishers file a saemen o inen o bid b id in order o indicae ha hey are planning o submi maerials during he adopion cycle. Publishers hen provide samples o submited maerials o he exas Educaion Agency, or EA, EA , and he 20 regional educaion service serv ice ceners.116  Sae Review Panels󲀔composed Panels󲀔composed o hree o five people appoined by he EA commissioner o educaion based on nominaions󲀔e nominaions󲀔evaluae valuae he maerials ha publishers submited. Te number o review panels per subjec area depends on he number o submissions. Calla Callaway way said he sae decides how many review panels o assemble based on he number needed o complee he review rev iew in a  week o ace-o-ace  ace-o-ace meeings. Revi Reviewers ewers ass assess ess maerial maerialss based oonn he exen o which maerials cover he EKS and English language proficiency sandards

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and he number o acual errors. Reviewers Rev iewers use an evaluaion insrumen o assess alignmen o EKS. For each expecaion lised in he sandards, reviewers record one example o coverage in he suden ex narraive and anoher example idenified in a uni es, review review,, or aciv aciviy iy..117  Sae review panels hen submi heir findings o he commissioner, who will ulimaely recommend adoping hose maerials ha cover a leas 50 percen o he EKS or a specific subjec and grade level. Maerials in he our oundaion subjec areas mus also cover 100 percen o he English language proficiency sandards in order o be considered or adopion. Te commissioner also presens he sae board o educaion wih a repor deailing all acual errors in submited maerials, as idenified by reviewers, publishers, or he general public. Publishers are hen asked wih fixing fix ing hese errors.118  exas’ exas’ss public commen period al allows lows all exas residens o have he opporuni opporuniyy o review maerials and submi commens. In addiion,  exas exas residens may atend a public hearing o provide p rovide oral esimony on submited maerials and represenaives o publishers p ublishers respond o he public’ public’ss esimony esimony..119  Ulimaely, he sae board o educaion makes adopion decisions based on Ulimaely, recommendaions and sends conracs o publishers. Publishers are required o provide exas exas wih a price or each ile ha is equivalen o or less han he  he lowes 120 price paid by any oher sae, school, or school disric.   Changes to adoption process

In 2011, he exas sae legislaure passed a measure ha changed he insrucional maerials adopion requiremens rom meeing 100 percen o he EKS, o meeing a leas 50 percen o he EKS. As a resul, Callaway noed here has been a “drasic change in he number o maerials ha have been submited.” When asked abou he impeus behind his change, Callaway said she believes i occurred “o open up opporuniies or more maerials or disrics o choose rom.”121  Te same 2011 legislaive session also changed he procedure o how disrics purchase insrucional maerials. Previously, Previously, he sae was responsible or buying he maerials and hus owned all insrucional maerials.122 As a resul o exas Senae Bill 6, disrics now receive an “insrucional maerials allomen” based on suden enrollmen, and disrics use hose unds  unds o purchase heir own insrucional maerials.123 Te sae provides disrics wih he EKS coverage inormaion, bu disrics are able o purchase boh adoped and non-adoped maerials.124 

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 When i comes o uure changes, Callaway Callaway noed ha he sae board board o educaion is currenly assessing he challenges disrics encouner wih managing heir insrucional maerials allomen; he  he resuls o his invesiga invesigaion ion may lead o adopion cycle changes.

District case studies Alaska: Instructional materials adoption process in an open adoption state Overview

exbooks in Alaska are adoped a he disric level whereby disrics selec insrucional maerials wihou help rom he sae.125  Kenai Peninsula Borough School District  Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess

Te Kenai Peninsula Borough School Disric adops insrucional maerials in each subjec area every seven years. Te disric sars he process by assembling a commitee o 12 o 22 people, including eachers, an adminisraor adminisraor,, a school board member, he curriculum coordinaor, coordinaor, a suden, and a communiy represenaive. Te commitee reviews he curren curriculum while incorporaing any new sandards ino he core curriculum documen ha he disric implemened over he pas seven years. Nex, he curriculum is approved by he school board and he commitee begins brainsorming crieria or adoping insrucional maerials.126  Te disric hen poss he crieria on is websie and invies publishers o submi insrucional maerials. Afer receiving all submissions, he commitee conve convenes nes o review samples and evaluae insrucional maerials using a rubric provided by eiher he sae or a naional educaional organizaion and modified o mee he disric’s needs. Te commitee discusses he maerials unil hey reach consensus hen hey presen heir  heir recommendaions o he school board.127  However, he disric does no always find maerials ha mee is adopion crieria. Melissa Linon, curriculum and assessmen coordinaor or he Kenai Peninsula Borough School Disric, explained ha he disric solicied adopion recommendaions or science exbooks aligned o he Nex Generaion Science Sandards. Publishers claimed ha heir exbooks were aligned o he new sandards, bu

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Linon said “i’s like rying o fi a square peg ino a round hole and saying hey’re aligned.” Given ha none o he submited maerials me he disric’s alignmen crieria, he Kenai Peninsula disric oped no o purchase new science exbooks. 128  Changes to adoption process

Te Kenai Peninsula Borough disric recenly reorganized is adopion imeline in par because o he high coss o shipping insrucional maerials o Alaska.  According o Linon, Linon, “he igh orderin orderingg schedule drives some o he [maerials [maerials adopion]] work.” Te disric al adopion also so incorporaed addiional ime or eedback rom eachers across he disric. Linon did no anicipae any changes o he adopion process in he oreseeable uure, as she pu i, here “have been enough major changes or he las year and a hal.”129 

Arizona: Instructional materials adoption process in an open adoption state Overview 

exbooks in Arizona are adoped a he disric level whereby disrics selec insrucional maerials wihou help rom he sae.130 Deer Valley Unified Schools  Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess

Te Deer Valley Unified School Disric is bound by saue when i comes o adoping insrucional maerials. Te disric aims o adop maerials in each subjec area every seven years, bu budge consrains ofen preven his goal rom becoming a realiy realiy.. Gayle Galligan, associae superinenden o he Deer  Valley  Valley Unified School Disric, noed ha ha some insrucional maerials were las 131

reviewed 12 years ago.   Te disric begins he adopion process by posing inormaion peraining o he upcoming insrucional maerials selecion on is websie. Nex, principals recommend eachers o serve on he  he adopion commitee. Te 20- o 30-person commitee includes eachers, adminisraors, parens, a communiy member, represenaives or special educaion and English Language Learners, or ELLs, and a financial represenaive represenaive..132  Leters are hen sen o publishers speciying speciy ing adopion crieria. Publishers submi iniial resources or he adopion commitee’s review, and he commitee selecs which maerials sufficienly mee is crieria. Te commite commiteee conacs he publishers o he seleced maerials and requess ha hey presen heir producs beore he adopion commitee commitee..133 

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Te commitee hen evaluaes hese insrucional maerials using a rubric and selecs a maximum max imum o hree resources o undergo a 60-day public review. Te commitee akes all eedback rom he public review ino accoun and uses i o inorm heir recommendaion o he school board. Prices acor highly ino he final adopion decision, and he adopion commitee negoiaes wih he op wo publishers o deermine he botom-line coss beore making a recommendaion o he school board. Afer deermining program coss, he adopion commiee presens he school board wih a preview o he recommended resources, on  which he board hen convenes o o voe. Afer he bo board ard makes is selecions, he disric moves orward wih he ordering process and aims o disribue newly adoped maerials o eachers beore summer recess.134  Changes to adoption process

 While he adopion process isel has remained unchang unchanged ed in recen years, Galligan noed ha he disric is adoping more digial insrucional insruc ional maerials.  Alhough digial insrucional maerials cos cos abou he same as radiional ex books, Galligan explained ha hey can ransorm ransorm suden learning by providing sudens wih “opporuniies o hink and learn in ways hey wouldn wouldn’’ be able o 135  wihou echnology. echnology.”  

Illinois: Instructional materials adoption process in an open adoption state Overview 

exbooks in Illinois are adoped a he local level, whereby schools and disrics selec insrucional maerials wihou help rom he sae.136 Rockford Public Schools

 Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess

Rockord Public Schools adops insrucional maerials in each curriculum area every six years. Te disric sars he adopion process by convening a commiee o eachers who represen he disric’s schoo schools. ls. Te disric hen hoss vendor airs, during which hese eachers evaluae he qualiy o he displayed producs using a disric-approved rubric. Te adopion commitee hen voes on which programs hey wan o pilo; usually, he commitee pilos wo programs.137  Each program pilo can las rom eigh weeks o our monhs, afer which ime he eachers who used he maerials provide daa and inpu on heir experience ex perience o he commitee. Nex, Nex, he commitee voes on which program o adop and creaes a proposal oulining heir recommendaion. Ulimaely, Ulimaely, he recommendaion needs approval rom he school board.138 

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In erms o negoiaing prices, he disric uses is large size as a lever in he negoiaion process. Te disric always ries o incorporae eacher raining and suppor ino he package so ha eachers have guidance when implemening a new ex in class. 139  Changes to adoption process

 According o Heidi Heidi Detman, direc direcor or o secondary curriculum or Rockord Public Schools, he disric is atemping o replicae a daa-driven model where eachers have a larger role in he selecion o insrucional maerials. As Detman explained, he social sudies curriculum dean se his preceden las year when he “wen above and beyond o ge eacher eedback and insiued more eacher sur veys so ha he could ge a beter eel eel or every conen area wihin social sudies and how eachers el abou heir ex. ex.””140  In erms o changes associaed wih implemening he Common Core, Detman said he new sandards “made us really sep back and hink abou how we use exs as resources because Common Core requires us o do much more skill-building, skill-building , so i may no be ha we find everyhing ever yhing we need in one exbook. exbook.””141  Oher uure changes o he disric’s adopion process are dependen upon echnology. Detman Detman noed ha i he disric ends up going one-o-one󲀔meaning ha every suden will w ill have an elecronic device󲀔hen here will be many aleraions o he insrucional insr ucional maerials adopion process.142  Chicago Public Schools

Te Chicago Public Schools disric does no currenly have a ormal, disricwide insrucional maerials adopion process. Schools have auonomy when i comes o purchasing decisions, and he disric provides some schools wih supplemenal maerials. However, However, he disric is working on creaing a ormal process wih he implemenaion o he Common Core.143  Te disric atemped o adop lieracy insrucional maerials aligned o he Common Core in 2013, bu ailed o find producs ha me is adopion crieria. During he 2013 process, he disric firs gahered inormaion o deermine is needs and also brainsormed creaive ways o repurpose curren maerials. Nex, conen area expers, eachers, and adminisraors developed a reques or proposal ha refleced he disric’s crieria or insrucional maerials. Publishers submited maerials, and 70 eachers conduced an elaborae evaluaion process over a one-week period. However, he reviewers did no find any maerials ha me he disric’s needs, so hey ulimaely oped no o adop any new insrucional maerials. According o Carisa Hubbard, insrucional maerials coordinaor or Chicago Public Schools, “vendors were submiting maerials ha were in progress and no compleely writen.” 144 

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Following he 2013 lieracy maerial adopion cycle, c ycle, Chicago Public Schools decided o examine oher disrics’ insrucional maerials selecion processes in order o gaher ideas or he nex nex  soliciaion. Moving orward, he disric’ di sric’ss adopion process is sill a work in progress, p rogress, bu he disric hopes o adop mah and English language ars maerials once he exbook marke is beter posiioned o mee he disric’ disr ic’ss needs.145 

Iowa: Instructional materials adoption process in an open adoption state Overview 

exbooks in Iowa are adoped a he disric level, whereby disrics selec insrucional maerials wihou help rom he sae.146  Des Moines Public Schools  Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess

Des Moines Public Schools adops insrucional maerials in each subjec area every five o six years. Te adopion process commences wih he assembly o an adopion eam consising o 15 o 20 people, including a wide represenaion o eachers, suppor personnel rom special programs, and adminisraors. Te adopion eam hen deermines he crieria or selecing insrucional maerials, during which ime publishers may submi maerials hey believe align o he specified crieria.147  Nex, he adopion eam reviews submited maerials using a scoring rubric ha reflecs he crieria or selecion and measures imporan aspecs such as alignmen o he sandards and suppor or English Language Learners. Te eam hen selecs exbooks ha ulfill all al l desired componens, and eachers on he eam pilo hese maerials in heir classrooms or a one-monh period. eachers eachers use he rubric o ormally assess each insrucional maerial and presen he leadership eam wih heir op wo choices. During he pas adopion cycle, wo ou o six seleced maerials quickly rose o he op.148  Te adopion eam hen invies he publishers o he op wo  wo programs o presen heir insrucional maerials o he eam. Te disric uses hese maerials o conduc a second pilo wih he final wo programs, and he adopion eam voes on heir final choice. Te Des Moines school board o educaion hen approves all purchases o more han $100,000, and he disric curriculum coordinaor works  wih he publisher and he disric’s purchasing purchasing deparmen o order he requisie insrucional maerials.149 

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Changes to adoption process

 According o Carlyn Carlyn Cox, direcor o elemenary eaching eaching and learning or Des Moines Public Schools, he shif o digial curricula maerials will aler he review process in he uure. Cox noed ha digial maerials are much more cos-effecive and i will w ill be imperaive ha echnology deparmen represenaives are par o he adopion eam.150  Iowa City Community Schools  Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess

Iowa Ciy Communiy School Disric adops insrucional maerials in each subjec area every eigh years. Te disric ypically y pically adops insrucional maerials ollowing an exensive review o a specific curricular cur ricular area. Te disric sends hree o our people o a naional conerence ha eaures publishers’ boohs. Tese disric represenaives learn abou all producs currenly on he marke in he  various subjec areas during heir ineracions ineracions wih he publishers presen a he naional conerence. Represenaives ulimaely selec our or five programs or he disric o review in deph. A sel-sudy commitee󲀔led by he curricular area coordinaor coordina or and consising o 15 o 25 eachers rom various grade levels and/or subjec areas󲀔reviews seleced insrucional maerials using a rubric r ubric o evaluae each exbook. Te disric displays hese maerials in is cenral office; eachers and parens can review he maerials and submi eedback by compleing he designaed rubric. Tese insrucional maerials are ofen also al so sen o he disric’s wo high schools and hree middle schools or eachers o review.151  Te designaed review rubric assesses he ollowing crieria: alignmen o he sae sandards; reflecion o curriculum; inclusion o embedded and summaive assessmens; eaching philosophy; level o muliculural and gender-air insrucion; and addiional pracical issues, such as, useable ancillary ancil lary maerials, overall user-riendliness, represenaive o ederal regulaions, suppor or ELL sudens, and qualiy o he binding and paper.152  Following an in-deph review o maerials, he commitee ypically chooses wo or hree programs o pilo. Te disric hen pilos hese programs simulaneously.. Te eachers who work wih he maerials during he pilo complee rubrics ously assessing hese programs. Once he pilos are finished, he sel-sudy convenes o reach consensus on which program he disric should adop.153 

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Changes to adoption process

Iowa Ciy Communiy School Disric has no made any recen changes o he acual adopion process. However, Pam Ehly, Direcor o Insrucion or Iowa Ciy Communiy School Disric, menioned ha here is a sronger emphasis on ensuring insrucional maerials align o assessmens, which led he disric o slighly modiy is rubric.154 

Nebraska: Instructional materials adoption process in an open adoption state Overview 

exbooks in Nebraska are adoped a he disric level, whereby disrics selec insrucional maerials wihou help rom he sae.155  Lincoln Public Schools  Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess for ele element mentary ary read ing

Te componens o Lincoln Public Schools’ insrucional maerials adopion process are dependen upon he scale o implemenaion. Te process or elemenary reading, he larges adopion, sars wih w ih he assembly o a eam o principals, eachers, curriculum specialiss, and disric office deparmen represenaives. Te enire eam is beween 25 and 50 people in size, bu some eam members play a less acive, advisory advisor y role. Te eam’s firs ask is o define bes pracices relaed o reading insrucion and curriculum, as well as suden learning goals.  eam eam mem bers also amiliarize hemselves wih Nebraska sae sae sandards and assessmens. assessmens.156  Te eam urns his research ino a proposal deailing wha kinds o maerials he disric’s adopion cycle seeks, and i sends his proposal ou o publishers. Jadi Miller, Direcor o Proessional Developmen or Lincoln Public Schools, said she has “ye o mee a publisher who w ho doesn doesn’’ hink heir program can mee every everyhing hing  you fill ou or hem or are requesing󲀔bu requesing󲀔bu ha is rarely rue.” For he mos re recen cen elemenary reading adopion process, eigh publishers presened insrucional programs and a disric seering commitee comprised o Lincoln Public Schools disric office saffers narrowed he opions op ions down o hree programs.157   As par o he adopion process, he ull seering commitee commitee reviews he remaining hree insrucional programs and assesses heir alignmen o he sandards in order o deermine wheher he maerials mee bes pracices in reading insrucion. ypically, ypically, he ull commitee selecs wo ou o he hree curricula o use in

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a ull implemenaion sudy he ollowing year. Howeve However, r, here was a clear firs choice during he elemenary reading adopion cycle, so he disric oped no o pilo boh series. Insea Insead, d, he disr disric ic piloed he firs choice reading series agains a conrol group ha used he exising curriculum. 158 Te new curriculum proved o be very ver y effecive. However However,, Miller noed ha i he sudy “was inconclusive or i here was anyhing less han overwhelming over whelming evidence ha his program … was he righ choice, hen here would have been addiional sudies and pilos.”159  Te seering commitee shared is iniial resuls wih he Suden Learning Commitee.. Nex, he resuls and recommendaio Commitee recommendaionn were presened o he ull ull school board, and he board members approved he final selecion. Te disric’s purchasing deparmen hen negoiaed price wih he publisher. Miller noed he disric has “prety good bargaining power” given is large size.160  Te disric ordered he new maerials in ime o give eachers copies beore he summer recess, and i scheduled exensive proessional developmen sessions hroughou he summer, as well as during he firs-year o implemenaion.161  Role of the state

 Alhough he Nebraska Deparmen Deparmen o Educaion does no direcly help wih he exbook adopion process, Lincoln Public Schools is consanly communicaing  wih sae educaion officials abou curren and uure changes changes o sae sandar sandards. ds. Te open line o communicaion beween he sae and disric allows he disric o effecively make decisions a he local level. According o Miller, he ongoing communicaion wih he sae means ha, he disric undersands “wha “w ha he science sandards adopion process is going o look like, we know more abou he imeline, and we have some ideas abou wha he commitee is looking a.”162  Kearney Public Schools  Adoption  Adop tion pro process cess

In he Kearney Public Schools, he insrucional maerials adopion process is par o he curriculum curr iculum developmen process. Te firs year o he process enails developing or revising a writen curriculum documen ha aligns o Nebraska Nebraska’’s sae sandards; each curriculum documen is up updaed daed every eeigh igh years.  eachers eachers hen implemen he revised curriculum he ollowing year, and he disric begins is search or aligned insrucional maerials.163 

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Te commitee conacs vendors requesing samples o insrucional maerials or specified subjec areas. Te commitee creaes an evaluaion rubric or submited maerials and invies eachers o review he maerials using he designaed rubric. 164  Once he commitee gahers all relevan inormaion on he submited maerials, he op hree vendors receive inviaions o presen heir curricula. Te commitee selecs curricula based on consensus. Te seleced vendor hen sends a proposal  wih price inormaion. Dick Meyer, Meyer, he disric’s curriculum and assessmen assessmen advisor, noed ha “prices don’ don’ vary a whole lo” beween differen publishers and series, which means ha price is no a deermining acor in he selecion o insrucional maerials.165  Changes to adoption process

In erms o uure changes o he insrucional maerials adopion process, Meyer  believed he process will remain virually he same, bu he disric will wi ll mos likely purchase more digial conen going orward. Kearney Public Schools is currenly close o ully implemening a one-o-one echnology program a he elemenary and middle school levels. However However,, eachers are relucan o move away rom paper maerials alogeher; hereore, Meyer anicipaed anicipaed ha he disric will coninue o buy classroom exbook ses or he oreseeable uure.

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Endnotes   1 The authors collected pric price e data for all curricula included in the only high-quality curriculum effectiveness study, which is a randomized controlled trial carried out by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research and SRI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences, or IES. The price data for the four curricula included in the IES study came from prices listed on publishers’ websites websites.. 2 The authors compiled price da data ta on adopted elementary math instructional materials from 19 states in order to determine if there is significant variation in how much different states pay for the same instructional materials and whether recommend states and suggest states pay similar prices for the same textbooks. 3 The authors used information from case study interviews to conclude that adoption decisions are based on impressionistic assessments of quality and weak proxies for alignment to state standards. The authors also analyzed the following rubrics used by states to measure alignment: Texas Education Agency, “Proclamation 2015 State Review Panel Evaluation Instrument:  Teacher Material, Material,” on file with with author; California Department of Education, “2014 Mathematics Instructional Materials Adoption (K-8),” available at http://www.cde. ca.gov/ci/ma/im/ (last ca.gov/ci/ma/im/  (last accessed March 2015).   4 provided The authors states agencies’ ba based sed on information on classified state education websites and through the following sources: State Instructional Materials Review Association, “State Resources,” available at http://simra.us/wp/state-links/ (last accessed September 2015); Personal communication with State Education Agencies over an extended period of time, mostly in 2014, but with follow-up questions in winter 2015. 5 Louisiana Department of Education, ““Curricular Curricular Resources Annotated Reviews,” available at http://www. at http://www. louisianabelieves.com/academics/instructional-materials-review/curricular-resources-annotated-reviews (last accessed August 2015). 6 Personal communication with Jadi Miller Miller,, director of curriculum, Lincoln Public Schools, October 28, 2014.   7 Morgan S. Polikoff, “How W Well ell Aligned Are Textbooks to the Common Core Standards in Mathematics?” American Educational Research Research Journal  (2015),  (2015), available at http://aer.sagepub.com/content/ early/2015/05/05/0002831215584435.abstract;; Cory early/2015/05/05/0002831215584435.abstract  Turner,, “The Commo  Turner Common n Core Curriculum Void,” National National Public Radio, June 3, 2014, available at http://www.npr. org/sections/ed/2014/06/03/318228023/the-commoncore-curriculum-void.   core-curriculum-void. 8 Ulrich Boser, “Return on Educational Investment: 2014: A District-by-District Evaluation of U.S. Educational Productivity” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2014), available at  at https://www.americanprogr https://www.americanprogress.org/ ess.org/ issues/education/report/2014/07/09/93104/return-oneducational-investment-2/.  9 Matthew M. Chingos and Grover J. Russ Whitehurst, “Choosing Blindly: Instructional Materials, Teacher Effectiveness, and the Common Core” (Washington: Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, 2012), available at http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/ reports/2012/4/10%20curr reports/20 12/4/10%20curriculum%20c iculum%20chingos%20whi hingos%20whitetehurst/0410_curriculum_chingos_whitehurst.pdf.

  10 The Thomas B. Fordham Fordham Institute, “The Mad, Mad World of Textbook Adoption” (2004), available at http://edexcellence.net/publications/madmadworld.html. 11 Chingos and Whitehurst, “Choosing Blindly.” 12 Ibid. 13 Institute of Education Sciences, “Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported By Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide,” available at http:// ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/evidence_based/randomized. asp#14 (last accessed August 2015). 14 Roberto Agodini and others, ““Achievement Achievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula: Findings for First and Second Graders” (U (U.S. .S. Department of Education, 2010), available at http://www.mathema http://www.mathemattica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/Education/ mathcurricula_fstsndgrade.pdf. 15 Ibid. 16 Rachana Bhatt and Cory Koedel,“Large-Scale Evaluations of Curricular Effectiveness: The Case of Elementary Mathematics in Indiana,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 34 (4) (2012): 391-412, available at http:// at http:// epa.sagepub.com/content/34/4/391.abstract.. epa.sagepub.com/content/34/4/391.abstract 17 Agodini and others, ““Achievement Achievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula.”   18 Julie Koehler Zeringue Zeringue and others, “Influences on Mathematics Textbook Selection: What Really Matters?” (Waltham, MA: Education Development Center, Center, 2010), available at http://www2.edc.org/mcc/pubs/Final%20 Draft%20Research%20Presession%202010.pdf . 19 The authors classified states base based d on information provided on state education agencies’ websites and through the following sources: State Instructional Materials Review Association, “State Resources,” available at http://simra.us/wp/state-links/ (last accessed September 2015); Personal communication with State Education Agencies.   20 Zeringue and others,“Influences on Mathematics  Textbook Selection: What Really Matters?” 21 The term “rec “recommend ommend state” was was initially used in Fordham’s report on textbook adoption, for more information, see: The Thomas B. Fordham Institute, “The Mad, Mad World of Textbook Adoption.” The Fordham report defines a recommend state as a state where “districts choose textbooks from a ‘recommended list’ prepared by the state.” For our report, we use the term “recommend state” to refer to states where “districts choose textbooks from a ‘recommended list’ prepared by the state or request permission to select a textbook not on the state’s adoption list.” 22 South Carolina State Departme Department nt of Education, “Information and Updates for the South Carolina Instructional M aterials Office,” aavailable vailable at http://textbooks.ed.sc.gov/ (last accessed March 2015). 23 Florida Department of Education, “Florida Statutes K-20 Education Code: Excerpts Pertaining to Instructional Materials” (2014), available at http://www.fldoe.org/core/ fileparse.php/5423/urlt/14IMS.pdf;  Note that the FLDOE does not know of any district currently undertaking its own adoption process, see personal communication with Katrina Figgett, director of instructional support, Florida Department of Education, March 24, 2015.

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  24 Personal communication communication with Martin Dukes, education administrator for instructional services, Alabama Department of Education, August 29, 2014.   25 Zack Kopplin, “Was Moses a Founding FFather?” ather?” The Atlantic, November 25, 2014, available at http://www. theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/11/was-moses-a-founding-father/383153/; Personal ses-a-founding-father/383153/;  Personal communication with Kelly Callaway Callaway,, director of K-12 foundation education, Curriculum Division of the Texas Education Agency, July 23, 2014.   26 Personal communication communication with Cliff Rudnick, administrator, Curriculum Frameworks and Instructional Resources Division of the California Department of Education, July 8, 2014.   27 Personal communication communication with Thoma Thomass Coy, public school program advisor, Curriculum and Instruction Office of the Arkansas Department of Education, January 8, 2015. 28 Texas Education Agency Agency,, “Proc “Proclamation lamation 2015 State Review Panel Evaluation Instrument: Teacher Material,” on file with author; California Department of Education, “2014 Mathematics Instructional Materials Adoption (K8),” available at  at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ma/im/ (last ca.gov/ci/ma/im/ (last accessed March 2015). 29 California Department of Education, “2014 Mathematics Instructional Materials Adoption (K-8).” 30 Texas Education Agency Agency,, “Proc “Proclamation lamation 2015 State Review Panel Evaluation Instrument: Teacher Material.” 31 Thomas B. Fordham Institute, “The Mad, Mad World of  Textbook Adoption”; Adoption”; Beverlee Jobrac Jobrack, k, Tyranny of the Textbook: An Insider Exposes How Educational Materials Undermine Reforms (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Publishers, Inc., 2012). 32 Kopplin, “Was Moses a Founding FFather?” ather?” 33 CBS News, “Rewriting history? Texas tackles textbook debate,” September 16, 2014, available at http://www. cbsnews.com/news/rewriting-history-texas-tacklestextbook-debate/.. textbook-debate/ 34 Polikoff, “How Well Aligned Are Te Textbooks xtbooks to the Common Core Standards in Mathematics?”; Turner, “The Common Core Curriculum Void.”   35 Tim Walker, Walker, “Don’t Know Much About History,” National Education Association, available at http://www.nea. org/home/39060.htm (last org/home/39060.htm  (last accessed September 2015).   36 Zeringue and others,“Influences on Mathematics  Textbook Selection: What Really Matters?” 37 Personal communication wit with h Carisa Hubbard, Instructional Materials Coordinator, September 8, 2014. 38 Personal communication wit with h Jadi Miller, October 28, 2014.   39 Ibid.   40 Inflation to 2014 dollars is based on the first year the price went into effect. For example, a product priced in a state’s instructional materials list at $26 from 2009 to present would be inflated from 2009 dollars to 2014 dollars.   41 The authors also collected data from Florida and Texas, but no products on the lists for these states also appear on the price lists of other states.

  42 The authors calculated the average average price of pr products oducts as a percentage of a school district’s average spending per pupil based on the New America Foundation’s data available at http://febp.newamerica.net/background-analysis/school-finance that school districts spend $10,658 per student; Atlas, “PreK-12 “PreK-12 Financing Overview,” available at http://febp.newamerica.net/ background-analysis/school-finance (last background-analysis/school-finance  (last accessed April 2015). 43 Georgia, for instance instance,, includes math instructional materials such as Scaredy Cats and Muddy, Muddy Mess.  These instructional materials are are part of the Big Books Year Year 1 series, which encompasses themed picture books covering a variety of math concepts; ORIGO Education, “ORIGO Big Books,” available at http://www. origoeducation.com/origo-big-books-year-1/(last origoeducation.com/origo-big-books-year-1/ (last accessed August 2015). 44 The Most Favor Favored ed Nation clause specifies specifies that a publisher must provide a state with a price that “does not exceed the lowest price at which the publisher offers those same instructional materials for adoption or sale to any other state within, or territory of, the United States.” For more information, see California Department of Education, “Information on Relevant California Education Code Sections and California Code of Regulations, Title 5,” available at http://www.cde. ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/publtredcodeinfo.asp ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/publtredcodeinfo .asp (last accessed September 2015).   45 Agodini and others, “Achieve “Achievement ment Effects of Four Ea Early rly Elementary School Math Curricula,” 46 The authors translated all e effect ffect sizes from the standa standard rd deviation units reported in the original research to the grade levels using the average annual gain in effect sizes reported in H oward Bloom and others, “Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research,” Child Development Perspectives 2 (3) (2008): 172-177, available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/  j.1750-8606.2008.00061.x/abstract Specifically, Specifically, the authors divided the RCT results by 0.96, which is the average annual gain for grades 1 and 2. 47 Pearson, “Investigations in Number, Data, and Space 2012,” available at  at  http://www.pearsonschool.com/index. cfm?locator=PSZpOz&PMDBSOLUTIONID=6724&PMDBS ITEID=2781&PMDBCATEGORYID=806&PMDBSUBSOLUT IONID=&PMDBSUBJECTAREAID=&PMDBSUBCATEGORYI D=&PMDbProgramID=74264  (last accessed March 2015); Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, “Math Expressions Common Core,” available at  at  http://www.hmhco.com/shop/education-curriculum/math/elementary-mathematics/mathexpressions/shop-now/math-expressions?i=1;programI d=PG0089*;q1=1;segment=Components;x1=grade_dd (last accessed March 2015); Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,   “Saxon Math,” available at http://www.hmhco.com/shop/ education-curriculum/math/saxon-math/buy-now?i=1 ;programId=PG0124*;q1=1;segment=Components;x1 =grade_dd (last =grade_dd  (last accessed March 2015); Pearson, “Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics,” available at http://www.pearsonschool.com/index.cfm?locator=PSZ u6e&PMDBSOLUTIONID=6724&PMDBSITEID=2781&PM DBCATEGORYID=806&PMDBSUBSOLUTIONID=&PMDBS UBJECTAREAID=&PMDBSUBCATEGORYID=25741&PMDb ProgramID=13524 (last ProgramID=13524  (last accessed March 2015). 48 The authors conducted their price-quality analysis using price data from publishers’ websites collected in September 2014 for the four curricula included in the randomized controlled trial carried out by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research and SRI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences. 49 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, “Saxon Math.”

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  50 New America Foundation, “Federal, Stat State, e, and Local K-12 School Finance Overview,” available at http://atlas. at http://atlas. newamerica.org/school-finance (last newamerica.org/school-finance  (last accessed September 2015). 51 Douglas N. Harris, “To “Toward ward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31 (1) (2009): 3-29. The authors adjusted all of the costeffectiveness ratios—referred ratios—referred to as ROI in this report— included in Harris’s study by inflating costs to 2014 dollars.   52 The Student-Teacher Student-Teacher Achievement Ratio, or ST STAR, AR, project was a study conducted to determine the effectiveness of class-size reduction on student learning. Frederick Mosteller, “The Tennessee Tennessee Study of Class Size in the Early School Grades,” The Future of Children 5 (2) (1995): 113-127, available at http://www.princeton.edu/ futureofchildren/publications/docs/05_02_08.pdf . 53 The authors collected price da data ta for all curricula included in the only high-quality curriculum effectiveness study, which is a randomized controlled trial carried out by researchers at Mathematica Policy Research and SRI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences. The price data for the four curricula included in the IES study came from prices listed on publishers’ websites websites.. 54 The authors compiled price da data ta on adopted elementary math instructional materials from 19 states in order to determine if there is significant variation in how much different states pay for the same instructional materials and whether so-called recommend states and suggest states pay similar prices for the same textbooks. 55 Harris, “T “Toward oward Policy-Relevant Benchma Benchmarks rks for Interpreting Effect Sizes.”The authors adjusted all of the cost-effectiveness ratios included in H arris’s study by inflating costs to 2014 dollars. 56 The authors collected price da data ta for curricula included in the quasi-experimental Indiana curriculum effectiveness study. The price data came from the prices reported in the actual study and inflated to 2014 dollars. We translate all effect sizes from the standard deviation units reported in the original research to grade levels using the average annual gain in effect sizes reported in Howard Bloom and others, “Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research.”. Specifically, the authors divided the Indiana results by 0.52 for grade 3. 57 Personal communication with Kelly Callaw Callaway, ay, July 23, 2014.   58 California Department of Education, “2014 Mathematics Instructional Materials Adoption (K-8).” 59 Polikoff, “How Well Aligned Are Te Textbooks xtbooks to the Common Core Standards in Mathematics?” Turner Turner,, “The Common Core Curriculum Void.”   60 Personal communication communication with Jadi Miller Miller,, October 28, 2014.

63 Morgan S. Polikoff, Andrew C. Porter Porter,, and John Smithson, “How Well Aligned Are State Assessments of Student Achievement With State Content Standards?”  American Educational Research Research Journal 20 (10) (2011): 1-31, available at  at http://www.uscrossier.org/ceg/wphttp://www.uscrossier.org/ceg/wpcontent/uploads/publications/state_assessments_polikoff.pdf .   64 Ibid. 65 Catherine Gewertz, comment on “Louisiana Posts Curriculum Reviews to Help Teachers, Influence Marketplace,” Education Week Curriculum Matters Blog, comment posted March 13, 2014, available at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2014/03/ from_shreveport_times_baton_ro.html  (last (last accessed March 2015). 66 Louisiana Department of Educati Education, on, “C “Curricular urricular Resources Annotated Reviews,” available at https://www. louisianabelieves.com/academics/ONLINE-INSTRUC TIONAL-MATERIALS-REVIEWS/curricular-resources TIONAL-MA TERIALS-REVIEWS/curricular-resourcesannotated-reviewshttps://www.louisianabelieves.com/ annotated-reviews https://www.louisianabelieves.com/ academics/instructional-materials-review/curricularresources-annotated-reviews (last resources-annotated-reviews  (last accessed March 2015). 67 Personal communication w with ith Jadi Miller, October 28, 2014.   68 Achieve, “Educators Evaluating Evaluating Quality Instructional Products,” available at http://www.achieve.org/EQuIP  http://www.achieve.org/EQuIP  (last accessed August 2015). 69 Change the Equation, “How it Works for Iowa Programs,” available at http://chang etheequation.org/stemworks_ etheequation.org/stemworks_ application/home/index.php (last accessed September 2015).   70 Polikoff, “How Well Aligned Are TTextbooks extbooks to the Common Core Standards in Mathematics?”; Turner, “The Common Core Curriculum Void.”  71 Share My Lesson, “Home,” available at http://www. sharemylesson.com/home.aspx(last sharemylesson.com/home.aspx (last accessed August 2015). 72 K-12 Open Educational Resources Collaborativ Collaborative, e, “Request for Proposals (RFP),” aavailable vailable at http://k12oercollaborative.org/rfp/#phaseii laborative.or g/rfp/#phaseii (last accessed August 2015). 73 Engag EngageNY, eNY, “Common Core Curriculum,” available availabl e at https://www.engageny.org/common-core-curriculum (last accessed August 2015). 74 at Achieve the Core, “ELA/Lite “ELA/Literacy racy Lesson Bank,” available http://achievethecore.org/dashboard/300/sear ch/1/1/0/1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/page/788/ela-literacy-lesson-bank-list-pg (last accessed August 2015). 75 Personal communication w with ith Martin Dukes, August, 29, 2014.   76 Ibid.   77 Ibid.   78 Ibid.

  61 Department of Education Organization Act , Public Law 96-88, 96 Cong. 1 sess. (1979).   62 U.S. Department Department of Educa Education, tion, Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Summary and Background Information (2015), available at http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/budget16/summary/16summary.pdf .

  79 Ibid.   80 Ibid.

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  81 Personal communication communication with Cliff Rudnick, July 8, 2014; California Department of Education, “Instructional Materials Adoption Process,” av available ailable at at http://  http:// www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/imadoptionprocess2012.pdf   (last (last accessed March 2015); California Department of Education, “Instructional Materials Evaluation and Adoption – CalEdFacts,” available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/cefimadoptprocess.asp  (last accessed March 2015).

 108 Ibid. 108

  82 Kathleen Manzo, “California “California Faces a Curriculum Crisis,” Education Week , September 9, 2009, available at http:// at  http:// www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2009/09/04/03califtex ts_ep.h29.html.. ts_ep.h29.html

 1 113 13 Personal communication with Kelly Callaway, July 23, 2014.

83 Personal communication wit with h Cliff Rudnick, July 8, 2014.   84 Ibid.

 109 Ibid. 109  110 Ibid. 110  111 Ibid. 111  112 Ibid. 112

 114 Ibid. 114 115 Ibid. 116 Texas Education Agency, “A Brief Overview of the Adoption Process,” available at http://tea.texas.gov/interiorpage.aspx?id=2147485614 (last age.aspx?id=2147485614  (last accessed August 2015).

  85 Ibid.   86 Ibid.   87 Ibid.

117 Personal communication with Kelly Callaway, DecemDecember 18, 2014. 118 Personal communication with Kelly Callaway, July 23, 2014.

  88 Ibid.  119 Ibid. 119   89 Onecle, “Article 1. Selection and Adoption – California Education Code Section 60200,” available at http:// law.onecle.com/california/education/60200.html  (last (last accessed March 2015). 90 Ibid.   91 Ibid.   92 California Code of Regulations, proposed changes to  Title 5, section 9526(a).

 120 Ibid. 120  121 Ibid. 121    122 S.B. No. 6, 82 Texas 122 State Legislature 1 sess. (2011), State

available at http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/821/ http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/821/ billtext/html/SB00006F.HTM. 123 Ibid.  124 Ibid. 124

93 Personal communication wit with h David Almquist, education programs consultant and publisher liaison for California Department of Education, August 14, 2015.   94 Ibid.   95 Personal communications communications with Katrina FFiggett, iggett, July 11, 2014.

 1 125 25 Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts.” 126 Personal communication with Melissa Linton, curriculum and assessment coordinator, Kenai Peninsula Borough School District, November 13, 2014.  127 Ibid. 127

  96 Ibid.  128 Ibid. 128   97 Ibid.  129 Ibid. 129   98 Ibid.  1 130 30 Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting   99 Ibid.  100 Ibid. 100  101 Ibid. 101  1 102 02 Florida Department of Education, “Florida Statutes K-20 Education Code.” 103 Personal communication with Katrina Figgett, July 11 2015.

Slowly From States to Districts.” 131 Personal communication with Gayle Galligan, deputy superintendent of curriculum, instruction and assessment, Deer Valley Unified School District, November 13, 2014. 132 Ibid.  133 Ibid. 133  134 Ibid. 134

 104 Ibid. 104  135 Ibid. 135  1 105 05 Personal communications with Kriss Stewart, South Carolina Department of Education instructional materials adoptions coordinator, coordinator, July 8, 2014 and October 23, 2014; South Carolina Department of Education, “2015 Instructional Materials Adoption Calendar,” available at http://mysctextbooks.com/ DOCS/2015AdoptionCalendar.pdf  (last accessed March 2015).

 1 136 36 Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts.” 137 Personal communication with Heidi Dettman, director of secondary curriculum and instruction, Rockford Public Schools, September 25, 2014.  138 Ibid. 138

 106 Ibid. 106  139 Ibid. 139  107 Ibid. 107

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 140 Ibid. 140

 152 Ibid. 152

 141 Ibid. 141

 153 Ibid. 153

 142 Ibid. 142

 154 Ibid. 154

 1 143 43 Personal communication with Carisa Hubbard, September 8, 2014.

 1 155 55 Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts.”

 144 Ibid. 144

156 Personal communication with Jadi Miller, Miller, October 28, 2014.

 145 Ibid. 145  157 Ibid. 157  1 146 46 Gewertz, comment on “Textbook Authority Shifting Slowly From States to Districts.”

 158 Ibid. 158

147 Personal communication with Carlyn Cox, director of elementary teaching and learning, Des Moines Public Schools, November 12, 2014; Des Moines Public Schools, “Des Moines Public S chools Textbook Adoption Procedures” (2014), on file with authors.

 159 Ibid. 159

 148 Ibid. 148

 162 Ibid. 162

 149 Ibid. 149

 1 163 63 Personal communication with Dick Meyer, director of assessment and curriculum, Kearney Public Schools, November 6, 2014.

 150 Ibid. 150  151 Personal communication with Pam Ehly, director of 151 instruction, Iowa City Community School District, November 24, 2014; Iowa City Schools, “Curriculum Review Over view,” available at http://www.iowacityschools.org/files/_qRBud_/4cd1344a5d3ced093745 a49013852ec4/Curriculum_Review_Overview.pdf  (last a49013852ec4/Curriculum_Review_Overview.pdf   (last accessed March 2015).

 160 Ibid. 160 161 Ibid.

 164 Ibid. 164  165 Ibid. 165

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