the human body: anatomy and physiology

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Why is the study of anatomy and physiology important?Exercise > Wiki Answers > Categories > Health > Fitness > Exercise Looking for Human Reason?Find Human Reason on Facebook. Sign Up Free Now! AnatomyDiscuss Anatomy Open the AnswerA good understanding of anatomy (what's in the body) and physiology (how it works) is the basis of all medicine. Without knowing how the body works, how it is made up and how it can go wrong, we cannot even begin to design effective treatments and interventions, including surgery or new pharmaceutical drugs.learning anatomy and physiology well means that you know the basics of medicine.disease is deviation from the normal, and if you know the normal structure(anatomy) and function(physiology) it is very easy to realize where the problem is coming from.



THE HUMAN BODY : ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Anatomy and Physiology It is concerned with the body’s structural framework and how it works. What happens in the body? Metabolism refers to all of the chemical operations going on within our bodies. Homeostasis is the physiologic process that monitors and maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium. Bizarre Signs and Symptoms: 1. Sweating at night may indicate tuberculosis. 2. A desire to eat clay or starchy paste may indicate iron deficiency in the body. 3. Breath that smells like pear drops or fruit flavored chewing gum may be an indication of diabetes. 4. A hairy tongue may mean that your normal mouth flora has died from improper use of antibiotics. Organ Systems: 1. Integumentary System – covers the body and protects it. [ skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands] 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skeletal System – protects the body and provides support for locomotion and movement. [bones, cartilage, ligaments] Muscular System – permits body movement. [skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscles] Nervous System – receives stimuli integrates information, and coordinates the body functions. [brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs] Endocrine System – Chemically coordinates and integrates the activities of the body. [pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus] Digestive System – digests food and absorbs soluble nutrients from ingested food. [mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver and gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestine] Respiratory System – collects oxygen and exchanges it for carbon dioxide. [nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs] Circulatory System – transports cells and materials through out the body. [heart, blood, blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) ] Immune System – removes foreign chemicals and microorganisms from the bloodstream. [macrophages, lymph structures, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen]

10. Urinary system – removes metabolic wastes from the bloodstream. [Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra] 11. Reproductive system – produces sex cells for the next generation. Male Reproductive System – [ scrotum, testes, epidiymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis ] Female Reproductive System – [ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva] INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Structure and Function: • Integumentary system is composed of the skin and accessory structures • Functions of the integumentary system – Protects the other body systems from injury and infection – Helps the body maintain homeostasis by regulating temperature, retaining body fluids, and eliminating wastes Skin • The largest organ of the body Basic Anatomy of the skin: Three Layers of the Skin:
1. Epidermis o Outermost layer of the skin that is composed of a surface of dead cells with an underlying layer of living cells 2. Dermis o Called the “true” skin; the dermis contains the blood vessels and nerves. 3. Subcutaneous Tissue o Base layer of fatty tissue or cells. Other accessory organs:

4. 5.

Hair follicle - the skin is dotted with millions of tiny cavities called follicles. These pits originate in the dermis and are responsible for growing our body’s coat of hair. Capillaries – are thin blood vessels that extend throughout the dermis layer and help regulate body temperature. When the body is warm, they widen to increase blood flow and aid heat transfer out of the skin. To warm the body, they narrow, decreasing blood flow and inhibiting heat transfer. Stratum Corneum – means “horny layer.” It is covering of flattened, dead skin cells that make up the topmost layer of the epidermis. Nerve endings – relay messages between the skin and the brain. Nerves in the dermis come in two different forms: touch receptors that detect light touch and pressure receptors that detect pressure and vibrations. Arrector pili – are tiny muscles attached to the base of the hair follicles. They pull the hair upright and produce goose bumps when the body gets cold or stressed. Sebaceous gland – are attached to each hair follicle. They produce an oil called sebum, which moves to the surface and keeps the skin and hair soft and flexible.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Sweat gland – every square inch of skin contains about 650 sweat glands. These tiny ducts emit droplets of perspiration that cool the body as they evaporate. Sweat glands are also used by the body to remove certain waste materials from the blood. Stresses on Skin Here are some of the elements that can harm or assault our skin; 1. chemicals 2. infections 3. cuts 4. Scrapes 5. sunlight 6. water Skin Color and Sunlight The body needs sunlight to produce vitamin D, but excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun can harm the skin. When exposed to the sun, the skin produces more of the brown pigment melanin, which darkens the skin and gives us limited protection from UV rays. Skin tones a. Dark Skin – Dark skinned people can trace their heredity to tropical regions where exposure to the sun is more likely. For this reason, they produce more numerous and deeper-colored melanin. Generally speaking, people with darker complexions can tolerate more exposure to the sun before getting sunburned, but they are still susceptible to sunburn and skin cancer. b. Medium Skin – as early humans migrated out of the tropics and into regions farther from the Equator, where UV levels are lower, they developed fairer skin, which let more sunlight penetrate their skin for vitamin D production. People with medium skin color have moderate natural protection from the sun but must take more precautions than dark-skinned people. c. Light Skin – most people with very light skin can trace their heredity to far northern climes, where exposure to strong sunlight is limited. People with light skin have very low natural protection from the sun. They sunburn easily and are extremely susceptible to skin cancer. Sub-class of skin tones; a. b. c. d. e. Light or Freckled Skin – includes the ethnic Caucasian generally, Irish, British, Americans Fair skin to Light brown – includes the Asians (specifically Koreans and Japanese, Caucasians (Russian, Americans, etc.), light brown some Asians (Taiwanese, Chinese), and some South American ethnicity. Olive Skin to Moderate brown – includes the Morenas and Morenos of Latin countries, and in Asian countries (Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand) Brown skin – includes African ethnicity generally, some Indian ethnicity, Sri Lanka, Aborigines from Australia Black Skin – includes African ethnicity generally, mostly concentrated in the African region,( Sudan, Zimbabwe, Uganda).

Here are 7 habits that contribute to aging skin, making you look older than your years:

1. Cigarette smoke: Whether you smoke, or you spend time with a smoker, cigarette smoke is damaging -- and aging -- to your skin. Research
has shown that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases skin wrinkles and dryness. This is partly due to the behavior of smoking, and also because cigarette smoke depletes your body of Vitamin C, which is a key ingredient for keeping skin plump and moist.

2. Sun exposure: Sun exposure is very aging to skin. Unprotected skin that is exposed to the sun becomes more mottled in appearance. Freckles
can turn into brown sun spots, the skin takes on a dry, leathery appearance, and wrinkles and sagging increase. The risk of skin cancer is significantly increased by sun exposure.

3. Lack of exercise: Living a sedentary life contributes to aging skin, because exercise helps to tone your muscles and get your blood
flowing. Exercise should be an important part of every anti-aging skin care program.


Exposure to cold weather: Cold winds and low temperatures contribute to aging skin by making skin dry, so if you venture out in the cold be sure to use a good moisturizer.

1. 2. 3.

Alcohol use: Alcohol contributes to aging skin by dilating small blood vessels in the skin and increasing blood flow near the skin's surface. Over time, these blood vessels can become permanently damaged, creating a flushed appearance and broken vessels on the skin’s surface. Stress: Maybe you’ve heard this expression: “Don’t frown, your face could stay that way.” Stress and worry cause frowning, and over time the muscles in the face actually conform to that movement. Lack of sleep: Too little sleep makes you look and feel tired. One of the first places lack up sleep shows up is on the face, with dark circles and bags under the eyes, and sagging skin.

SKIN CARE 101: 1. Protect yourself from the sun The most important way to take care of your skin is to protect it from the sun. A lifetime of sun exposure can cause wrinkles, freckles, age spots and rough, dry skin. Sun exposure can also cause more-serious problems, such as skin cancer. Avoid the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. This is when the sun's rays are the strongest. Wear protective clothing. Cover your skin with tightly woven long-sleeved shirts, long pants and wide-brimmed hats. Use sunscreen when you're in the sun. Apply generous amounts of broad-spectrum sunscreen 30 minutes before going outdoors and reapply every two hours, after heavy sweating or after being in water. 2. Don't smoke Smoking makes your skin look older and contributes to wrinkles. Smoking narrows the tiny blood vessels in the outermost layers of skin, which decreases blood flow. This depletes the skin of oxygen and nutrients, such as vitamin A, that are important to skin health. 3. Treat your skin gently Daily cleansing and shaving can take a toll on your skin, so keep it gentle:  Limit bath time. Hot water and long showers or baths remove oils from your skin. Limit your bath or shower time, and use warm — rather than hot — water.  Avoid strong soaps. Strong soaps can strip oil from your skin. Instead, choose mild cleansers.  Shave carefully. To protect and lubricate your skin, apply shaving cream, lotion or gel before shaving. For the closest shave, use a clean, sharp razor. Shave in the direction the hair grows, not against it.  Pat dry. After washing or bathing, gently pat or blot your skin dry with a towel so that some moisture remains on your skin.  Moisturize dry skin. Find a moisturizer that fits your skin type and makes your skin look and feel soft. 4. Eat a healthy diet A healthy diet can help you look and feel your best. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins. 5. Manage stress Uncontrolled stress can make your skin more sensitive and trigger acne breakouts and other skin problems. 9 Best foods for your skin :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Low fat yogurt – because of Vitamin A Salmon – essential fatty acid Avocadoes – B-complex Berries – contains anti-oxidants (Eggplants is from potato family. But yes it’s also considered a berry.) water – always the best. Green tea – contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Almonds – Vitamin E Mangoes – Vitamin C as well as Vitamin A Cottage cheese – contains selenium, good for skin too.

SKELETAL SYSTEM Structure and Functions: • Support: body structure and shape • Protection: vital organs surrounded • Movement/Anchorage of Muscles • Mineral Storage: calcium & phosphorus • Blood Formation • There are 206 bones in the adult human body; 270 bones in babies. Important Structure in a Bone: • Epiphyseal plate is the portion of bone where growth happens. Bones continue to grow until the plate closes. • If an Epiphyseal plate is damaged before it ossifies, elongation of the long bone may cease prematurely, or growth maybe uneven. Two Divisions of Skeletal System: AXIAL a. Skull - Cranium (Temporal bone, Occipital Bone) - Ear Bones APPENDICULAR a. Shoulder Girdle - Clavicle – collar bone - Scapula – shoulder blades

b. Hyoid c. Vertebral Column / Spinal Column - Cervical - Thoracic ; (rib cage) - Lumbar - Sacrum - Coccyx

- Facial Bones ; (Nasal bones, Zygomatic (cheekbones))

b. Upper Extremities - Humerus - Ulna - Radius c. Lower Extremities - Femur - Patella; Knee Cap - Tibia - Fibula

Bone Marrow Marrow is a soft, netlike mass of connective tissue.

Two Types: • Red Marrow- makes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is red because it contains hemoglobin. It occupies the cavities of most bones in an infant. In an adult, RM is found in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and pelvis. • Yellow marrow- stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production.
Some Disorders of Skeletal System; • Caries – Also called cavities, it is the major cause of tooth loss • Carpal tunnel syndrome – A disorder caused by pressure on the median nerve of the wrist due to repetitive use or trauma • Arthritis – A group of disorders evidenced by inflammation of a joint, pain and stiffness during movement • Dislocation – When bones move out of their proper location, usually in the shoulder or hip • Fracture – A broken bone caused by trauma • Osteoma – A bone tumor • Osteoporosis – A weakening of the bones Postural Disorders; • Kyphosis – Also called “hunchback” or “humpback,” is an abnormal curvature of the thoracic part of the spine • Lordosis – Also called “swayback,” is an abnormal curvature of the lumbar spine • Scoliosis – An abnormal lateral spinal curvature

What is good posture? Posture is the position in which you hold your body upright against gravity while standing, sitting or lying down. Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Proper posture: • Keeps bones and joints in the correct alignment so that muscles are being used properly.

• • • • • • •

Helps decrease the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces that could result in arthritis. Decreases the stress on the ligaments holding the joints of the spine together. Prevents the spine from becoming fixed in abnormal positions. Prevents fatigue because muscles are being used more efficiently, allowing the body to use less energy. Prevents strain or overuse problems. Prevents backache and muscular pain. Contributes to a good appearance.


Correct sitting position • Sit up with your back straight and your shoulders back. Your buttocks should touch the back of your chair. • All three normal back curves should be present while sitting. A small, rolled-up towel or a lumbar roll can be used to help you maintain the normal curves in your back.
Here's • • • • how to find a good sitting position when you're not using a back support or lumbar roll: Sit at the end of your chair and slouch completely. Draw yourself up and accentuate the curve of your back as far as possible. Hold for a few seconds. Release the position slightly (about 10 degrees). This is a good sitting posture. Distribute your body weight evenly on both hips.

• Bend your knees at a right angle. Keep your knees even with or slightly higher than your hips. (use a foot rest or stool if necessary). Your legs should not be crossed. • Keep your feet flat on the floor. • Try to avoid sitting in the same position for more than 30 minutes. • At work, adjust your chair height and work station so you can sit up close to your work and tilt it up at you. Rest your elbows and arms on your chair or desk, keeping your shoulders relaxed. • When sitting in a chair that rolls and pivots, don't twist at the waist while sitting. Instead, turn your whole body. • When standing up from the sitting position, move to the front of the seat of your chair. Stand up by straightening your legs. Avoid bending forward at your waist. Immediately stretch your back by doing 10 standing backbends.

Correct driving position • Use a back support (lumbar roll) at the curve of your back. Your knees should be at the same level or higher than your hips. • Move the seat close to the steering wheel to support the curve of your back. The seat should be close enough to allow your knees to bend and your feet to reach the pedals. Correct lifting position • If you must lift objects, do not try to lift objects that are awkward or are heavier than 30 pounds. • Before you lift a heavy object, make sure you have firm footing.

• • • • • •

To pick up an object that is lower than the level of your waist, keep your back straight and bend at your knees and hips. Do not bend forward at the waist with your knees straight. Stand with a wide stance close to the object you are trying to pick up and keep your feet firm on the ground. Tighten your stomach muscles and lift the object using your leg muscles. Straighten your knees in a steady motion. Don't jerk the object up to your body. Stand completely upright without twisting. Always move your feet forward when lifting an object. If you are lifting an object from a table, slide it to the edge to the table so that you can hold it close to your body. Bend your knees so that you are close to the object. Use your legs to lift the object and come to a standing position. Avoid lifting heavy objects above waist level. Hold packages close to your body with your arms bent. Keep your stomach muscles tight. Take small steps and go slowly. To lower the object, place your feet as you did to lift, tighten stomach muscles and bend your hips and knees.

What is the best position for sleeping and lying down? • • No matter what position you lie in, the pillow should be under your head, but not your shoulders, and should be a thickness that allows your head to be in a normal position. Try to sleep in a position which helps you maintain the curve in your back (such as on your back with a pillow under your knees or a lumbar roll under your lower back; or on your side with your knees slightly bent). Do not sleep on your side with your knees drawn up to your chest. You may want to avoid sleeping on your stomach, especially on a saggy mattress, since this can cause back strain and can be uncomfortable for your neck. Select a firm mattress and box spring set that does not sag. If necessary, place a board under your mattress. You can also place the mattress on the floor temporarily if necessary. If you've always slept on a soft surface, it may be more painful to change to a hard surface. Try to do what's most comfortable for you. Try using a back support (lumbar support) at night to make you more comfortable. A rolled sheet or towel tied around your waist may be helpful. When standing up from the lying position, turn on your side, draw up both knees and swing your legs on the side of the bed. Sit up by pushing yourself up with your hands. Avoid bending forward at your waist.

• • •

MUSCULAR SYSTEM Muscular System the muscles that gives features to the body and movement. Muscle - a bunch of fibers or tissues which is contractile, thus causing movement. There are four characteristics associated with muscle tissue:  Excitability - Tissue can receive & respond to stimulation

  

Contractility - Tissue can shorten & thicken Extensibility - Tissue can lengthen Elasticity - After contracting or lengthening, tissue always wants to return to its resting state

The characteristics of muscle tissue enable it to perform some important functions, including:  Movement – both voluntary & involuntary  Maintaining posture  Supporting soft tissues within body cavities  Guarding entrances & exits of the body  Maintaining body temperature TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue •

Associated with & attached to the skeleton Under our conscious (voluntary) control

2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue •

• •
3. Smooth Muscle Tissue • • •

Makes up myocardium of heart Unconsciously (involuntarily) controlled Microscopically appears striated

Makes up walls of organs & blood vessels Tissue is non-striated & involuntary Cells are short, spindle-shaped & have a single nucleus

When skeletal muscles contract, they may produce two types of contractions:  Isotonic contraction  Isometric contraction Isotonic contraction – as tension increases (more motor units recruited), length of muscle changes usually resulting in movement of a joint. The tension (load) on a muscle stays constant (iso = same, tonic = tension) during a movement. (Example: lifting a baby, picking up object, walking, etc. ) Isometric contraction – no change in length of muscle even as tension increases. The length of a muscle stays constant (iso = same, metric = length) during a “contraction” (Example: holding a baby at arms length, pushing against a closed door.) Necessary in everyday life to counteract effects of gravity (e.g. postural muscles keeping head up)

Skeletal 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

muscle movements Flexion/extension Abduction/adduction Rotation – left/right; internal(medial)/external(lateral) pronation/supination Elevation/depression Protraction/retraction Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion Inversion/eversion

Some Important muscles in our body; o Tongue – one of the toughest muscle in the body responsible for pushing the food to the esophagus and continuous on. o Masseter - another strong muscle in the body responsible for chewing food. o Trapezius – the muscle that extends from our nape near the broad shoulders back. o Biceps – the muscle which is located anteriorly (front) to our right arm or left arm. o Triceps –opposite of Biceps is located at the posterior (back) part of the arm. o Deltoid – the muscle just above our biceps, common injection site. o Pectoralis major – the chest part of a body. o Abdominus rectus – the muscled part of the stomach usually forming a six pack muscles in a muscular formed body. o Gluteus Maximus – the biggest muscle in the body, which is located in our buttocks. o Quadriceps – the hamstrings, the muscles that forms our thighs. Common Sports Injuries: o A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments — the tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another in your joints. The most common location for a sprain is in your ankle.

Sprains A sprain occurs when you overextend or tear a ligament while severely stressing a joint. Sprains often occur in the following circumstances:

• • • •

Ankle. Walking or exercising on an uneven surface Knee. Pivoting during an athletic activity Wrist. Landing on an outstretched hand during a fall Thumb. Skiing or playing racquet sports, such as tennis

A strain is a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon, a fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscles to bones. Strains often occur in the lower back and in the hamstring muscle in the back of your thigh. There are two types of strains: Acute and chronic. An acute strain occurs when a muscle becomes strained or pulled — or may even tear — when it stretches unusually far or abruptly. Acute strains often occur in the following ways: • Running, jumping or throwing • Slipping on ice • Lifting a heavy object or lifting in an awkward position A chronic strain results from prolonged, repetitive movement of a muscle. This may occur on the job or during sports, such as: • Gymnastics • Tennis • Rowing

• R.I.C.E. Treatment


Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation First aid for strains, sprains, contusions, dislocations, or uncomplicated fractures o Rest

   o

Stop using injured part

Continued activity could cause further injury, delay healing, increase pain, and stimulate bleeding

Use crutches to avoid bearing weight on injuries of the leg, knee, ankle, or foot Use splint for injuries of the arm, elbow, wrist, or hand Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury

      o

Sudden cold contracts blood vessels Helps stop internal bleeding from injured capillaries and blood vessels

Keep damp or dry cloth between skin and ice pack Do not apply ice for longer than 15 to 20 minutes at a time For 3 days after injury

 

Apply every hour for 10 to 20 minutes Apply at least 3 times throughout the day for 15 to 20 minutes

Apply ice after 3 days as long as pain or inflammation persist

 

Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury

 

Decreases seeping of fluid into injured area from adjacent tissue Wrap injured part firmly

Use elasticized bandage, compression sleeve, or cloth

   o

Do not impair blood supply

Wrap over ice

Too tight of compression may cause more swelling

Loosen the bandage if it gets too tight

Elevate injured part above level of heart

 

Decreases swelling and pain Use objects and pillows for props

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