The Jamaica Racing Industry

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Forward 3 Methodology 4 Challenges 5 Caymanas Park 6 Competition for Land 13 Horse racing stakeholders by place of residence. 15 Marginalization and Social Dislocation 16 Portmore community data profile 19 Economic Linkages and Externalities 23 Portmore Public Perception of Caymanas Park 26 At Caymanas Park 33 Ecological Description 33 Land Usage and Facilities 38 Provisions for The Physically Challenged 40 On Track Punters 42 General Operations At The Track 52 The Claims Market 65 Distances Ran 73 Betting 78 Total Purse Paid Out (1991-2007) 81 The Backstretch 84 Reported Horse Deaths In The Industry 87 Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer 89 Cull 89 The Betting Sector, Years 2002-2007 91 Overseas Betting 94 Number of Local Racing Bookmakers and Offices 2004-2007 95 The Illegal Betting Sector 97 Betting Offices 99 Bookmakers Performance 2004-2007 (J$) 100 Purse Money 2002-2007 105 Disqualifications and Late Non-Starters, Years 2002-2007 109 A General Overview of The Betting Sector 111 The Stud Farm Sector 199-2007 115 Stud Farm Earnings 127 Thoroughbred Owners’ & Breeders’ Association’s Yearling Sales Review Farm Hygiene Practices 138 Farm Community Relationship 141 The Jamaica Racing Commission 144 The Organizational Structure Of The Jamaica Racing Commission 148 Industry Unique Departments 149 General Observation 150 The Staff 151 Some Observations 153 Performance 164 Government Direct Investment 167 The Role of the Jamaica Racing Commission in the Production Chain Appendix 1 171 Appendix 2 172 Appendix 3 173 Appendix 4 175 Appendix 5 176 Appendix 6 177 Appendix 7 188 Appendix 8 191 Appendix 9 192 Appendix 10 194 Appendix 11 197

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Appendix 12 198

Forward The period between the years 2001 and 2007 was a very challenging one for all segments of the Jamaican racing industry, with the industry entering into a slump between the years 2004 and 2005. The industry however, showed great resilience and developed new approaches in order to safeguard revenues: one saw the development of “claiming races “ by the promoter, the taking of steps by the betting sector to maximize earnings from each location, and in the breeding sector there was a widening of the distribution of serving stallions, hence creating new revenue flows. Notwithstanding the difficulties of the period, the racing industry remains a very profitable area of investment for the Government of Jamaica, with each dollar directly invested in the Jamaica Racing Commission leading to the generation of over ninety dollars in return, an area contributing a minimum of two percent of the GNP. The face of racing changed tremendously over the period, as there was a significant increase in the number of owners, trainers and jockeys. Thanks to the efforts of the Jamaica Racing Commission, through its training programme one saw a raising of the level of competence and professionalism among jockeys and trainers. One saw also a strengthening of the level of organization of the occupational groups, even where this led to more and not less challenges to the views of the

Commission. The industry today is very democratic, with the views and opinions of the largest owners to the poorest groom finding its space and equal time around the table. This study was designed and done, in such a manner, not only to collect and present information, but also, where possible, to indicate the areas of challenges and opportunities, and as such it is hoped that it will find use by the various stakeholders in the planning and development process. Methodology This research, in the collection of information relied on the following methods: 1. Interviews where large population segments, such as punters, community residents etc, were being targeted; 2. Executive interviews where detailed background information was required; 3. Observation in order to get information about processes or about the state of affairs in a given local; 4. Content research, using prepared texts in order to solicit written open ended feed back, and 5. The economic or statistical analysis of various in-house data set.

Challenges This research was hampered in its start and in its implementation by a lack of financial resources, which meant that rural locations which were initially targeted for visiting and processing could not be done in the manner desired, thus usage of the information gathered by the Registration Department during visits to the farms was used. The failure of stakeholders to keep formal records was another area of challenge, as some farm operators have no records of date of arrival or of death of a given mare. This situation held true for trainers also, who depended in the main on memory rather than records. An area of special challenge was that of receiving doctored information, aimed at advancing one or more personal or group causes, e.g. trainers and or jockeys. Here the intent was to point the research into a given direction. Trainers were most guilty of carrying the doctoring of information.

Caymanas Park Location:Caymanas Park is a one hundred and ninety six (196) acre equine complex located north of the Helshire Hills, west of Waterford and Hog Town, and south of Gregory Park.

The complex lies on the Rio-Cobre Flood Plains, however as a result of (a) inefficiencies in agricultural irrigation systems, (b) type of crop production, (c)mal-placement of wells, (d) nitrate and heavy metal contamination of aquifers (f) salt water seepage and (g) rapid urbanization coupled with the fact that area is in the shadows of the nearby mountain range, has meant that there is currently a relative shortage of portable water and an intensive ongoing competition for water resources. There are questions from a hydrological perspective as to the long term viability of Caymanas Park, which from a gallon per acre standpoint is a very demanding consumer of fresh water, with a very poor water management system coupled with freedom of use without payment. Table 1. Major water basins of Jamaica Hydrologic Basin Area (km2) Rainfall (106m3) Evapotranspiration (106m3) Surface water runoff (106m3) Groundwater discharge (106m3) Blue Mountains South 678 1,694 912 662 147 Kingston 202 312 208 81 50 Río Cobre 1,283 2,009 1,450 177 472 Río Minho 1,700 2,420 1,641 225 593 Black River 1,460 2,530 1,530 346 654 Cabarita River 924 1,890 1,019 366 451 Great River 791 1,685 863 467 355 Martha Brae, River 756 1,154 673 279 201 Dry Harbour Mountains 1,362 2,450 1,302 457 691 Blue Mountains North 1,597 5,068 2,346 2,452 278 Total 10,753 11,906 5,512 3,892 Source :- FAO statistics

Digital image and aerial view of the Rio Cobre and Rio Minho-Milk river basins on the south coast of Jamaica, West Indies. EXPLANATION BASINS RCB - Rio Cobre Basin RM-MRB - Rio Minho-Milk River Basin KB - Kingston basin LIMESTONE HILLS MH - Manchester Highlands (Ls) KH - Kemps Hill (Ls). BM - Brazilletto Mt. (ls) PR - Portland Ridge (ls) HH - Hellshire Hills (ls.) STRUCTURAL FEATURES SCFZ - South Coast Fault Zone - Faults BOUNDARIES - White Limestone/

alluvium contact - Basin Boundary Present and Future Water Supply from the Rio Cobre Basin Systems (MCM/Year) Rio Cobre Basin Present Supply 304.7 Demand 2015 449.62 Future Supply With Present Systems 304.7 Developmental Needs* 144.92 • Developmental needs are defined as the difference between the demand in the year 2015 and the future supply with present systems Source, US Army Corp of Engineers, Southern Command The area faces danger from floods caused by seasonal tropical rains, water and wind damage by hurricanes and other tropical systems, and lies along a line of fault and hence the danger of earthquakes are always present. Of particular concern is the state and capacity of Waterford Canal, the UDC-Town Centre Drain, and other minor systems. It should be noted that flood water drains coming directly from the communities to the east and north east, runs directly through the Caymanas Park complex and directly under the racing track. This already complex situation was made even more complicated by the construction of Highway 2000, which crosses both the Waterford Canal and the UDC-Town Centre Drain. The highway can, under particular conditions have a damming effect and in other circumstances become a run of canal for storm water coming from distances as far as the Old Harbour turn off. The Waterford Canal has a catchment area of approximately 1,560,000m2 while the UDC –Town Centre drain has a catchment area of 385,000m2. The is a need for hydrological studies to identify what conditions can lead to the submerging of significant portions of Caymanas Park under water, thus forcing the closure of the complex, and to identify the conditions which could lead to the cutting off of Caymanas Park and surrounding communities from the main channels of transportation by flood/storm waters. Currently Caymanas Park plays a critical role in storm water management system as a point for slowing and holding excess storm water runoff that could cause damage elsewhere. Summary of some of the engineering and ecological recommendations Peak flow rates for Waterford Canal and UDC-Town Centre Drain Return Period (year) Waterford canal UDC-Town Centre Drain 5 25.2 8.5 10 32.2 10.5 25 42.4 13.4 50 49.4 15.8 100 58.8 17.9 Source:-Hunt,s Bay-Portmore Causeway Report, June 2000 Water level rise due to Extreme Hurricane Waves and Storm water Run off conditions Return Period (Years) Hurricane Waves-Static water level Component (m) Storm water run off-Static Water level component (m) 25 1.55 0.645 50 1.74 0.845 100 1.98 1.195

Source:-Hunt’s Bay-Portmore Causeway Report, June 2000 From a socio-demographic standpoint, Caymanas Park lies between the mature communities of Waterford, Independence City, Caymanas Gardens and Christian Pen: Communities characterized by “tenementization” of residential properties, commercialization of some residential properties, the exodus of the more affluent persons from the community, the sales of properties, etc. One finds along two of the perimeter walls of the Caymanas complex, Quartile 4 squatter communities, characterized by a lack of access to running water, legal domestic electrical supply, basic schools and other social infrastructure, high levels of unemployment and high levels of female fertility. Several similar communities exist within the radius of one mile from Caymanas Park. Competition for Land Caymanas Park exists within the Municipality of Portmore, the single largest and fastest growing municipality of this kind in the English-speaking Caribbean. The area has witnessed a rapid conversion of sugar-cane farm lands belonging to the Bernard Lodge Sugar Estate, into sub-divisions and housing estate and shopping complexes such as the Portmore Pines Shopping Centre, and others. Along with the coming into being and continuous development of the municipality, one finds the evolution of a modern road system, the installation of a modern telephone and cable systems, plumbing and sewage systems, the construction of Highway 2000, among others. These developments have further stimulated the demand for land for residential and commercial purposes. Caymanas Park with its 196 acres (with an estimated unimproved value of J$2.5 million per acre) from the perspective of the developmental needs of Portmore, is faced more than ever with the need to prove to the municipality that an equine facility of its kind is the best potential use that can be made of the land it holds. Here national needs or desires are of secondary importance to the perceived developmental needs of Portmore. Ranking of Firms By Observed Size of Work Force Firm Ranking Bernard Lodge Sugar Estate 1 Caymanas Track Limited 2 Portmore Community College 3 The Jamaica Constabulary Force 4 Call Centers 5 Mega Mart 6 Shoppers Fair Super Market 7 High Way 2000 8 Note:-Bernard Lodge uses a lot of seasonal labour. So far, the fact that the Peoples National Party with its four Members of Parliament in the municipality, view this facility as having some status value, and their Jamaica Labour Party constituency counterparts have not found reasons to oppose the existence of this facility; has played a role in protecting the facility from open demands for a change in land use. The fact that the equine complex provides some level of tactical employment for some supporters of both parties, has also served to preserve its value to the political machinery in the municipality, and keep in check some of the more organized anti- Caymanas Park sentiments which might exist. Owners Trainers Assistant Trainers Jockeys Grooms Stable Assistants Exercise Riders Kingston

& St. Andrew 248 60 10 39 43 6 5 St. Catherine 189 62 26 88 335 15 32 Clarendon 30 5 2 1 7 0 0 Manchester 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 St. Elizabeth 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Westmoreland 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 St. James 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trelawny 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 St. Ann 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 St. Mary 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 Overseas based interests 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 It should be noted that Caymanas Park has over the last five to ten years, sought to improve its relationship with the wider community, by actively supporting several educational institution, including the Portmore Community College, Waterford Comprehensive High School among others, and by supporting other community activities such as Portmore week. Source: Jamaica Racing Commission Horse racing stakeholders by place of residence. It is worthwhile noting that ownership of thoroughbred horses has a very strong middle class, middle income characteristic and is far less an industry dominated by the economic elite as one might have been led to believe. Additionally a minimum of nine hundred Portmore residents earn a direct income from Caymanas Park, as owners, trainers, grooms, jockeys, waiters, security guards, cashiers etc. Place of Residence of Caymanas Park Thoroughbred Owners and Associated Horsemen Marginalization and Social Dislocation The poor management of the development of Portmore has witnessed some of the worse cases of social marginalization witnessed anywhere in Jamaica, with entire villages and settlements being converted within months into inner city communities, communities such as Gregory Park, Reids Pen, Wallen Avenue, Grange Lane, once had their own concepts of social hierarchy and status, a village middle class etc. The structure of these communities were destroyed in a relatively short period of time, by the influx of an urban middle class, enjoying a higher standard of living and higher incomes, bicycles were displaced by the motor car, pit latrines by flush toilets, pasture lands by shopping centres and housing schemes. An entire way of life was destroyed, leaving behind a native population without the education, income or resources to compete, and the birth of a population of gardeners, and petty-thieves. The problem of crime and social dislocation in the municipality of Portmore was and is compounded by the birth of near parentless children, whose parents leave out early in the mornings and return in the evenings or night, leaving children unattended before and after school. The implications and consequences on the security of patronage and operations at Caymanas Park are yet to be measured. What is known is that the members of gangs in Portmore compared with those of Kingston are relatively youthful, educated, and with the assault rifle giving way to the 9 mm.

Population per Parish Name Capital A (km2) C 1982-06-08 C 1991-04-08 C 2001-09-10 Clarendon May Pen 1196 203 132 212 324 237024 Hanover Lucea 450 62 837 65 958 67037 Kingston Kingston 22 104 041 103771 96052 Manchester Mandeville 830 144029 164979 185801 Portland Port Antonio 814 73656 76067 80205 St. Andrews Kingston 431 482 889 540030 555828 St. Ann St. Ann's Bay 1213 137745 149015 166762 St. Catherine Spanish Town 1192 332 674 361535 482308 St. Elizabeth Black River 1212 136 897 144118 146404 St. James Montego Bay 595 135 959 156152 175127 St. Mary Port Maria 611 105969 107 993 111466 St. Thomas Morant Bay 743 80 441 84266 91604 Trelawny Falmouth 875 69466 71646 73066 Westmoreland Savanna-la-Mar 807 120622 128213 138947 Jamaica Kingston 10991 2 190357 2366067 2607632 1982) UN Demographic Yearbook 1988. (1991) Britannica Book of the Year 1993. (2001) Statistical Institute of Jamaica (web). As can be seen from the table below, with the exception of murder and violence against the individual, Jamaica’s crime statistics are still well in keeping with those of many developed country and hence by itself crime is not a major deterrent to large investment, Caymanas Park, once community stability can be preserved, should be able to function without major problems. Here the attitude of the two major political parties towards peace and security in that area of Portmore is even of a more critical value than the presence or absence of the police. Portmore community data profile Population (estimated) 225,000 Number of housing units (estimated) 45,000 Number of persons with access to running water 195,000 Capacity of sewage treatment plants 9.7 m.g.d. Illegal Dumpsites 11 Dental clinics 1 Health Centres 3 Fire Station 1 Libraries 4 Police Stations 4 Post Offices 4 Courts 1

Educational/Training Institutions 65 -of which: Basic 38 Primary 16 Secondary 5 Tertiary 1 Other (Skills training) 5 Source:-Roundtable Workshop ICT for Good Governance in Portmore”, Kingston, Jamaica, September 27-29, 2001

Of vital importance to patronage of Caymanas Park, is the need for steps to be taken to reduce the high levels of social marginalization in and around the neighbouring squatter communities and in communities such as Waterford. Without this reversal or slowing of the process of marginalization, and, without a better understanding of the value and contribution of Caymanas Park to these communities, Caymanas Park as a business venture and as a meeting place for the more socially affluent could become targets for economic crimes. Currently the management of Caymanas Track Limited is known from television by those who follow the sports news or the sports section of the newspapers and not in a face to face manner by those who live in the communities. It is not usual for the management or members of the Board of Caymanas Track Limited to be seen at meetings of the various Citizen Associations, at Sports Days at schools or Churches, or visiting any of the various community bars or cook shops. Hence a feeling of distance towards those who lead Caymanas Track Limited and those, especially younger people, is not unnatural and is to be expected. Total recorded crime per 100,000 population source:-United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems Country\Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 3,164 3,303 3,027 Antigua and Barbuda 48 79 99 134 168 179 165 1,251 1,002 1,028 2,025 2,152 2,275 Argentina 342 363 441 351 265 270 331 326 Australia 4,594 5,047 5,147 5,135 5,185 5,648 5,274 5,923 5,991 6,351 6,181 6,285 Austria 266 Azerbaijan 6,493 7,737 Bahamas 3,677 Bangladesh 1,276 Belgium 7,888 215 216 306 245 249 232 216 5,786 6,019 5,076 5,053 5,720 5,791 6,806 6,202 6,716 7,291 7,816 7,146 6,688 3,555 479 456 1,236 7,935 8,327 9,641 471 3,011 557 588 584 541 738 792 937 998 1,161 1,251 9,091 9,147 8,234 7,509 9,590 9,034 10,775 9,966

Botswana 506 507 526 560 552 541 624 772 1,877 2,387 2,328 2,363 2,465 2,348 2,909 Burundi 8,804 9,191 9,192 8,836 8,713 8,751 9,061 10,603 11,447 11,111 10,497 9,979 Canada 9,287 Chile 140 132 Colombia 1,321 Costa Rica 1,617 Croatia 1,333 1,939 Cyprus 3,636 Czech Rep. 8,282 11,091 10,043 Egypt 2,451 Estonia 1,968 2,192 2,632 Fiji 10,062 8,779 7,273 Finland 4,877 5,943 France 255 Georgia 5,618 Germany 2,954 3,336 Hong Kong 1,737 4,572 Hungary 182 Iraq 2,778 Ireland 1,418 Israel 2,479 4 Italy 2,120 8,784 90 74 131 1,382 1,341 541 3,822 1,365 522 539 1,318 1,277 599 596 1,223 4,488 60 50 874 871 4,333 52 51 880 857 7,027 4,396 195 206 950 1,397 1,155 1,141 1,344 1,569 523 1,481 7,757 136 137 1,243 1,918 8,130 139

1,496 550 612

3,917 8,313 8,512 9,015 9,756 11,531 11,471 11,907 12,084 10,051 1,515 2,384 2,665 2,414 2,809 1,919 1,950 2,055 2,086 1,873 2,184 2,374 2,386 2,719 10,596 10,881 12,040 13,416 7,812 7,792 7,644 7,650 6,156 5,334 6,562 6,266 6,677 6,512 6,732 361 6,700 402 5,309 8,116 3,562 3,454

10,391 11,878 10,309 2,027 2,517 2,033 2,672 2,679 14,208 7,352

13,390 7,472 6,765 443 6,488 406 5,425 8,025 2,933 2,909 3,795 595 1,567 605 2,688 1,307 2,410 3,805 2,114 2,295

325

267 256 4,873 3,063 3,256 3,591 1,219

5,193 3,179 3,503

5,479 3,424 3,678

5,573 8,168 3,996

3,147 4,907 603

1,260 1,308 1,421 1,478 3,291 4,256 4,332 3,895 5,066 575 559 602 582 577 583 181 179 2,500 2,678 2,830 2,845 2,775 2,482 1,350 1,404 5,385 5,569 6,276 2,019 2,089 1,987 2,134 2,251 4,411 4,666 4,204 3,961 4 2,355 2,277 2,140 2,207 2,285 2,085 2,034 2,016 2,156

1,383 4

Jamaica 1,178 1,244 1,291 1,292 1,324 1,331 1,302 1,397 1,451 1,469 1,512 1,491 1,421 14,409 1,507 Japan 731 715 604 621 636 618 714 690 739 807 581 905

929 Jordan 1,250 Kiribati 1,988 2,826 Korea, Rep. 1,262 Kuwait 908 Latvia 2,043

1,062 1,238

1,053 1,145 1,156

906 1,057 1,216 1,047 1,628 1,632 1,666 1,972 1,942 1,948 2,677 2,740 2,773 2,961 2,945 2,672 3,041 Of 235 230 257 237 260 311 324 907 1,046 675 866 804 1,608 1,556 1,534 1,299 1,496 720 978 1,575 948 920 2,351

Perhaps with the usage of retired geldings and in conjunction with the local high schools, the Caymanas Track Ltd. could form “Junior Jockey Clubs”, which would seek to meet the needs of some of the thirteen to seventeen year olds for after school activities. Basic riding and horsemanship could be taught in these clubs. Additionally, schools could be encouraged to adopt retired horses, which could form the basis for the introduction of polo at the high school level. Economic Linkages and Externalities Caymanas Park has served to stimulate the development of stud farms in and around the Portmore Municipality and some three Off Track Betting Parlors, creating an estimated eighteen full-time jobs and roughly thirty seasonal jobs. Seasonal employment peaks during the stud season. Within the transport sector, one finds an increase in the number of passengers going in the direction of Caymanas Park on race days, however a more detailed transport study is needed in order to determine the impact of race days on traffic flows, and to identify the influence of the Portmore Community College, which has a number of classes starting at roughly the same time as the start and or end of the race day. The Municipality of Portmore has a Chamber of Commerce and is the home of over two hundred small businesses, ranging from call centres, manufacturing shops (cooking oil processing plant, textile producers, furniture making shops, soap and perfume manufacturers, etc), aquarium fish farmers, pet bird farmers to retailers. The two main challenges facing the local business community are affordable locations and market access. Caymanas Track Ltd, had been a member of the steering committee that guided the formation of the Portmore Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and its Executive Marketing Manager, Millicent Lynch became the first President of this special interest body. While Caymanas Track Ltd. played and is playing an active role in the promotion of the interests of industry and commerce in the Municipality of Portmore, Caymanas Park has on the whole failed to stimulate the formation of any significant complementary business activities in the Portmore Municipality, in the main because of its own narrow focus on Race Day organization. Factory Capa city Production Tonnes 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Frome 90,000 59,108 64,078 56,534 53,117 56,978 42,515 46,546 Monymusk 65,000 42,247 32,559 22,666 19,028 27,258 9,322 18,424 Bernard Lodge 50,000 29,325 28,193 19,673 16,798 21,869 14,053 15,124 Appleton 50,000 23,291 30,709 26,707 20,882 29,267 21,404 26,327

Trelawny Sugar 30,000 15,600 8,967 9,873 10,475 10,410 4,654 9,005 St. Thomas Sugar 25,000 13,383 10,615 10,968 9,685 13,492 10,426 10,927 Worthy Park 26,000 25,188 22,339 23,066 22,552 24,566 21,833 20,958 Source: - Sugar Industry Authority Bernard Lodge has, over the years lost significant amounts of land from sugar cane farming owing to real estate development and or soil exhaustion. It is a possibility that the sale of stable waste to the neighbouring cane farmers by Caymanas Park Limited could promote soil renewal, which would increase the productivity of existing farm lands. Owner-trainers involved in crop production speak of the positive impact and cost reduction stable waste has had on their farms. One can only but note that while punters use hundreds of race meet programs on any given race day, none are produced in the Portmore community, while each jockey and horse in any given race must wear the colours of its owners, none of these colours are produced in the community; groom, trainers, stable assistants and other persons working in the back-stretch wear caps during the day in order to better cope with the sun, none of these caps are made anywhere in the Portmore community; Caymanas Park is a bulk producer of horse manure, yet there are no plant nurseries within the Portmore community; while medina, the hibiscus plant and duckweed are known to be good sources of protein and are directly substitutable for the alfalfa plant, no step has so far being taken to encourage their cultivation on those available lands on the fringes of the municipality. Here however one should note, that grooms do harvest from the fringes of the various cane farms in and around Portmore, herbs such as Medina, Bima, and other such beneficial plants. Further co-operation might be possible with the technical staff of Bernard Lodge in the usage of saw dust and rice hull in the generation of electricity to power the operation of the pumps at Caymanas Park. Portmore Public Perception of Caymanas Park Given the fact that the Municipality of Portmore still retains a very strong dormitory characteristic, and given the fact that Portmore is the home of some 150 thousand adults, while Caymanas Park employs just a bit more than 1000 persons directly or indirectly , a person’s attitude towards Caymanas Park is strongly determined by the person’s family history, the age of the person, the persons attitude towards gambling in general, the employment status of the person, the person’s relationship with employees of the track and the person’s gender. Caymanas Track has a strong appeal to young college educated males and females, who do not live near to the track. Their not visiting Caymanas Park comes has a result of not been invited (females) or not having an excuse to go (males). While the negative influence of gambling on family members and on the family has a whole can possibly explain the negative attitude of some respondents to thoroughbred racing and to visiting Caymanas Park, further studies are needed to explain why both male and female respondents who live near to Caymanas Park seem to have a lower interest in thoroughbred racing and to visiting Caymanas Park. It is interesting to note that females are more willing to go on a date at Caymanas Park, than are males prepared to invite their girlfriends on dates to Caymanas Park. The role played by male insecurity and fear of competition could be feasible reasons for the higher level of male reluctance to carry their dates to Caymanas Park.

Its is however clear, that Caymanas Track Ltd. in is Marketing Strategy, needs to do more to provide “young college educated” persons with a reason to visit Caymanas Park, here the approach used in selling Baseball by the deliberate promotion of “stars” such as Michael Jordon, Magic Johnson, Pepping and others, the promotion of clashes between teams, could be adopted, where jockeys are promoted as super stars and clashes between stables are promoted. There also appears to be a space on the “date venue” market that could be exploited by Caymanas Park Ltd. If college educated females find the idea of going with their boyfriend on dates to Caymanas Park, appealing, then maybe Caymanas Track Limited, has a responsibility in assisting these females to get their boyfriends to carry then to watch thoroughbred racing. It is important to note that people and young people in particular do not see visiting Caymanas Park as being identical to being willing to gamble. Equally the existence or none existence of corruption in races at Caymanas Park is not a determining factor in deciding whether or not a visit to Caymanas Park would be refreshing and exciting. In fact the thought of “set races” and “bandolu runnings” are much stronger among unemployed males who feel that they can make a money from horse racing if they had the right links. It is also important to note that, visiting Caymanas Park is less appealing to parents over the age of thirty. Attitude to Caymanas Park (percent of age sample of 600) Attitude to Caymanas Park/ Personal attributes Would visit Would not visit Caymanas Park adds Value to the community Cayman. Park does not add value to community College Educated (female) 70 25 80 17 Did not attend college(female) 60 35 70 30 College Educated (male) 90 10 65 30 Did not attend college(male) 95 5 73 27 Live near to Cayman Park (female) 30 70 80 20 Does not live near to Cayman Park (female) 80 20 70 25 Live near to Cayman Park (male) 65 40 78 15 Does not live near to Cayman Park (male) 80 20 84 10 unemployed 90 5 96 employed 78 12 65 30 Respondent older than 30 years of age 55 30 60 28 Respondent younger than 30 years of age 77 13 83 10 has a punter in family 60 35 55 43 Does not have a punter in family 83 15 76 15 Would carry girl friend to Caymanas Park 75 20 70 20 Would not carry girlfriend to Caymanas Park 65 35 68 27 See Appendix 1 for sample questionnaire As was expected, the vast majority of respondents do believe that the presence Caymanas Park, does positively contribute to the Portmore community. In fact there is a strong positive correlation between those who would visit Caymanas Park and those who think that its presence contribute positively to the community of Portmore. The views of female college students, are of particular importance, firstly because of their abilities to influence male views as to where is a good place to visit or where is not a good place to visit and secondly because of the fact that within the near future, these will be individuals with some amount of disposable income to spend on entertainment. A survey done on this population of females (see table below) has revealed that it

is of importance to separate the act of visiting Caymanas Park from the act of gambling. While a majority of the respondents do not see the act of watching a live race as being particularly sinful, the act of betting on a horse is seen by a significant number of these respondents, as being sinful. In other words nothing is wrong with watching a live race, but something is wrong with betting on horses, even where the respondents buys Pick 3, Lotto etc. Previous exposure to equine (horse or donkey) racing does not seem to play an important role in determining the attitude of the respondents towards horse racing; what is more important seems to be their view as to the correctness or incorrectness of young professional women seeing horse racing as an acceptable form of entertainment. Is it a place where a good progressive woman can go? Caymanas Track has a very difficult job in encouraging second visits by this group of respondents, because the ambience is seen as being very noisy, unruly, smoked filled and harassment encouraging, by those respondents of the group that has actually visited the track. It is seen as a “man’s space’ and not being female friendly. It is also important to note, that a significant percentage of these respondents would accompany their boyfriend or husbands to the track.

Female Full Time College ( UWI & UTECH) Students Views on Horse racing ( Sample size =400) Question % responding “yes” % responding “no” % not answering Have you ever gone to Horse racing at Caymanas Park? 33 67 0 Do you think that upstanding progressive young women should visit Caymanas Park? 61 35 4 Have you ever placed a bet on horse racing? 24 75 1 Do you play Lotto or Pick 3 or any other such betting? 30 66 4 If your husband or boyfriend invited you on a date to Caymanas Park, would you go? 58 42 0 Do you know of any woman of any age who goes to watch horse racing at Caymanas Park? 40 54 6 Have you ever seen a live horse racing competition? 35 65 0 Have you ever seen a live donkey racing competition? 3 97 0 Do you think to go to watch horse racing is a sinful act? 11 89 0 Is betting on horse racing a sinful act? 57 41 2 Do you watch horse racing on television? 34 66 Can you give the name of one racing horse? 48 48 4 Can you give the name of one jockey? 53 47 0 See Appendix 2 for sample questionnaire Horse racing is seen as being relatively boring by a significant number of respondents and its broadcast by television is not seen as being exciting. Further studies are needed in order to compare audience response to television as against radio, and in order to identify the specific determinants of excitement in horse racing, e.g. tone of voice, speed of speech, level of excitement in the voice of commentator, position of cameras, facial expression of jockeys, the movements of the horse etc.

One notes the very low usage of adjectives by race commentators, and near noncommentary on the efforts and or actions of the jockeys; equally there is a lack of pre-race build up by commentators and the voice of a jockey or actions of the horse preparing to go out is never heard. Is there competition between individual trainers, stables or jockeys in a given race? If yes, how do these players feel about their competitors and from which point on the track will they start whopping their competitors. From observation, commentary tends to be too cut and dry and very much similar to a scientific report factual but without colour.

At

Caymanas Park

Ecological Description Caymanas Park, lying in the Rio Cobre Basin has a Histosol type of soil, which is rich in organic matter. This type of alluvial soil, by Jamaican classification of land for agricultural purposes (see table below), using the 1983 system, soil at Caymanas Park belong to type ll, group 2, good for the cultivation of sugar cane, or good to be used for pasture. Generalized capability classification of Jamaican land for agricultural purposes

In terms of physical characteristics, this type of soil tends to hold water because of its high organic content, relatively easy to be worked with tools, and relatively flat. Alluvial soil of this type tends to be nutrient poor. While this reality reduces the possibility of Caymanas Park being converted to agricultural use, it does make the soil of good quality for its designated use, the mass holding and racing of horses. Soil potential rating system for crop production Human interaction with the soil over the decades and the using of sand for surfacing purposes has significantly changed the plant types that grow uncultivated on this land. The fact that the soil is constantly subjected to water flows from the water cistern system and from corroded sub terrain pipes, (for example pipe from pump to the Azan Stables) has reduced the influence of seasons on plant selection, creating space for flora of the type native to the places with a high level of precipitation and even plants such as duckweed and algae which are found in water-logged places. On the other hand, flora belonging to the dry plains

has experienced a catastrophic reduction in habitat. The usage of sand over the decades, has changed both the chemical make up of the soil by increasing salinity, and changing its physical capacity. By the addition of very large quantities of sand, the load bearing capacity of the soil has improved, equally as the tendency to caking has increased. This change has resulted in the need for constant damping of the soil, to reduce weathering and the nuisance of flying sand particles. In order to prevent damage to the hooves of horses in races, from the high forces of compression with which the hooves of the horses hit the soil. Given that the soil type, if taken by appearance and texture, seem to vary between Histosols and Nitosols soil types, there is a strong possibility that owing to consistent and frequent use of the track for both training and competitive purposes over the decades, sand being driven by the forces of comprehension from surface layer of the track into the sub -base layers, could give rise to a type of adobe soil type. Adobe soil, has a good carrying capacity and handles well the forces of comprehension. There is a need however; to study the impact of an adobe sub base can have on the hooves of a galloping horse. To what extent are the dynamic forces coming from the downward thrust of the heel or toe of a horse’s hoof is reflected by this adobe type sub-base back into the foot of the horse and thus resulting in damage or injury to the tendons and or ligaments? An important purpose of sprinkling of the track is the prevention of the hardening of the sub-base, this purpose is also complemented by the raking of the surface sand , where if the rakes are long enough would also loosen the sand –soil mix in the sub-base. The rakes as observed in the garage have blades that seem to be less than six inches in length, which raises the question of their adequacy for the job at hand. It was also observed that pebbles and small stones, transported by the human carriage of sand to the locations over the years, could be seen in and around the stable area, and is a source of annoyance and concern to both grooms and trainers who have to find and remove them. It is said that a horse stepping on a sharp stone, could have a similar impact to that of a man stepping with his bare foot on a thorn, i.e. the result is pain and lameness. While it is not possible at this moment to calculate the cost of lameness to owners or trainers, one can only but note that there is significant number of horses suffering from lameness at Caymanas Park especially among those horses that race in Claiming Races. According to both trainers and officials of the Caymanas Track Limited, of some 1100 horses housed at the track only about 700 are sound and race ready another 400 suffer from one or another type of problem to the feet.

Land Usage and Facilities The Caymanas Park compound is separated from the adjoining communities by concrete fencing in the east and the west and by chain linked fencing in the north east and the south. It is to be noted that as a result of the process of weathering, the security layers of the concrete fences have either worn down in the case of broken glass bottles or rusted in the case of barbed wires; while holes have appeared in sections of the north east chain linked fence. Stakeholders Views about Racing Plant Question % yes % no Having no views

Has racing plant improved when compared to past years? 50 50 0 Has racing surface improved when compared to past years? 80 20 0 Have stables improved when compared to past years? 50 50 0 Has stable area improved when compared to past years? 30 70 0 Dou you think that the purse structure is adequate at this time compared to yesterday? 50 40 Do you think racing is seen as being corrupt when compared 10 0 Do you think that there is a need for a new racing plant? Do you think that there is a need for a Racino at Caymanas See appendix for sample questionnaire

0 to past years? 60 Park 20 80 20 0

90 20

The property is roughly divided into two sections, with one third of the property being used for the purposes of racing, training and administration. The racing track is nine furlong in length, with two shoots, one at the nine furlong point and the other at seven furlong point. The racing track is some seventy-five feet wide. The track is intensively used for training purposes. It is to be noted that some eighty percent of trainers and jockeys interviewed were of the view that the riding surface has improved, when compared with past years; however some trainers and jockeys are of the view that holes have appeared on the track, that the track area is not properly secure thus allowing the possibility of stray animals crossing the race track during races among other concerns. Neighbouring the track and its multistory arena are the administrative buildings, which because of the soil type and locality are single story structures. The arena (all the stands taken together) from visual observation can comfortably accommodate roughly three thousand individuals. The entrance to the arena and the ground floor, are very unattractive, with the entrance reminding a person of a high security custodial facility. The ground floor (entrance to the Club Stand) of the track is very unattractive, resembling an older European train station in lay -out and colour. Its is a flat area, raised above the ground level of administrative section and with a passage leading to the none-paying spectator area of the track. This area has several mounted monitors for the watching of on-going races or simulcast races from overseas. The area also doubles as a vending area and an area for socializing. Entrance and exit to those areas designated for paying spectators are on this floor and demarked by heavy iron gates manned by security guards. The four stand areas, the Club Stand, Grand Stand, Reserve Stand and North Lounge spectator areas are in very good state of repair, and are quite comfortable and are in keeping with the standards seen at other sporting arenas locally and internationally. The Stands on the second and third floors are for paying visitors. Provisions for The Physically Challenged One should note, that provisions for the physically challenged wheel chair users, exists only into the Club Stand. Here however, a physically challenged individual would face significant problems going up or down the only ramp provided because of its steepness. The angle of the ramp to the floor is greater than forty degrees, which means that the person must be very strong to push up themselves in the chair to the floor and in coming down, there is a high possibility that both the wheel

chair and the person unaided will go flying down at high speed. No bath-room provisions are made to satisfy the needs of the physically challenged punter, i.e. there is no bathroom designed for wheel chair entrance, and hand rails on the wall to assist the individual to get up out of the chair or to get off the toilet seat. This means that the Caymanas Park Limited is still not as yet in keeping with the government’s building standards On the third floor of the arena building, is the North Lounge, which has a very welcoming ambience, good food service in terms of menu, quality of food and service, and a comfortable air-conditioned location for watching the races either on monitors or live; from this patio its is possible to look at the horses being saddled up for races, jockey mounted horses entering the arena, etc. The North Lounge is normally where owners, trainers and the more affluent visitors meet to watch the races, or to socialize over a meal or drink. It is critical here to recognize that the apparently unruly anarchic culture on the ground floor properly called the Club Stand, which to many non-punting observers might be a turn off and unattractive; this area provides a “second arena”, where a punter is able to “whip “his fingers, ride his horse in, freely express “his” joy or disappointment about the performance of “his” horse and or jockey; without “getting in the way” of other punters; while creating a powerful feeling of brethren ship. From the stand point of entertainment management and service product creation, it could be considered as a plus, that the management of the track has being able to consistently create this environment, which is an important and unsubstituteable part of the betting experience for many punters. Petty-vendors also benefit from this atmosphere as the punters are more willing to buy cigarettes, a draw of marijuana and various types of snacks, while the Caymanas Track Limited is able to maintain high velocity betting rates as individuals are under some pressure to place their bets and not “weigh down man horse”. While more money is wagered on the average bet placed at the North Lounge, the quantity and velocity of bets placed in the Club Stand (the ground floor) makes it the main contributor the revenues of the track. Additionally as noted above, the Club Stand (the ground floor) is opened daily (except on Sundays) for betting on simulcast races from the United States and elsewhere. It is the replication of the “Betting Shop” atmosphere at the level of the race track on the ground floor (the Club Stand). It is this highly spirited, masculine environment that creates a feeling of apprehension among non-punting first time visitors to the track, and to females in particular-who appears to experience difficulty coping with hundreds of unruly ungoverned males in a closed place. It also tends to nurture the view, that Caymanas Park is a place for idlers and careless men. Women and non-punting visitors who make it to either the second or third floors and in particular to the North Lounge, find their visit to the track, a pleasant one and generally leave positively surprised at what they discovered. On Track Punters From observation and from the tables below, the spectator population at the race track, has more in common with the sport of Cricket, than with the sport of Football (Soccer)in the sense that it a sport which an individual has to over time acquire a taste for it and secondly there are very strong generational influences (i.e. the taste tends to be passed down from father to son etc). Similar to Cricket matches, there is a noticeable strong presence of the thirties and over generation with a sprinkling here and there of the seven to twenty-five years age group. In short it appears to be a sport for the mature rather than the young. There also appears to be a strong “life time “commitment to the sport by the punters of Caymanas Park, even where there is a significant feeling that the sport of Thoroughbred Racing at Caymanas Park is corrupt.

Age Distribution of On Track Punters in Percentages Age Range % of respondents 18-35 27 36-53 49 54-71 24 See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix Amount of Years Visiting Caymanas Park Visitng track for how many years? 1-9 years 24 10-19 years 42 20 and over 34 See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix Punting at Caymanas Park is in essence a male activity, with the rare occurrence of female punters. This existing situation is not what the average on track punter would like to see continuing, and in fact there is a strong view that there are not enough women participating in the sport. It should however be noted, that this view, possibly should be understood, that women here means for a strong segment of the punters “other women” and not their wives or girlfriends who they would not invite to the track. Gender Distribution Among On Track Punters in Percent Gender Male (in %) Female (in %) 91 9. See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix ATTITUDE TO WOMEN AT THE TRACK AND THE FUTURE OF RACING Yes % No % Racing is a dying sport? 15 79 Would invite wife/girlfriend to track 45 47 Enough women involvement in racing 21 74 See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix Except for a minority of respondents, on track punters express a relatively high degree of confidence in the future of the sport, and do not see it as a dying sport, however there are strong concerns expressed about the absence of the youth from the track, the dead time between races which could be filled with other minor events or music and the absence of women (a “bull parade” kind of thing) Apart from expressing a strong degree of confidence in the Sport of Racing, on track punters also do wager a significant percentage of their wages on races, and this is also a reflection of their commitment to the sport. Percentage of Salary Wagered on Horse Racing % of salary wagered on Horse Racing % of Punters 0-9% 25 10-20 34 21 and over 25. See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix Of major concern here from a betting sales perspective, is the salary/wage scale of the average punter and related to this is the social class of the average punter. Observation seems to subject that the average punter is from the working class (the proletariat) as against the intelligentsia and other professional groupings and as against entrepreneurs in the classic sense of the word, where the act of wagering is not identical or seen as an act of investment. The issue of gender participation and or visitation to the track is also in some of its dimensions related to the social class of the average punter, for example when a person from the middle classes carries a lady to the Races, it is usually not women from their social groupings but rather from the ranks of the working

classes “a ghetto girl”, the few female punters at the track also appear to be from the working classes and in addition the women working at the track are also from the working classes. Where there are educated women (i.e. women with tertiary level education) working at the track on a race day, nothing is done to distinguish them from the other women, for example at the last check point to the third floor, there is a small table around which, sits at least two women, one known to have tertiary level, yet without knowing her, one could be led to believe that she and the female security guards or waitresses in the North Lounge are from a similar educational background. This failure to differentiate contributes to the view that only women from the lower classes visit or work at the track. Being a punter, in the strictest sense of the word, does not mean being a gambler in a general sense, most of the responding on track punters wager only on horse racing, at the track or at an Off-Track Betting Parlor. Here one has to take into account the fact that there is a level of substitutability between the Off Track Betting Parlors and On Track Betting, hence Caymanas Track Limited neither “defacto” nor “de-jure” has a monopoly on betting on horse races. One also notes that Lotto and others such gaming are substitutes in demand, in the eyes of more than a few punters. Here there is a need to for more study to be done, in order to determine, if the quantity of money spent on gaming activities is a percentage of that that quantity of money that would normally or could be used for the wagering on horses. This study would deeper ones understanding as to the whether or not Lotto and similar games, are from a punter’s perspective substitutes in demand and hence competitive products or to what degree are Lotto and such other games compliments in demand, products enriching the experience of the punter rather than pulling him in one direction or the other, in other words are Lotto and other such games similar in function as are “the women on the side-the sweet hearts or maties” who are not direct competitors with the wife from a perspective of replacement but rather “experience enriching” or are they de-facto competitors for the husband’s limited resources and time taking from both the wife and the family? It is the view of nearly have of the respondents that racing at Caymanas Park is corrupt, while only a minority are of the view that racing must be corrupt. This is more significant when one takes into consideration that more than thirty percent of the respondents refused to answer this question as to whether or not racing at Caymanas Park is corrupt. And a vast majority of the respondents no not believe that horse racing has to be corrupt. Added to this only thirty eight percent of the responding punters are of the view that they are getting value for money at the track.

Some Off-Track Punters’ Views Questions/ Response % Yes % No 1. Do you also place bets at Off Track betting shops? ___ 45 18 2. Do you do most of your betting on horses at the track?________ 56 3. Do you also bet on Lotto and other games? _______ 39 22 4. Do you think that horse racing is corrupt? _________ 49 15 5. Do you think that horse racing has to be (must be) corrupt? _______

5 15

49 6. Are the conditions at the track better than they were when you first started to visit the track? ________ 49 15 7. Are you getting value for money for the services provided at the track? _______ 30 38

See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix The age of the punter and how long he (or she) has been visiting the track is a very strong determinant in deciding as to whether or not things at the track have improved. Another important determinant is the level of exposure of the punter to overseas tracks, with punters referring to places such as “Calder” and tracks in the United States. Caymanas Track is less being measured as to what was there before and is more being measured against what exist now elsewhere.

On Track Punters’ Views 1 Question/Response % Yes % No 1 Would you carry your children to the track? _______39 16 2 Is parking at the track adequate? __________ 38 20 3 Is security at the track adequate? ________ 40 21 4 Do you live further than two (2) miles from the track? _______ 46 5 Do you use your own transportation to get to the track? ________ 52 6 Do you buy refreshment or food at the track? ___________ 33 17 ON TRACK PUNTERS’ VIEW 1

12 3

See Punter’s Questionnaire in appendix While many punters are of the view, that speaking about the conditions at the track or complaining is a waste of time, because nothing will change, from those who answered, one is led to believe that there are a significant number of punters who either reside close to the track or have access to the private means of transportation. This reality has implications for the potential economic contribution of the track to the development of public transportation to and from the track. While a high percentage of private transportation ownership by the

punters reduces the reliance of the track on the public transport system, its relative independence of the public transport system, reduces the number of derived employment created by the track and also its economic contribution to the community. Ownership or access to private means of transportation coupled with a good sense of security, and a feeling that parking is adequate, has perhaps contributed to some punters’ views that they could carry their children to the track. This feeling of relative child friendliness is also contributed to by the presence of some children playing at the track especially in safety of that area in front of the Grand Stand. Of economic importance also, is the fact that some thirty three percent of the respondents report that they do buy refreshment at the track.

On Track Punters’ Views 2

1. Do you think that Caymanas Park has a good influence on the communities next door to the track?_________ 26 25 2. Do you think that the track has a bad influence on the value of property around the track? _____ 28 23 3. Do you think that Caymanas Park is doing enough to assist in the development of the neighbouring communities?_____________ 34 24 4. Do you know if Caymanas Park has a programme to facilitate the development of youth and service clubs in the neighbouring communities?__________ 28 28 5. Would you buy a house next door to Caymanas Park?________ 31 24 6. Would you visit a casino? __________ 45 18 7. Would you actively seek to gamble at a casino? _______ 56 5 8. Would it be a good idea to build a casino near to the track? ______ 39 22

From the perspective of Community Development, the low level of interest shown by punters in responding to those matters relating to the communities around Caymanas Park is a matter of concern. One could also conclude that the level of “punters’ education” on the community outreach activities of Caymanas Track Limited is not very good, equally as one could conclude that Caymanas Track limited is not very involved in community outreach activities. ,

General Operations At The Track 2000 2001 # of Race days # of Races # of Starts 10050 Avg Start 10.07 2002 93 998 9929 9.72 2003 94 1022 9599 9.61 2004 96 999 8784 9.52 2005 92 923 7916 9.44 2006 80 839 8162 9.56 2007 82 854 8206 9.56 82 858 7519 8.94 80 841

Highest Earning by an individual 7,591,550 11,774,080 11,634,750 12,628,700 12,314,600 10,302,250 # of Owners who earn above 300,000 186 184 198 210 Total # Racehorses 1114 1055 1069 1028 958 990 Total # Raceowners 678 656 656 640 582 563 Average 1.643067847 1.6082317 1.629573171 1.60625 1.6097152 1.5298126 2000 Starts 2001 2002 10050 9929 2003 9599 2004 8784 2005 7916 241 3483 4441 2006 8162 306 3231 4406 2007 8206 348 2440 3688 7519 375 3169 3227

10,415,855 220 224 961 898 597 587 1.6460481

9,333,000 246 268

1.7584369

# of horses claimed 302 298 # of horses entered for claiming others 6567 6698 7159 5615

435 3475

444 3756

4518

4292

Native Bred Importee Half Bred NB Gelding IMP Gelding

9038 612 400 200 51

9089 530 310 146 40

8894 468 237 152 29

8172 427 185 244 22

7158 595 163 301 21

7289 740 133 442 24 2006 55 111 3 9 0 15 11

7323 754 129 658 30

6709 584 226 838 11

Total Total Total Total Total Total Total

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 # of horses Reported Dead 136 # Native Bred horses Reported Dead 50 # NB Gelding horses Reported Dead 0 # Imp horses Reported Dead 22 # Imp Gelding horses Reported Dead 0 # mares Reported Dead 26 16 # NB mares Reported Dead 13

Dec-10 2007 73 90 46 57 5 14 0 26 9 0 19 0 29 17

90 69 0 23 0 19 13

88 65 0 23 0 20 10

74 64 0 22 0 3 7

61 50 0 10 0 2

Total # IMP mares Reported Dead 11 Total # NB Stallion Reported Dead 7 Total # IMP Stallion Reported Dead 5 Source: Jamaica Racing Commission # of Race days 93 0 998 94 1.075269 96 2.12766 92 -4.16667 80 -13.0435 82 2.5 854 82 0 858 80 -2.43902

5 2 1

5 4 3

9 0 5

16 1 2

9 1 6

13 0 2

1 2 4

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

# of Races 0 10050 1022 2.40481 999 -2.25049 923 -7.60761 839 -9.10076 1.787843 8162 0.468384 8206 841 -1.98135

# of Starts 9929 9599 8784 7916 7519

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

∆%# of Race days ∆%# of Races 0 0 0 1.075269 2.40481 -1.20398 2.12766 -2.25049 -3.3236 -4.16667 -7.60761 -8.49047 -13.0435 -9.10076 -9.8816 2.5 1.787843 3.10763 0 0.468384 0.539084 -2.43902 -1.98135 -8.37192

∆%# of Starts

From the above, it appears that the number of starts in any given year is the determining factor in determining the number of race days and number of races in that given period. . The marginal number of starts either pulls down or pushes up the marginal number of race days and the marginal number of races.

Total owners 2000 1114 2001 1055 2002 1069 2003 1028 2004 958 2005 990 2006 961 2007 898

# Racehorses 0 678 0.05 656 0.04995005 0.049925112 0.0499002 0.049875312 0.049850449 0.04982561

∆ in T#of Horses Total # Race owners

∆ in T#of

0 -0.03245 656 0 640 -2.43902 582 -9.0625 563 -3.2646 597 6.039076 587 -1.67504 ∆%# of Starts

∆in T#of Horses ∆ in T#of owners

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

0 0 0 0.05 -0.03245 -1.20398 0.04995 0 -3.3236 0.049925 -2.43902 -8.49047 0.0499 -9.0625 -9.8816 0.049875 -3.2646 3.10763 0.04985 6.039076 0.539084 0.049826 -1.67504 -8.37192

The marginal change in the total number of horses has remained over the period relatively constant, however the marginal change in the number of owners and the number of starts fluctuated together, with the marginal change in the number of owners affecting the number of starts and highly probably the number of races and race days

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

∆%# of Race days ∆%# of Races ∆ in T#of owners 0 0 0 1.075269 2.404809619 -0.032448378 2.12766 -2.250489237 0 -4.16667 -7.607607608 -2.43902439 -13.0435 -9.100758397 -9.0625 2.5 1.78784267 -3.264604811 0 0.468384075 6.039076377 -2.43902 -1.981351981 -1.675041876

As can be seen from above, the marginal change in the number of owners first dips to zero in the year 2002 influencing both the number of races and the number of race days. Its influence on the changes in total number of race days and number of races are best seen between the years 2004 and 2007. ∆ in owners ∆ in S & C 2000 0 0 2001 -3.24 1.994822598 2002 0 6.882651538 2003 -2.43902439 -21.567258 2004 -9.0625 -20.90828139 2005 -3.264604811 -0.788110786 2006 6.039076377 -16.29596005 2007 -1.675041876 -12.5 There however is no clear relationship between the marginal change in the total number of owners and the marginal change in the difference between the total number of starts and the number of horses offered for claiming. If horses not put up for claiming are horses in grade stake races or other nonclaiming events, then it would be fair to say that these better horses have a less significant role in the operations of Caymanas Park. An area that needs to be examined in some detail, is the width of the ownership band of these horses. Are they owned by many persons or by a small group.

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

# of horses claimed ∆ in # of horses claimed 302 0 0 298 -1.3245 -3.24484 241 -23.6515 0 306 21.24183 -2.43902 348 12.06897 -9.0625 375 7.2 -3.2646 435 13.7931 6.039076 444 2.027027 -1.67504

∆in owners

There is a very strong relationship between the change in the number of horses claimed and the marginal change in the number of owners. Changes in the claiming of horses are a major determinant in the numbers of race days and races offered by Caymanas Track Ltd, it directly influence the changes in the number of owners and other related factors. One should note that the data seems to indicate that while the track can have a large number of horses, the stagnation in the change of horse ownership gives owners the ability to directly influence the number of race days, races and starts. Claiming reduces the power of boycott or withholding by owners. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Claiming horses as a % of starts 34.65672 32.54104 25.41931 36.07696 43.89843 46.01813 55.05728 57.08206

As can be seen from the graph above, the percent of horses put up for claiming to the number of starts, have increased in a clearly visible way over the period.

Non claiming horses as a % of starts 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 65.34328 67.45896 74.58069 63.92304 56.10157 53.98187 44.94272 42.91794

As can be seen from the graph above, since the year 2003, non –claiming horses as a percentage of starts have been steadily declining.

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Marginal Change in Starts Marginal change in t. # of raceowners 0 0 -1.20398 -3.244837758 -3.3236 0 -8.49047 -2.43902439 -9.8816 -9.0625 3.10763 -3.264604811 0.539084 6.039076377 -8.37192 -1.675041876

As can be seen from above the marginal change in race ownership has a pulling or pushing effect on the marginal change in starts. There are strong reasons to believe as is borne out by the set of data above, that Caymanas Track Limited as early as from the year 2003 began a programme of expanding ownership through the promotion of claim races. This policy deliberate or otherwise has had a negative impact on the influence of the owners of horses not entering claim races, and has also strengthen the role played by “small” trainers who satisfy the needs of the “small” raceowner. This further borne out in the table below. The possibility of having a single united position among trainers has become more difficult, and the large trainers out voted by small and medium sized trainers. Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer Trainers Having less Having more Having more Number of trainers than 10 stalls 54 than 10 but less than or 20 Stalls34 than 20 13

Total Horse Population at Caymanas Park=1100 Source:- Caymanas Track Limited The Claims Market The claiming system in use at Caymanas Park over the years, has given birth to a very vibrant and active claiming market, albeit unregulated, with a value in the calendar year 2007 of over J$100,000,000.00 (US$1,448,016.2 at the 2007 rates). A particular feature of this market is the role of the trainer, who carries out the activities of those of a broker, both in regards to buying and/or selling on behalf of the owner and/or purchaser of the horse in question. . In its purest form, this market, allows for owners to dispose of, with relatively low transaction costs, his or her under-performing or non-performing horse, while still retaining one last chance of earning some purse money if the horse ended the claiming race in the frame. In reality, the market has taken on other complimentary functions, such as enabling those

trainers whose experience or social relations would curtail their possibilities of training horses for graded stakes, to ply their trade at another level in racing, it also facilitates some of these trainers to retain their stalls by obtaining claimed horses. In doing this, these small trainers work closely together with the smaller owners or prospective small owners. This market also allows breeders to obtain bloodstock at relatively low prices, than they would otherwise be able to obtain. The market is highly segmented, with some trainers working within only one or two higher price bands. Trading within the band ranges of J$4000, 000.00 to J$ 499,000.00 and. J$300,000.00 to J$399,000.00, is dominated in the main by a relatively small number of traders (i.e. trainers) and exhibits very strong speculative behavior on the part of the traders. In fact it is possible to find a trader selling a given horse in one claiming race and return two or three race days after to re-purchase the very same horse at a higher or lower price. The unregulated nature of this market, also allows for the possibility of money laundering. Here it is important to note that the Jamaica Racing Commission, regulates the racing and conditions for racing, however does not regulate the functioning of the claiming market, for example it cannot give any assurance about the state of health of a horse at the time of delivery to the new owner, it does not issue certificates of fitness for horses entering the claiming races, nor does it in any way seek declarations about source of funds or the fitness of the traders and or their clients to trade.

Value of Transactions and Number of Transactions on the Claiming Market Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Value of Transactions ∆in VT # of Transactions ∆in #T 45480000 0 298.00 0 35767500 -21.3555 235.00 -21.1409396 54570000 52.56867 305.00 29.78723404 74620000 36.7418 248 -18.68852459 85895000 15.10989 373.00 50.40322581 106960000.00 24.52413 434.00 16.3538874 114192600.00 6.761967 443.00 2.073732719

Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission The marginal changes in the number of transactions in the Claims Market has had a very strong influence on the marginal changes in the value of the transactions, this influence can be seen between the points 1 and 4 in the graph above.

(Value of Transactions Year 100-199,000 range 200-299,000 2001 30670000 3205000 2002 24962500 5995000 2003 24940000 15100000 2004 28275000 21885000 2005 24465000 33220000 2006 23310000 45285000 2007 19080000 44505000 Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission

in ranges ) 300-399,000 400-499,000 5770000 0 4810000 0 175121308.00 0 24250000 0 573148408 762864280.00 18640000 18905000 33285000 17460000

VT= Value of Transactions

As can be seen in the diagrams above, trades in the range band of J$3000, 000.00 to 399,000.00 has a highly unusual marginal curve, showing very high and steep peaks and steep falls, which raises questions related to the possible influences of speculation on the market or other types of activities such as price and or market fixing or the possibility of money laundering. Examine graph below for further comparisons of the marginal curves, with respect for the changes in the value of transactions in the 3-3.9 range. In short, regardless with which other marginal curve it is compared with, the marginal changes in the value of transactions in the price range J$300,000.00 to J$399,000.00 begs questions.

Marginal Table for change in the number of Transactions 100-199 range ∆ range 1-1.9 200-299 ∆ change in range 2-2.9 300∆change in range 3-3.9 400-499 in change in rang 4-4.9 240.00 0 40.00 0 18.00 0 0 0 201.00 -16.25 25.00 -37.5 15.00 -16.66666667 0 #DIV/0! 205.00 1.990049751 264.00 956 35.00 133.3333333 0 #DIV/0! 182.00 -11.2195122 83.00 -68.5606 69.00 97.14285714 0 #DIV/0! 153.00 -15.93406593 143.00 72.28916 51.00 -26.08695652 0 #DIV/0! 2006 141 -7.843137255 190.00 32.86713 53.00 3.921568627 46.00 #DIV/0! 2007 112.00 -20.56737589 189.00 -0.52632 97.00 83.01886792 39.00 -15.2173913 Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission Year 399 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

From the table and graph above, the marginal change in the number of transactions

in the price range J$200,000.00 to $299,000.00 was most dramatic, reflecting increasing and decreasing trading activity on the claiming market. It is also possible that more opportunistic types of traders entered and departed the market, their rapid departure had a very short negative influence on this market segment as represented by the price range. It is important to note the behaviour of the marginal curve for the market segment 3-3.9, There was a modest increase in the number of transactions, however not enough to influence the behavior of other traders in other market segments. This note is of importance, because it points to the fact that the abnormal behavior of the marginal VT curve for the range3-3.9, was not caused by a marked influx of traders or a dramatic increase in the number of trading activities by existing traders on that market segment, but more possibly by speculative activities. The claiming system is an exciting and possibility creating addition to the activities of the Caymanas Track Ltd; over the years it has witnessed significant growth, it has positively contributed to the democratization of the racing industry, and has created significant quantities of new wealth. Distances Ran 2000 2001 2002 2 fur 0 2 1 3 fur st. 2 4 4 fur st. 11 10 5 fur. St 160 191 5 fur rd 80 65 5 1/2 fur st. 109 6 fur 126 133 141 61/2 fur 92 89 7 fur 89 96 95 7 1/2 fur 91 87 8 fur 91 87 87 8 1/2 fur 22 21 9 fur 19 22 13 9 fur 25 yds 84 10 fur 19 22 11 fur 1 1 12 fur 2 2 998 1022 997 Source: Jamaica Racing 2003 2004 0 2 2 3 8 11 191 154 68 64 110 107 133 131 76 67 101 86 86 86 87 21 24 24 13 66 80 78 19 19 1 1 0 1 945 793 Commission 2005 1 5 9 151 36 103 102 61 82 82 80 13 12 78 1 1 2 832 2006 1 4 9 161 38 109 128 66 90 72 85 12 9 17 20 1 2 858 2007 0 5 8 163 33 109 139 58 84 72 81 20 12 61 22 1 2 841

5 5 158 18 107 56 70 17 54 22 1 2

113

58

Year 2000

Totals 998 1

∆ Change 142.5714

Average

2001 1022 2.40481 146 2002 997 -2.44618 142.4286 2003 945 -5.21565 135 2004 793 -16.0847 113.2857 2005 832 4.918033 118.8571 2006 858 3.125 122.5714 2007 841 -1.98135 120.1429 Source:- Jamaica Racing Commission Caymanas Track has in the period between 2000 and year 2005, fought to maintain its race day structure and race card offerings, as can be seen in the table above and in the graph below. It was only after the depression in the industry bottomed out in 2004, that recovery started, with some signs of a new bout of downturn on its way (see the flattening of both marginal and average curves starting at the mid-point of year 6 in graph below).

In spite of the above mentioned challenge in maintaining its race day and race cards, The track did remarkably well in maintaining the structure of its race cards, and there is a very high degree of correlation between the structures of the race cards when seen from an annual stand point. Please see table and charts below. Distance/Year 2000 2 fur 0 0 3 fur st. 2 3 4 fur st. 11 11 5 fur. St 160 154 5 fur rd 80 64 5 1/2 fur st. 109 6 fur 126 133 61/2 fur 92 67 7 fur 89 101 7 1/2 fur 91 86 8 fur 91 87 8 1/2 fur 22 24 9 fur 19 13 9 fur 25 yds 84 10 fur 19 19 11 fur 1 1 12 fur 2 1 Totals 998 945 Source: Jamaica Racing 2003

103

78

Commission

Coefficent of correlation between individual pair of years. Coefficient of correlation 2000 & 2003 0.999329 Coefficient of Correlations between 2003-2006 0.998623 Coefficient of Correlation. Between 2000& 2006 0.997232

Coefficient of Correlation between 2000&2007 0.995774 The coefficient of the line of regression between years 2000 & 2001 is 0.947729 which is positive and very close to 1. The coefficient of the line of regression between years 2000 & 2007 is 0.846899. Which is positive, but indicates a slight reduction in the level of predictability between year 2000 & 2007, a fact that is also reflected in the coefficient of correlation between the same two years.

The very high positive values for both the coefficient correlation and regression between the individual years indicates a very high level predictability and reliability of the offering of Caymanas Park, which are important factors in retaining horse racing and betting. This is further highlighted in the table below which where the total distances ran per year is matched against the promoters total take for the given year. Year Total Distance Ran Promoters Total in US$ 2000 998 41400.35 2001 1022 40502.02 2002 997 34279.42 2003 945 28181.53 2004 793 25720.49 2005 832 29679.46 2006 858 32033.47 2007 841 34925.92 Co-efficent of Correlation 0.724868

Betting Earnings from betting when expressed in US dollars also reflect a period of challenges, which became most clearly visible in the year 2002, worsened in 2003 and began to improve in the year 2004. While the figures for the promoters total was still less in the year 2007 than it was in the year 2000, it was a definite recovery of positions previously held. Year 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 Promoters Total 2411984 2110365 1854966 1577695 1632556 1663923 Exchange Rate Promoters Total in US$ 69.06 34925.92 65.88 32033.47 62.5 29679.46 61.34 25720.49 57.93 28181.53 48.54 34279.42

2001 1866333 46.08 2000 1783527 43.08 Source: Jamaica Racing Commission

40502.02 41400.35

Year Promoter’s Total in US$ ∆ in Promoter’s Total in US$ Promoters Total As % of 2000 Total 2000 41400.35 0 0 2001 40502.02 -2.16986 97.83014 2002 34279.42 -15.3637 82.79983 2003 28181.53 -17.7888 68.07075 2004 25720.49 -8.7328 62.12627 2005 29679.46 15.39225 71.6889 2006 32033.47 7.931459 77.37488 2007 34925.92 9.029461 84.36141 Based on the table and the graph below, it is possible that the track is on the verge another cyclical depression even before it has recovered its year 2000 values in terms of the promoter’s take from betting. Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 ∆ in Promoters Total in US$ 1 100 -2.16986 97.83014 -15.3637 82.79983 -17.7888 68.07075 -8.7328 62.12627 15.39225 71.6889 7.931459 77.37488 9.029461 84.36141 Promoters Total As % of 2000 Total

Based on both the year-to-year changes in the number of race days and the number of race days expressed as a percentage of the number of race the year 2000, also seems to indicate that the year 2007, marked the potential entrance to another period of cyclical depression.

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Race Days As % of year 2000 ∆ Change # of Races 93 100 1 998 94 101.0753 1.075269 96 102.1277 2.12766 90 93.75 -6.25 923 80 88.88889 -11.1111 80 100 0 854 82 102.5 2.5 858 80 97.56098 -2.43902

∆ Change # of Race Days Races As % of year 2000 100 1 1022 999 92.39239 839 101.7878 100.4684 841 102.4048 97.74951 -7.60761 90.89924 1.787843 0.468384 98.01865 2.40481 -2.25049 -9.10076 -1.98135

Total Purse Paid Out (1991-2007) The period reviewed 1991 to 2007 saw a decline in the total amount of money paid out reduced by some nineteen percent, in other words, purse money paid out in 2007 was some nineteen percent less than that paid out in the year 1991. The depreciation of the Jamaican dollar over the period has had a very devastating effect on purse money, making participation by owners and potential owners of thoroughbred horses in the sport of racing, less attractive. Change in the rate of exchange for period 1991 to 2007 in percentage=1717.888% Change in the rate of exchange for the period 2000 to 2007 in percentage =150.6901%.

Purse Paid Out Year Purse in J$ Exchange Rate Purse in US $ 1991 21718657 12.22 1777304 1992 35856820 22.99 1559670 1993 48447700 25.11 1929419 1994 76957470 33.29 2311729 1995 121082145 35.35 3425237 1996 139312146 37.25 3739923 1997 176319800 35.51 4965356 1998 201930230 36.65 5509692 1999 224164776 39.2 5718489 2000 247595680 43.08 5747346 2001 257975900 46.08 5598435 2002 253210425 48.54 5216531 2003 257086950 57.93 4437890 2004 302511250 61.34 4931713 2005 312876550 62.5 5006025 2006 341121273 65.88 5177919 2007 373102150 89.05 4189805 Source:- The Jamaica Racing Commission and Bank of Jamaica

Year 1991 1992

∆ Change in Purse Purse as % of 1991 1 100 -12.24517 87.75483

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

23.706822 19.814819 48.167755 9.1872725 32.766256 10.962683 3.7896251 0.5046289 -2.590952 -6.821622 -14.92642 11.127426 1.5068237 3.4337372 -19.08322

123.7068 119.8148 148.1678 109.1873 132.7663 110.9627 103.7896 100.5046 97.40905 93.17838 85.07358 111.1274 101.5068 103.4337 80.91678

It is to be noted however that purse money paid out in the years 2001 and 2005 marginally increased over the amount in the year 1991. Once again as previously pointed out the year 2007 has the markings of a new round of decline, as was in the period 2001 and 2003.

The Backstretch

The backstretch of Caymanas Park lies on some 131 acres of low lying land, with significant parts of the property lower than the adjoining communities especially in that area where one finds Stable 51, and the area directly behind the walls of the Veterinarian’s office. As such seasonal flooding is a problem, especially in the hurricane period, when complete sections of the road leading to stable 40 and others can be completely submerged and accessible only on foot or by high axle vehicles. In earlier years during floods the horses would be removed to the track which is on higher ground. Flood waters still settle in the rectangular court yard enclosed by the stalls, making movement and work in the stable area unpleasant. There are some eighty stables in the backstretch area, this is the working area of four hundred and eight grooms, one hundred and forty one trainers, forty seven exercise riders eighty-nine jockeys, forty-five assistant trainers and eight food/snack vendors in addition to a number of stable lad, an estimated fifteen unlicensed farriers, one medical doctor, one nurse, and an estimated three veterinarians. Stables and stalls were built in three separate waves at varying construction standards and dimensions; in the very early days of Caymanas Park, trainers built their own stalls, for example the Nunes Stables were built by the trainer Mr.

Nunes, stables built by trainers were built at standards and sizes affordable to the given trainer; later Caymanas Track Limited built a set of stables to meet the growing demand for stables. These stables were built in accordance to engineering standards and are better able to withstand the challenges posed by storms, winds and/or floodwaters. The last set of stables were built by private contractors, contracted by Caymanas Track Limited and are the least able to meet the challenges posed by high waters and winds. The stables and their stalls are distributed to the trainers in accordance to number of horses in his or her care. Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer Trainers Number of trainers Average # of horses per trainer Having less than 10 stalls 54 6.462963 Having more than 10 <but less than< or =20 Stalls 13 22.53846 34 13.47059

Having more than 20

Total Horse Population at Caymanas Park=1100 Source:- Caymanas Track Limited Caymanas Park in many ways is an evolution of Berth’s classic Plural Society, with the interdependence of individuals from different ethnic groups, which meet but never mixes, into one more akin to that which existed in the French colonies – clearly separated and demarked groups, bonding into one whole by the existence of a large mulatto middle class. At Caymanas Park the older and more established trainers are Whites, upper caste Indians, Sephardic Jews, and Jamaican Chinese. One the other hand, most of the grooms tend to be Blacks with an element of lower caste Indians. Whites and near whites are under constant pressure to play a positive role in the back stretch as their behaviour, real or imagined is taken as a form of datum from which behaviour is measured and assessed, if it is felt that the “White Man Dem A Run Racket”, then other trainers will then begin to explore the possibility of running some racket for themselves. An important caveat here is the recognition, that unlike many other cultures or sub cultures, the term “white” on the backstretch might or might not refer to ones racial or ethnic background, but always used in reference to wealth, here wealth might be money or the number of horses one has in his stable or stables. In keeping with this caveat, a trainer from Caucasian ethnic background with only a few horses in his stable is not White, while a trainer from Chinese or Black ethnic background with more than thirty horse in his stable or stables is counted among the Whites. This division of the ranks of the trainers into socio-ethnic groups is also reflected in the poles of influence in the Trainers Association, whose membership is split among the three centres of influence, the large (White) trainers whose base on the backstretch is in the northerly direction, a mobile under tree based grouping of the ambitious discontents, and the Black Trainers (led by one of the larger trainers) which is based around and in a southerly direction. The leadership of the Black Trainers group, in views, methods of mobilization and personal ambitions is not very different from the White Trainers group. Reported Horse Deaths In The Industry ∆ T # of Horses ∆ # of NB ∆# NB mares ∆# NB Stallions Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead 2000 0 0 0 0 2001 -59.5588 -58.55855856 -38.4615 -71.4286

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

32.72727 23.91304348 -6.25 100 23.28767 21.05263158 73.33333 -100 0 -5.797101449 11.53846 #DIV/0! -2.22222 -1.538461538 -34.4828 0 -15.9091 -21.875 5.263158 -100 -17.5676 0 -85 #DIV/0!

The data above indicates a comparatively high Reported Native Bred Mare Deaths, while the marginal change in Total Reported Native Bred Deaths very closely follows the marginal change in Total Reported Deaths; reported Native Bred Mare Mortality as compared with reported Native Bred Stallion Deaths. ∆ T # of Horses ∆ in IMP Mare ∆ in Tot Mare Reported Dead Reported Dead Reported Dead 0 0 0 -59.5588 -38.4615 -54.54545455 -59.0909 32.72727 -6.25 0 55.55556 23.28767 73.33333 80 35.71429 0 11.53846 77.77777778 21.05263 -2.22222 -34.4828 -43.75 0 -15.9091 5.263158 44.44444444 -4.34783 -17.5676 -85 -92.30769231 -54.5455 ∆ in IMP Stallion Reported Dead

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Of particular concern is not only the relatively higher level of reported mare deaths, but also the situation faced by the imported stallion, whose exposure to a positive reported death rate covers a longer period of time than the imported mare, whose reported death curve has far sharper (narrower) angles.

Market Creation/ Performance and

Economic Contribution Of Caymanas Track Limited

Stable and Horse Distribution By Trainer Trainers Number of trainers Having less than 10 stalls 54 Having more than Average # of 6.462963 horses per trainer 34 13.47059

10 <but less than< or =20 Stalls 13 22.53846

Having more than 20

Total Horse Population at Caymanas Park=1100 Source: Cull As may be seen from the data below, the number of horses culled from racing has declined over the years, when looked at as a percentage of the number culled in the year 2002. However when examined on a year to year basis, one finds a relatively high level of volatility in the rate of culls, reflecting the natural differences in the performance of one cohort as against another cohort of horses. The volatility in the rate of cull reflects a high level of objectivity in the cull, with the performance of the given cohort determining the number of horses culled, with no attempts being made for the sake of establishing any given pattern or trend. As pointed out, the cull rate is in the main determined by the performance of the cohort, and as such the rate is not indicative of one culled horse performing better or worse than a given horse in a next year group. Cull # culled year to year as % 2002 53 100 100 2003 37 69.81132 -30.1887 2004 30 81.08108 -43.3962 2005 18 60 -51.3514 2006 25 138.8889 -16.6667 2007 25 100 38.88889 2008 15 60 -40 Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission year to year as % 100 100 69.81132 -30.1887 81.08108 -43.3962 As % of 2002 Caymanas Track Limited

As % of 2002

2002 2003 2004

2005 2006 2007 2008

60 -51.3514 138.8889 -16.6667 100 38.88889 60 -40

The Betting Sector, Years 2002-2007 The gaming sector over the period, from the perspective of sales and number of betting offices, have proven to be very resilient. (See table below): Bookmakers Sales, Years 2002-2007 Year Local Sales in US $ Marginal change in local sales US $ Marginal Change in Overseas Sales 2002 22321302.45 0 13844360.21 0 2003 17498712.16 -0.216053266 11879586.62 -0.14 2004 1955539.24 -0.888246677 888213.4755 -0.93 2005 1955417.97 -6.20135E-05 1020425.602 0.15 2006 2339067.95 0.196198453 1203440.424 0.18 2007 2623218.02 0.121480042 1203534.728 0.00 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Marginal change in local sales 0 0 -0.216053266 -0.141918699 -0.888246677 -0.925231954 -6.20135E-05 0.148851746 0.196198453 0.17935146 0.121480042 7.83619E-05 Overseas Sales in

Marginal Change in Overseas Sales

As can be seen from the above table, the bookmakers were able to recover from the 2003-2004 slump and recover lost ground in terms of sales. (See chart below)

The chart above however reveals that overseas sales has become a major determinant of the bookmakers’ sales and actually plays a pull push role in respect to local sales. Promoters Sales At Caymanas Park Year Caymanas Park Exchange Rate C Park Sales in US$ Marginal Change in C Park Sale 2004 72137023 61.63 1170565.30 0 2005 87538744 64.58 1355479.19 0.157969739 2006 98238332 67.15 1462996.78 0.079320722 2007 103473522 70.62 1465265.34 0.001550627

Year Off-Track 2004 223662349 2005 233539348 2006 300422754 2007 320312547 Source:- Betting, Year 2004 2005

OFF T sales in US$ 3629362.199 3616201.383 4473992.11 4535874.159 Gaming & Lotteries Commission

M.Change in Off T. Total M. Change in T T in US $ 0 295799372 0 4799927.498 -0.003626206 321078092 0.035782432 4971680.577

2006 2007

0.237207676 398661086 0.013831506 423786069

0.194161371 5936988.892 0.010805244 6001139.503

For the Promoter, Off Track sales have played that critical role in determining the magnitude of sales at Caymanas Park, and on total sales. Marginal Change in C Park Sale M.Change in Off T. M. Change in T 2004 0 0 0 2005 0.157969739 -0.003626206 0.035782432 2006 0.079320722 0.237207676 0.194161371 2007 0.001550627 0.013831506 0.010805244 Overseas Betting Year in US 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Bookmakers, overseas betting in US $ ∆ in OVS Betting Simulcast Betting $ ∆ in Simul. Betting Local Betting in US $ ∆ in L Betting 14442.40451 0 24332.09635 0 69519.6398 0 14537.43304 0.006579828 22626.51422 -0.07009598 57718.1706 -0.169757341 12431.21008 -0.144882728 21014.60383 -0.07123989 46492.7844 -0.194486174 12545.20704 0.009170222 21998.761 0.046832059 42885.0668 -0.077597365 13534.24 0.078837516 22966.352 0.043983886 48080.704 0.121152596 13967.62295 0.032021225 25297.04007 0.101482729 51787.629 0.077097977 11872.03881 -0.150031552 30476.97654 0.204764528 57062.0475 0.101847074 ∆ in OVS Betting ∆ in Simul. Betting ∆ in L Betting 0 0 0 0.006579828 -0.07009598 -0.169757341 -0.144882728 -0.07123989 -0.194486174 0.009170222 0.046832059 -0.077597365 0.078837516 0.043983886 0.121152596 0.032021225 0.101482729 0.077097977 -0.150031552 0.204764528 0.101847074

As can be seen from the tables and chart above, simulcast betting has become the major performance driver of the sector, followed by local betting. Overseas betting in its classical form is on the decline in terms of its contribution. Number of Local Racing Bookmakers and Offices 2004-2007 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 Number of Bookmakers 12 391 11 365 10 359 10 359 Number of Betting #of Betting Offices/ Offices # of Bookmakers 32.58333333 33.18181818 35.9 35.9

Among the Bookmakers, there was some consolidation, with the number of Bookmakers declining from twelve in the year 2004, to ten in 2007, one also witness an increase in the number of betting offices to the number of Bookmakers, representing a strengthening of individual operations.

Year 2005 Parish Number of Betting Shops Number of closed betting shops Closure rate in % Clarendon 61 28 45.90164 Hanover 5 1 20 Kingston 43 21 48.83721 Manchester 22 5 22.72727 Portland 10 2 20 St. Andrew 18 5 27.77778 St. Catherine 147 48 32.65306 St. Ann 17 9 52.94118 St. Elizabeth 25 11 44 St. James 7 2 28.57143 St. Thomas 17 13 76.47059 Westmoreland 25 13 52 St. Mary 17 4 23.52941 Portland 7 2 28.57143 Source:- Betting and Gaming Commission As can be seen from the table above, the betting sector is very dynamic and relatively unstable, with betting offices coming in and off the scheme, and thus demands a relatively high level of managerial skills from the Bookmakers. In terms of closure rates, St. Thomas leads with seventy six percent of all betting office opened being closed. This is followed by the parish of St. Ann with nearly fifty three percent of all betting offices opened being closed. Of the high population density parishes of the south coast, St. Catherine is the most stable with a closure rate of less than thirty five percent. The presence of Caymanas Park in that given parish, coupled with the history of racing in the Old Harbour area are possible determinants of its success rates. One should note that the argument that the presence of large sugar estates is a determinant of success in betting office operations, does not hold true, since St. Thomas, Clarendon and Westmoreland are also sugar cultivating areas, but the closure rates for betting offices are above forty percent. This would suggest that there are other factors at play. The Illegal Betting Sector Illegal bookmakers continue to operate with various levels of impunity in several inner city communities, in fact taking over the domain once occupied by legal Bookmakers, who have withdrawn from these communities for various reasons. Based on observations made during the writing of this report, there are some two illegal bookmakers to every five legal bookmakers. Interestingly, these operations are, from the perspectives of the communities they operate, above ground, in other words, there is nothing wrong with them. In fact in one community, until recently one such illegal betting office was operated by a known Justice of the Peace. Illegal bookmakers are very adaptive to the changing market conditions in the areas in which they operate, and are able to sell bets on individual races at prices below the official rates and are not above giving credit bets to regular punters or in some cases lend or give these punters the money so that they can place their bets. Illegal bookmakers also place bets with legal Bookmakers, and thus expand the market area covered by some betting offices. From the perspective of the industry from a most general perspective, these illegal bookmakers play a critical role in preserving the presence of racing in

those most volatile communities, where the risks are too high for the legal Bookmakers to take on. For example in the community of Jones Town, without illegal bookmakers, the sport of racing would be non-existent. The illegal bookmakers also serve pockets of punters who because of their low level of disposable income, would not be able to actively and regularly participate in the sport. To the extent that these illegal bookmakers also place bets with the official Bookmakers, they tend to act as unofficial sales agents. Some officially registered Bookmakers are also actively involved in illegal bookmaking activities, in terms of opening time and in terms of standard operations. In some places, the existence of modern communications infrastructure has permitted nearly twenty-four hours continuous betting operations nearly seven days per week, with heavy betting on overseas/simulcast racing. Based on interviews done with two former betting office employees, in some offices there are two “sales books” in use, which facilitates the under reporting of sales and other irregular operating practices. The less vigilant buy and leave punters, in some instances can find that where several tickets have been bought, changes are made to the bets, in terms of horses and or races. The fear of job loss and other acts of reprisal are major deterrents to a greater flow of information. There appears to be a relatively close linkage between bars and betting offices, both legal and illegal. The bar maids are generally well informed about the locations of both legal and illegal types of operations, their employees and opening hours. This was verified in Portmore, in the Community of Greenwich Farm and Down Town Kingston.

Betting Offices A major deterrent to the expansion of the racing market, especially among the more stable segments of the population and among women is the state of the betting offices. The typical betting office is located in small shops, equipped with a counter where the bets are bought and sold, a television for the punters following of the races and one or two long benches. Very few and far between are betting offices that have bathroom facilities, for example no such betting office has been found anywhere in Portmore, or in the Half Tree area. A visit to two offices on Knutsford Boulevard in Kingston, revealed that none of the two offices there located had bathroom facilities open to the general punting population. Because of the Laws and regulations under which betting offices operate, they are unable to sell food or a beverage, which places them at a distinct disadvantage when compared with the sale of the Lotto and other such types of number games, which can be sold nearly anywhere. The Betting and Gaming Act and its various amendments, have created a legal environment that stifles the growth of the betting offices in terms of the effective use of facilities and staff. In fact most betting offices operates on a part –time basis, two days per week, and are generally located in structures that are approaching the demolition stage of their life cycle. Bookmakers Performance 2004-2007 (J$) Year 2004 Post to Post 3447414 Summit Betting Co. 1637025 Total Betting Track Plus

5773491

34160533

2005 2006 2007 Year

4894995 6923098 5698186 7543113 47287907 8730941 Big "A" Track Limited

1902520 31619776 0 40553102 Capital Betting

2004 3364385 11185733 2005 3569518 11880194 2006 5423413 14784124 2007 4814386 18171000 Year Markam Betting Caribbean Turf Betting 2004 2005 2006 2007 18632605 19528115 27291377 26751138 13572168 9004415 11880194 13300332 43831042 22804236 23340697 30082774 5494001

Champion Betting Co. 4223261 4697939 4916384

Charles Off

Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007

Track Plus ∆ Change in Track Plus 34160533 0 31619776 -0.074376972 40553102 0.28252338 47287907 0.166073732 ∆ Change in Champion Betting Markham Betting 0 18632605 22804236 0.023524621 19528115 23340697 0.288854999 27291377 30082774 0.457014636 26751138 43831042 ∆ Change in Capital Betting Ideal Betting 0 5742111 11185733 0.062085 7044385 11880194 0.244435 7472567 14784124 0.229089 10264185 18171000

Champion Betting Co.

Capital Betting

Growth among the top five Bookmakers was led by Champion Betting and Ideal betting. It should noted here , that as will be seen later , the rate of growth of sales is not dependent on the number of betting offices, but rather on how effective is the given betting office used.

Number Bookmakers Offices 2004-2007 Year Big "A" Track Limited Capital Betting Co. 2004 2005 23 19 46 40 22 22 51 51

Caribbean Turf

Champion Betting

2006 2007 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007

25 44 19 20 56 20 Post to Post 24 38 23 38 23 37 22 36 Charles Off 45 39 35 29 25 28 26 26

49 48 Summit Betting Co.

Total Betting

Track Plus

15 69 11 61 0 61 0 61 Betting 33 33 40 41

Ideal Betting

Markam Betting

Year ∆ Change in Track Plus ∆ Change in Champion Betting ∆ Change in Markham Betting ∆ Change in Capital Betting ∆ Change in Ideal Betting 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0.131147541 0 0 -0.130434783 0.12 2005 0 -0.039215686 0.212121212 0.1 -0.0714286 2006 0 -0.020408163 0.025 0.272727273 0 2007

As was previously stated, there is no clear relationship between the number of betting offices operated by a given Bookmaker and the sales performance of that given bookmaker, for example Capital Betting underperforms in sales when compared to Track Plus, yet leads in growth of number of betting offices. The area of most likely growth in the upcoming period is likely to be in the area of increasing the effectiveness at which locations are used.

Purse Money 2002-2007 Purse money regardless of its source , has over the period experienced on a year to year basis, negative marginal changes, meaning that from one year to the next, if expressed in US dollars, there is less purse money to be divided. This is taking place at a time, when there has been an expansion of ownership of horses thanks to the claiming system. The decline value of sponsorship and trophies are the main factors causing the decline in the value of the purse money. The tables below, gives a detailed picture of growth in purse money over the period. Year Tropies US $ Value of Tropies 2002 697500.00 253000000.00 2003 771000.00 257000000.00 2004 824000.00 510000000.00 2005 926500.00 313000000.00 2006 1278650.00 341000000.00 2007 1294500.00 $18,760.87 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 Promoter/Government Levy 243543525 5017377.94 248626460 4291842.91 293984250 4792700.52 295272188.8 4724355.02 US Value of Promoter/Government Levy

2006 2007 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

295272188.8 4481970.08 351,310,050 5087026.50 Exchange rate US $1.00=J$ 48.54 8969400 184783.68 57.93 7689500 132737.79 61.34 8527000 139012.06 62.5 16677862.82 266845.81 65.88 17824000 270552.52 69.06 21,792,100 315553.14 Sponsors in J$ US Value of Sponsers

Year Total 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

∆ of Promoter/Government

∆ of Sponsor

∆ of Trophies

∆ value of

0 0 0 0 0.169049762 0.363635468 0.233639091 0.215037427 -0.104504257 -0.192457545 -0.244398989 -0.619329488 0.014466631 -0.481327011 -0.538708534 -0.247639912 0.05408 -0.013700536 -0.28533496 -0.344508977 -0.118941079 -0.279372148 -0.288195595 -0.349208722

year Exchange rate US $1.00=J$ Amount Paid 2002 48.54 22565950 464893.9 2003 57.93 25097650 433241 2004 61.34 28084400 457848.1 2005 62.5 27801500 444824 2006 65.88 30599423 464472.1 2007 69.06 33,388,450 483470.2

Amount paid in J$ US $ Value Paid 0 -0.06809 0.056798 -0.02845 0.044171 0.040902

∆ in US

One the other hand, the amount paid out to breeders over the period, as expressed in US dollars has increased on a year to year basis. See tables below.

Amount Paid To Breeders and Owners of Sires 2002-2007 year Exchange rate US $1.00=J$ Amount Paid 2002 48.54 22565950 464893.9019 2003 57.93 25097650 433240.9805 2004 61.34 28084400 457848.06 2005 62.5 27801500 444824 2006 65.88 30599423 464472.116 2007 69.06 33,388,450 483470.1709 Amount paid in J$ US $ Value Paid 0 -0.068086334 0.056797673 -0.028446249 0.044170539 0.040902466 % paid out over year 2002 base to ∆ in US

Year US $ Value Paid to Owners and Breeders owners and Breeders 2002 464893.9019 100 2003 433240.9805 93.19136661 2004 457848.06 105.6797673 2005 444824 97.15537508 2006 464472.116 104.4170539

2007

483470.1709 104.0902466

Disqualifications and Late Non-Starters, Years 2002-2007 Over the period the number of disqualifications and the number of Late NonStarters have grown. There are several causes at work, ranging from the health and or temperament of the horses in question, to the behaviour of the jockeys. A break down is given below; however there is a need to follow the trend in a more detailed manner to identify the role played by competition for purse money. Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 # of Disq from 1st. Place 15 21 11 8 20 23 44 36 11 8 20 26 65 Other Disq Total Disq Other Disq/ Total Disq

3 21

58.33333333 100 100 80.1980198 100 115.6378601 88.46153846 100 67.69230769 116.0142349

3 of LNS % ∆ in LNS over 2002 324 100 303 93.51851852 243 80.1980198 281 115.6378601 281 100 326 116.0142349

Year Other Disq/ Total Disq % ∆ in LNS over 2002 2002 58.33333333 100 2003 100 93.51851852 2004 100 80.1980198 2005 100 115.6378601 2006 88.46153846 100 2007 67.69230769 116.0142349 Source :Jamaica Racing Commission

The impact of Late Non-Starters on the actual outcome of races vis-à-vis the projected outcome of the given races, needs further and more detailed analysis. There is a need to ensure that LNS are not used by dishonest jockeys, trainers or owners to remove favourites from races, thus giving a horse with greater odds an increased possibility of winning. Equally, the punters have had concerns about the disqualifications of various horses and or jockeys, both opinions in support of the Race Day Stewards and against them, one also find punters who are of the view that some disqualifications come as a result of tactical considerations taken by the jockey and or trainer. There have also been cases where the jockey named in the “weights” fails to show up for the given race, thus influencing the odds and outcomes on a given race. For the jockey, risk-taking is feasible if the pay-off is enough to cover the amount lost as a result of a suspension, for example twenty race days. Jockeys so involved are generally of a lower status, with less mounts on any given race day, e.g. for a jockey who receives less than ten mounts in any month, this type of risk taking can be of economic value. Allegations have also been made about linkages between Bookmakers and or large punters and

trainers/jockeys; two bars in the Portmore area have been pointed out as the meeting places for these alleged participants in race fixing, however, it was not feasible given the allocated time and resources to verify these allegations.

A General Overview of The Betting Sector The performance of the betting sector over the period has been very dynamic and showed a high level of resilience in its ability to bounce back from periods of lower economic activity as was the period between the years 2002 and 2005, as can be seen in the table and graph below:General Over View Summary of Racing Promoters Sales 2000-2007 Total Sales in J$ US$1=J$ Total Sales in US $ Marginal change 2666133788 43.08 61887970.94 100 0 2938534250 46.08 63770274.52 103.0414692 0.03041469 2936552026 48.54 60497569.55 97.75335761 -0.0513202 2775473016 57.93 47910806.42 75.13031233 -0.208054 2848061124 61.34 46430732.38 76.74809537 -0.0308923 3022351442 62.5 48357623.07 100.932601 0.04150033 3357503867 65.88 50963932.41 109.763361 0.05389656 3939233989 69.06 57040747.02 117.9560603 0.11923755

% Change over 2000

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

The graph is in many ways a reflection of what is de facto an ordinary business cycle, please see marginal sales curve below:It however should be noted that there is not a one to one relationship between the number of race days and the volume of sales. The percentage change in the average race day curve is flatter than the percentage change in total sales curves, hence reflective of a greater level of consistency and predictability. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Number of Race days 94 100 94 100 93 98.94 95 101.06 87 93.55 79 83.16 81 93.10 83 105.06 % change in Number of Race Days over 2000

There is also a very close relationship between the number of races and the number of starts over the period as can be seen from the table and chart below:# of Races # of Starts % change in # races over year 2000 % change in the # of Starts over 2000 2000 998 10050 100 100 2001 1022 9929 102.40 98.80 2002 999 9599 100.10 95.51243781 2003 923 8784 90.31 88.46812368 2004 839 7916 83.98 82.46692364 2005 854 8162 92.52 92.91894353

2006 2007

858 841

8206 7519

102.26 103.6634664 98.48 92.12202891

Hence in concluding, one could say that there is very close relationship between the race card offered by the promoters and the performance of the Betting Sector in terms of sales.

The Stud Farm Sector 199-2007 The stud farm sector during the period has remained relatively unstable and extremely risky, similar to the horse industry as a whole and reflective of the state of the racing economy in particular. Distribution of Broodmare Operations 2007 Parish Number of operations St. Catherine 10 Clarendon 1 Trelawny 1 St. Mary 1 St. Ann 1 Distribution of major studs 2007 Parish Number of operations St Catherine 9 Clarendon 2 St. Ann 2 St. Mary 1 St. Elizabeth 3 Trelawny 1 Total number Of stud farms Marginal Change in the number of Stud Farms stud Farms 26 0 100 20 -0.23077 76.92308 22 0.1 84.61538 22 0 110 24 0.090909 109.0909 25 0.041667 113.6364 22 -0.12 91.66667 25 0.136364 100 21 -0.16 95.45455

% increase in the number of

The relative stability of the sector owes a lot to the operation of a few larger

farms, which have been better able to withstand the blows experienced better than the smaller farms. Stud farm operators in a bid to maintain income, sought to increase the availability of covering services, thus increasing the number of farms with standing stallions. Year # of Stud farms without resident or visiting stallions 1999 11 2000 4 2001 5 2002 3 2003 4 2004 5 2005 5 2006 6 2007 6 Source : Jamaica Racing Commission In spite of the various challenges, the quality of the farms in terms of the distribution of stallions has remained fairly constant, with the number of farms with three or more stallions increasing relative to the year 1999.. Year # of farms with more than one but under three resident stallions # of farms with three or more resident stallions # Of Farms with stallions Total # of stud farms % Of Stud Farms with Stallions 1999 12 3 15 26 57.69231 2000 11 5 16 32 50 2001 12 5 17 34 50 2002 14 5 19 38 50 2003 16 4 20 40 50 2004 13 4 17 34 50 2005 10 7 17 34 50 2006 14 5 19 38 50 2007 9 5 14 28 50 The availability and distribution of stallions during the period under review, show signs of unpredictability, however it clearly demonstrates in part the positive impact on the tax concessions given to the breeders, especially on those farms with three or more stallions. years Total number of resident stallions Total number of visiting stallions 1999 44 0 2000 43 0 2001 47 0 2002 46 0 2003 39 0 2004 33 0 2005 49 0 2006 50 2 2007 50 3 Source: Jamaica Racing Commission The availability, marketing and distribution of visiting stallions, have remained very poor and is yet to become an industry-wide practice especially among the smaller farms. The average age of the serving stallion has remained steadily between ten and twelve years of age. This is a good sign, and may be taken as an indicator of quality, owing to the fact that a stallion within the ages of ten and

twelve years, is an animal at its reproductive prime. Stud farm operators and breeders seem to have a preference for the younger stallions of ages less than twelve years. Year % of Stallions Eleven years or less % of Stallions 12 years and older but under not over 15 years of age % of stallions age 16 and over Year Average age of resident stallions in years 1999 50.00 27.27 22.73 1999 12 2000 53.49 25.58 20.93 2000 12 2001 59.57 21.28 19.15 2001 12 2002 58.70 13.04 28.26 2002 12 2003 56.41 23.08 20.51 2003 12 2004 54.55 30.30 15.15 2004 12 2005 64.44 24.44 11.11 2005 10 2006 64 22 14 2006 11 2007 72 14 14 2007 11 This can be seen in the graph below, which shows a going tendency towards the usage of the stallions in the lower age band as compared with the stallions in the other two older age bands. This tendency is consistent, with what occurs in other branches of industry, where capital equipment or stock of a younger vintage is preferred to equipment or stock closer to the write-off point.

The sector also shows two clear stallion restocking periods, namely the years 2001 and 2005. In the years 2000 and 2004, stallions of ages between twelve and fifteen years were partially used as substitutes for the younger stallions. Year Total # of resident mares Total # Barren Total # of live Foals in foal In foal 1999 314 149 91 225 2000 313 138 56 218 2001 358 204 56 235 2002 407 225 68 291 2003 388 166 83 279 2004 423 201 64 126 2005 444 261 114 312 2006 480 277 107 314 2007 575 166 76 351 Source: Jamaica Racing Commission of visiting mares Total # of tested

The number of mares in foal also increased over the period, from four hundred and sixty three in 1999 to seven hundred and forty one in the year 2007. Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Total 463 451 562 632 554 624 705 757 741 # of mares in foal 100 97.41 121.38 136.50 122.84 111.03 111.55 136.64 118.75 % increase over 1999

One must however note as can be seen from the table and chart below, that the increase in the number of mares in foal was done in a very erratic and unplanned manner and carried with it significant losses to the industry. Year Marginal change in the number of mares in foal 1999 0 2000 -0.02592 2001 0.24612 2002 0.124555 2003 -0.12342 2004 0.126354 2005 0.129808 2006 0.073759 2007 -0.02114

Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total # of live Foals % increase if foal crop over 1999 225 100 218 96.89 235 104.44 291 129.33 279 127.98 126 53.62 312 107.22 314 112.55 351 278.57

The percentage increase in the number of mares in foal however does not lead to a one-to -one matching in terms of live foals as can be seen in the table above and in the chart below. This once again is consistent with the Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns. Notwithstanding the difficulties experienced over the period, the industry has been able to perform well in terms of live foal production.

Year foal 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Marginal change in foal production Marginal change in the number of mares in 0 0 -0.031111111 -0.025917927 0.077981651 0.246119734 0.238297872 0.12455516 -0.041237113 -0.123417722 -0.548387097 0.126353791 1.476190476 0.129807692 0.006410256 0.073758865 0.117834395 -0.021136063

Equally there is no one-to-one matching of the increase/decrease in foal production to the increase/decrease in the number of stud farms in operation. This is largely so, because the bulk of foal production is carried out by three or four larger farms. See table and chart below. Marginal Change in the number of Stud Farms Marginal change in foal production 1999 0 0 2000 -0.230769231 -0.031111111 2001 0.1 0.077981651 2002 0 0.238297872 2003 0.090909091 -0.041237113 2004 0.041666667 -0.548387097 2005 -0.12 1.476190476 2006 0.136363636 0.006410256 2007 -0.16 0.117834395

If the performance of the stud farm sector should not be determined by the performance of the three or four larger farms, there is a need to increase the level of capitalization, especially in terms of mares and access to land to the smaller stud farm operators. Total # of mares in foal percentage of total pregnancies 1999 463 218 245 52.92 2000 451 235 216 47.89 2001 562 291 271 48.22 2002 632 279 353 55.85 2003 554 126 428 77.26 2004 624 312 312 50 2005 705 314 391 55.46 2006 757 351 406 53.63 2007 741 Source: Jamaica Racing Commission Live Births Lost foals Lost foals as

As was pointed out earlier, the increase in the number of mares in foal also brought along with it significant losses to the industry in terms of false pregnancies, which in some instances can result in a loss of a complete breeding season. As can be seen in the table above, the percentage of false pregnancies surpasses that for feral horses which are less than thirty percent. In short with this rate of false pregnancies, the Jamaican native bred is faced with significant danger of extinction. Here one is forced to inquire if the veterinarians are using standard and known procedures in the examination of the mares, their familiarity with the usage of ultra sonic hand-held devices and if fit to breed examinations were carried out on the mares. Equally important is the carrying out of pasture hygiene examination, and the recording of parasite load per square foot of pasture. These operations within the Jamaican context, given the relatively low level of training of the average farm-hand , is best done by the veterinarian.

The loss leaders in this regard are the larger farms that handle considerable numbers of mares per season. While mare densities per acre are not the most

significant possible factor here, there is a need for its urgent review. Mares To Stallions Year Total # of mares served Total number of serving stallions # Mares to stallion 1999 554 44 12.59 2000 507 43 11.79 2001 618 47 13.15 2002 700 46 15.22 2003 637 39 16.33 2004 688 33 20.85 2005 819 45 18.2 2006 864 50 17.28 2007 817 50 16.34 Source: Jamaica Racing Commission The mare to stallion ratio in Jamaica is relatively good and compares well with the breeding jurisdictions of the developed world where the figures range from 1:30, 1:35 and 1:45. One however should note that the flooding of the fields with mares starting from the year 2002, has negatively affected the Jamaican ratio: See graph below. The Distribution of Mares By Age Year % of mare younger or equal to 11 years % of mares of ages between 12 and 15 years % of mares of ages 16 years or older 1999 64 21 15 2002 64 27 10 2003 59 27 14 2004 59 26 16 2005 62 25 13 2006 66 20 14 2007 66 19 16 Similar as in the case of the stallions, breeders and stud farm operators have a strong preference for the younger horse of eleven years and under, when compared with the demand for the older horses. Except for the years 2004 and 2007, there is a gradual tendency towards the reduction in usage of mares of ages sixteen years and over.

The chart above however shows a substitution relationship between the distribution of mares ages eleven and under and mare of ages between twelve and fifteen years of age. When there is an increase in the usage of the elevens and unders, there is a reduction in the usage of the twelves and overs, when there is an increase the usage of the twelves and overs there is a decrease in the employment of mares of ages eleven and less. Stud Farm Earnings The sector in terms of revenue from stud services, performed in a most erratic and unpredictable manner during the period. This was tied directly to the unplanned nature in which mares are put up for and or removed from coverage, which is again tied into the level of confidence owners and breeders have in the future of the racing industry, for example the period starting in 2004 and ending in 2007, breeders and owners had a higher level of confidence in the industry than they had

in previous years, and hence put up more mares to be bred. It however should be noted that the confidence shown was more of a subjective nature and had less to do with the actual performance of the sector. Earnings from Stud Services Mares covered Average price for coverage in US $ Revenue in US $ marginal change revenue from Stud Fee in US$ Changes in revenue from Stud Fee as a percentage of 1999 1999 559 507.2463768 283550.7246 0 100 2000 573 507.2463768 290652.1739 0.025045 102.5045 2001 622 507.2463768 315507.2464 0.085515 111.2701 2002 481 507.2463768 243985.5072 -0.22669 83.94415 2003 640 507.2463768 324637.6812 0.330561 102.8939 2004 478 507.2463768 242463.7681 -0.25313 99.3763 2005 747 507.2463768 378913.0435 0.562762 116.7188 2006 620 507.2463768 314492.7536 -0.17001 129.7071 2007 720 507.2463768 365217.3913 0.16129 96.38554

As is shown below the number of mares covered showed a strong upward tendency, reflective of the level of confidence the stakeholders had in the industry and or as a result of a bid to shore up revenues.

marginal change revenue from Stud Fee in US$ Fee as a percentage of 1999 1999 0 100 2000 0.025045 102.5045 2001 0.085515 111.2701 2002 -0.22669 83.94415 2003 0.330561 102.8939 2004 -0.25313 99.3763 2005 0.562762 116.7188 2006 -0.17001 129.7071 2007 0.16129 96.38554

Changes in revenue from Stud

The sector performed better in terms of earnings on foals produced, than it did in terms of revenue from stud fees. The figures below indicate that the period between the years 2004 and 2007, the industry in terms of foal production experienced strong growth. One should also note here that other sectors of the industry such as racing was also experiencing similar strong growth and stimulated the demand for stud services, foals etc. Total # of live Foals Year Price of average foal Revenue from foal in US $ ∆ in Revenue from foal % change in Revenue from Foal 2002 291 1146.5 333631.5 0 100 2003 279 1141 318339 -0.04584 95.41635 2004 126 1065 134190 -0.57847 40.22102 2005 312 1158.5 361452 1.693584 113.5431 2006 314 1160 364240 0.007713 271.436

2007

351

1179

413829

0.136144

114.4907

In terms of revenues from “keep and care” operations, the farms earnings were equally as erratic and unpredictable, with the strongest period of growth been between the years 1999 and 2003 (see table and charts below), based on the performance of average revenue earned.

Mares covered Price for keep and care in US$ Revenue earned from keep and care ∆ in keep and care revenue % change in keep and care revenue over 1999 1999 559 11.23 2291313.05 0 100 2000 573 11.23 2348698.35 0.025045 102.5045 2001 622 11.23 2549546.9 0.085515 111.2701 2002 481 11.23 1971594.95 -0.22669 86.04651 2003 640 11.23 2623328 0.330561 111.6928 2004 478 11.23 1959298.1 -0.25313 76.84887 2005 747 11.23 3061915.65 0.562762 155.3015 2006 620 11.23 2541349 -0.17001 96.875 2007 720 11.23 2951244 0.16129 150.6276 Thoroughbred Owners’ & Breeders’ Association’s Yearling Sales Review A review in the performance of Thoroughbred Owners & Breeders Association (TOBA) during the period is in the main applied gender analysis, in the sense that there is a complex relationship between the gender and price of the yearling and the level of mutual subsidy provided by both genders in keeping the breeder going. The selling price of fillies have a very strong pushing or pulling effect on the price of colts, with the price of fillies reacting more readily and more sharply to changes in the market conditions. This therefore implies, not only that the selling price of the colts vary more slowly than those of the fillies , but also during periods of strong market optimism , the soaring prices of the fillies tend to encourage breeders to enter their colts into the market, and also contributes to the establishment of a floor price for the colts. The price of the colts however tend to establish ceiling prices for the fillies. year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 # of fillies ∆ in # of fillies # of colts 56 0 49 0 56 0 54 0.102041 80 0.428571429 63 0.142857 61 -0.2375 68 0.073529 57 -0.06557377 72 0.055556 43 -0.245614035 59 -0.22034 (Source:-TOBA) ∆ in # of fillies ∆ in # of colts 0 0 0 0.102040816 0.428571429 0.142857143 -0.2375 0.073529412 -0.06557377 0.055555556 -0.245614035 -0.220338 ∆ in # of colts

year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Average Revenue From The Sale of Colts and Fillies year Exchange Rate 2002 48.54 4960.359746 2003 57.93 4759.438731 2004 61.34 56.18566305 2005 62.5 5373.114754 2006 65.88 5887.898252 2007 69.06 6879.760774 Source:-TOBA AR of filly 7113.846775 5563.866991 6521.030323 6002.352941 6657.727855 8879.529959 in US$ 6037.103 5161.653 3288.608 5687.734 6272.813 7879.645 AR colt in US$ Ar for foal in US$

This complex relationship between the prices of foals and colts are also shown in their average revenue curves, with the average revenue of the fillies pulling up those of the colts, then giving way for the colts to play price leadership. One here should note, that this type of relationship between the colt and the fillies also exist in embryo. More fillies are generally born in those lean years of low rainfall and reduced availability of nutrients for the foaling mare, while on the other hand more colts tend to be born in the good years of plenty. The reason for this phenomenon lays in the fact that the foaling mare has a preference for passing her genes through the male line, and in good times there are increased possibilities that the foal will survive.

The marginal revenue for the fillies also exerts the same push-pull influence throughout the total market, influencing and strongly determining the marginal revenue of the market (see tables below). year Total Revenue in J$ for Revenue From Sale 2002 13965000 16920000 2003 15440000 17405000 2004 27740000 25200000 2005 20485000 25510000 2006 22110000 31580000 2007 20430000 36180000 Source:-TOBA fillies 30885000 32845000 52940000 45995000 53690000 56610000 Total Revenue in J$ for colts Total

From the perspective of the Jamaican dollar TOBA yearling sales have done relatively well in terms of revenues. This is reflected in the average, marginal and total revenue columns as are shown here for the period 2002 to 2007. year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 ∆ in TR Filly ∆ TR Colt ∆ in TR Sale 0 0 0 -0.073591354 0.110378565 -0.108917522 0.69675414 -0.146688506 0.522209499 -0.275241586 0.396743478 -0.147311432 0.023951063 0.208989324 0.107411955 -0.118531818 0.299719983 0.005835055

When one uses the US dollar, both colts and fillies on the market have been good and have shown strong growth over the period.

year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Exchange Rate TR Filly in US$ TR Colt in US$ 48.54 287700.8653 58.81108485 636279.4 57.93 266528.569 65.30256801 566977.4 61.34 452233.4529 55.72343187 863058.4 62.5 327760 77.83134 735920 65.88 335610.2004 94.09725916 814966.6 69.06 295829.7133 122.3000881 819722 ∆ in TR Filly ∆ TR Colt ∆ in TR Sale 0 0 0 -0.073591354 0.110378565 -0.108917522 0.69675414 -0.146688506 0.522209499 -0.275241586 0.396743478 -0.147311432 0.023951063 0.208989324 0.107411955 -0.118531818 0.299719983 0.005835055

TR Sale in US$

In terms of costs, using the marginal cost tables below, it can be seen that for the period under review, the marginal cost of the filly had a greater propensity to fall than did the marginal costs of the colts. year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 MC Filly in US$ MC Colt in US $ 287700.8653 58.81108485 -21172.2963 6.49148315 185704.8839 -9.579136138 -124473.4529 22.10790814 7850.200364 16.26591915 -39780.48707 28.20282895

year MC Filly in US$ AR of filly in US$ Super Normal Profit in US$ on Fillies 2002 287700.8653 4960.359746 -282740.5055 2003 -21172.2963 4759.438731 25931.73503 2004 185704.8839 56.18566305 -185648.6983 2005 -124473.4529 5373.114754 129846.5676 2006 7850.200364 5887.898252 -1962.302112 2007 -39780.48707 6879.760774 46660.24785 In the critical area of supernormal profit (i.e. mc<mr), the colts out performed the mares. year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 year 2002 AR colt in US$ MC Colt in US $ Super Normal Profit on colt in US$ 7113.846775 58.81108485 7055.03569 5563.866991 6.49148315 5557.375508 6521.030323 -9.579136138 6530.609459 6002.352941 22.10790814 5980.245033 6657.727855 16.26591915 6641.461936 8879.529959 28.20282895 8851.32713 Super Normal Profit in US$ on Fillies -282740.5055 7055.03569 Super Normal Profit on colt in US$

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

25931.73503 5557.375508 -185648.6983 6530.609459 129846.5676 5980.245033 -1962.302112 6641.461936 46660.24785 8851.32713 % change in Supernormal

year % change in Supernormal Profit for fillies profit for colts 2002 100 100 2003 -109.171567 -21.22824387 2004 8.68691E-05 -7.433360426 2005 -145.9242893 -15.2343759 2006 -99.30597064 -5.86210718 2007 253.6846059 25.46112478

The total revenue for stud farms 1n the year 2007 is shown below (TOBA earnings excluded):Earnings in US dollars keep and care 2951244 Foal 413829 stud fees 365217.4 TOBA 46660.24785 Total Revenue 3,776,951 Farm Hygiene Practices The main challenges facing most stud farms in the area of pasture management, remains the question of having in place an effective system for vector control and reducing the parasite densities as found in the pastures. The failure to remove animal droppings and to ensure that suitable run-off systems are in place, has created on many farms, conditions ideal for the breeding of various types of flies ranging from the common house fly (Musca domestica) to the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus), mosquitoes (Culicidae), various species of roach (Blattaria), rats (rattus) and mice (Mus musculus). These vectors tend to contribute to the creation of an environment that is both unpleasant and unhealthy to both man and horse. The failure to timely remove horse droppings, also serves as a medium of distribution for various internal parasites (worms), which are deposited from the animal along with the droppings, hence increasing the spread of these worms and increasing the rate of re-infection. The current practice is to allow the dropping to dry as deposited, after which it might be removed by some field hands for sale to horticultural interests, or left to remain in the field. Compounding this unhealthy state on some farms is the failure to remove the horses from those enclosures within which the grass is below for inches in height, thus forcing the animals to gaze within the parasite belt. While crop rotation or the turning over and replanting of the pasture, where possible or resting the land where crop rotation or pasture replanting is not possible, would serve to reduce the parasite load; it would also in the short run

reduce revenue flows while increasing operations costs and thus in the main is not pursued. One large farm uses peafowl {Pavo cristatus (Asiatic)} and the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) as a means of managing the parasite and insect loads, this practice of mixed husbandry is not widespread, because of the high rick of theft. For example the Peking Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) would be an ideal addition to the farm because of its feeding habits and the fact that it is not a transmitter of internal parasite. How long they would be allowed to remain on the farms without being stolen remains an open question. Equally the presence of flowering plants and fruit trees tend to allow the horses to de-worm themselves in a natural manner; however these very same plants tend to act as attractants to people seeking to harvest their fruits. One however should note that most farms tend to be less than creative in this area, since plants such as the red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) which is relatively rich in protein and natural diuretic with the flower has antifungal, emmenagogue, emollient and refrigerant effect. The two major cause for the relatively low level of pasture hygiene are (1) the need to reduce operating costs and (2), the relative lack of formal specialized training of the field hands and supervisor staff. Relationship between the farm and the neighbouring communities also have adverse implications for farm hygiene, in the sense that most vectors tend to be highly mobile and migratory in nature; thus while the farm might control for ticks, flies etc, failure to carry out simulations parallel control in the neighbouring communities (especially those with a high concentration of dogs and pit latrines) tend to undermine the efforts of the stud farm, since ticks, fleas, roaches etc are all migratory moving from location to location. Many farms are straddled with considerable unpaid debts owed by breeders and owners, which when coupled with the relatively low daily rates being paid for keep and care, considerably constrains the number and size of projects that the average stud farm operator is able to carry out. For example a farm faced with a relatively large amount of unpaid debt and having low daily rates for keep and care, is not able to readily afford the cost of turning over or resting a pasture, but rather is forced to focus on finding avenues for increasing revenue flows, an exercise that easily could result in the over-crowding of the pasture leading to a worsening of the already poor state of hygiene. Equally such a farm would not be able to afford the level of veterinary care that is needed to ensure that the stock is healthy and ready to breed. Some farms have tried to diversify their activities into crop production and even fish rearing, however they are faced with the high costs of protecting their crops and or animals from thieves, given that stud farms tend to be relatively large, without live-on tenants and are very difficult and costly to secure. Here one notes that Ham Stables once used to rear fish and birds -- fish rearing however has ceased and the rearing of birds has been significantly reduced. Farm Community Relationship The relationship between the stud farms and the neighbouring communities tend to be at best distant and at worse hostile. The communities in the main provide the day labour needed by the farm while the farm provides limited employment. The numbers of jobs created by the farms tend to be relatively small and seasonal in nature, except for those farms that carry out some level of crop production. The communities are also a source of problems for the farms, the communities tend to be the source of the thieves that raid crops and fruits thus reducing revenue

flows, it is the source of stray or partially stray dogs, the source of rats, mice, roaches and flies undermining the best of efforts by the farm operators at implementing vector control regimes. The nature of the relationship between the farms and the communities at times takes on racial and class overtones, in that the farm operators and breeders tend to be from the racial minorities and are from the point of view of the residents of the communities, wealthy, while on the other hand, farm operators, breeders and owners tend to look down on or patronize the residents of the communities. Residents of the communities are as a rule, not invited to the “big functions and or dinners” being kept on the farms; sometimes even the farm hands and their families are excluded from these events, a reality that further negatively influences the relationship between the parties. One should however, carefully note, that Ham Stables not only yearly sponsors a youth club, but also has present at some of its events some citizens from as far as Greater Portmore. The Ham Stables approach to community relations however is not widespread as can be seen around Grange Lane where four stud farms are located. In order to reduce some of the operating costs to the farms, there is a need for closer collaboration between the farms and their neighbours. The removal of horse waste from the fields could be greatly enhanced if the communities were encouraged to carry out the commercial growing of potted plants or to manufacture compost for sale, the pest loads in the pastures could be reduced if the farms facilitated the leasing of sections of the pasture for the seasonal cultivation of crops or rearing of free range ducks/poultry. This type of collaboration would serve to increase employment, reduce security and hygiene costs by spreading the risks, and greatly improve the relationship between the farms and the neighbouring communities. The restructuring and decline of the sugar industry has left a large pool of unskilled labour at the doorsteps of the stud farms. Here the active management of expectations is of vital importance for peaceful co-existence and economic development.

The Jamaica Racing Commission The Measuring of Performance The performance of the Jamaica Racing Commission in this section is assessed against the three pillars that define its policy and task domain, namely: 1. The Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977 2. The Mission Statement of the Commission and 3. The Racing Rules of 1977 These three instruments in terms of their intent, have remain stable over the years, with minor amendments and refinements been made to the Act and to the Rules. It is from these three instruments that bench-marks are developed. Task & Policy Environment

The Jamaica Racing Commission operates in a task and policy environment, which is defined by the presence of three powerful and influential monopolies, namely the Caymanas Track Limited, Jamaica Betting and Gaming Commission and the Bookmakers Association. These monopolies have the ability to influence the Jamaica Racing Commission source of funding, amount of funding and speed of funding. The Ministry of Finance and the Public Service, acts as a broker between the parties in this task and policy environment. At a second level the environment is defined by: - occupational (professional) groupings are carrying out the functions of lobbying bodies and as platforms for engaging in negotiations between the Jamaica Racing Commission and the promoter, Caymanas Track Limited in advancing their own particular interests. These occupational groups are known to at times, try to use either of the two monopolies i.e. the Commission or the promoter, to act against each other with the intent of modifying, stopping or delaying actions by either body that is not in their interests. At this second level one finds the Stud Farm operators and the breeders, who are organized within their respective bodies. Thus while the parties at this second level may be individually smaller, numerous and operating within a monopolistic market, their coming together for pursuance of shared goals and interests, means that within the Jamaica Racing Commission task and policy domain, they appear as monopolies in their own rights. The Jamaica Racing Commission is a very small and highly specialized Division of the Ministry of Finance and The Public Service, established by Act of Parliament, with the responsibility and mandate to regulate the racing industry and facilitate the development of thoroughbred racing and breeding in Jamaica. The Jamaica Racing Commission is managed by a General Manager Mrs. Ruth SmithSutherland who is assisted and understudied by the Director of Racing, Mr. Lloyd Cobran and the Director of Finance, Mr. Ainsworth Carroll, all three having a combined experience in the Racing Industry of no less than sixty years. The function of the Commission is to provide strategic policy direction, participate in solving problems of a policy nature, and recommend where needed amendments to the Racing Act and the Rules of Racing. The Jamaica Racing Commission is further assisted and advised by a panel of Racing Commissioners, who are charged with ensuring that all stakeholders act in accordance with the Rules of Racing and who are duty bound to be present at all race meets. The composition of the Board of Commissioners is determined by the Minister of Finance in keeping with the Racing Commission Act of 1977. The main source of direction and guidance to the Jamaica Racing Commission are the Jamaica Racing Commission Act, The Rules of Racing and the annual strategic plan of the Jamaica Racing Commission. All of these foundation documents are reviewed on a regular basis, and are recommended to be amended in keeping with the development of the racing industry and thoroughbred racing in particular. While the racing industry in terms of revenue turn-over is one of largest and most dynamic, with revenues running into the billions dollars, the Jamaica Racing Commission full time staff compliment forty, hence making the Commission one of the most efficient arms and civil administration. Jamaica’s of Jamaican is less than of government

Apart from the regulating of races, the Jamaica Racing Commission is the sole agent in Jamaica that is currently involved in the training of racing professionals such as jockeys and trainers, with the training of grooms and farriers currently at the curriculum development stage. Additionally the Commission administers the industry’s health insurance policy, directs the

remedial education programme, pension scheme and other such welfare activities from its Welfare Office which is located at Caymanas Park. The Jamaica Racing Commission is actively involved in the welfare and care of the horses belonging to the industry. In order to effectively carry out its animal welfare policy, the Commission has on staff two full-time and two part-time veterinarians, all of whom work from the veterinary office at Caymanas Park. The Commission’s veterinarians are also responsible for the marking or tagging of horses, ensuring that horses entered on any given race card are fit to race and free from drugs. They are also responsible for assisting the racing industry to participate in regional meets, to ensure that all horses in racing are duly vaccinated and assisting the Race Stewards when such requests are made, the identification and removal of abandoned horses, the development and implementation of the horse retirement programme among other duties. The veterinarians are assisted by an administrative secretary.

The Organizational Structure Of The Jamaica Racing Commission

Industry Unique Departments Those Departments which are unique to the Jamaica Racing Commission fall under the direct span of control of the office of the Director of Racing. These departments are:1. The Registration Department. This department is tasked with the responsibility of carrying out the registration of all horses intended to participate in racing, the assignment of colours to owners, the registration of racing professionals, the carrying out of stud farm visits, register the death of horses, prepare the Stud Farm Report. This department, if it is to be able to better serve the Breeders and Stud Farm operators, needs to have the services of a Pasture Hygienist and a Veterinary Technician. Without the service of these two persons, the department will continue to be handicapped in the type of advice it can provide. 2. The Stewards’ Department is currently staffed by three stewards, whose responsibility it is to ensure the observance of the Rules of Racing at all racing meets held on Jamaican soil. Additionally along with the Veterinary Department, these Stewards are responsible for the licensing of racing professionals, develop and implement training programmes in keeping with the needs of the Racing

Industry, assist in the enforcement of the Commission’s anti-doping campaign, recommend amendments, changes and or modifications to the Racing Commission Act and the Rules of Racing, the preparation of the cull list, recommend measures to enhance the safety and well being of man and horse among other duties. This department is grossly understaffed, given its responsibility set and is currently unable because of man power shortages to police and or prevent racing on unauthorized tracks. The minimum duties of the Operations Stewards and Stewards of Meeting are outlined in the Rules of Racing, 1977. 3. The Veterinary Department operates the island’s only equine clinic. The basic tasks of this department are described above. However, the department currently is not in a position to assist breeders and stud farm operators in the reduction of the high levels of false pregnancies owing to a lack of resources in the form of equipment and manpower, nor is the clinic suitably equipped to carry out cause of death investigation. This department has the potential of increasing revenue intakes if ways could be found to allow it to confirm pregnancies and issue the relevant certificate of confirmed pregnancy. General Observation The Racing Division of the Jamaica Racing Commission with the best intention is currently grossly understaffed and over worked. The Division has significant revenue earning potential; however this potential cannot be fully realized with the current staff numbers and hence is forced to operate below the expectations of the industry. The industry expects this department to play a leading role in its development and in the welfare of horses in general. The Staff The staff compliment is relative well balanced in terms of age with nearly forty percent being below the age of thirty five years, and nearly equal in terms of gender distribution. The average staff member has some eleven years of experience working with the Jamaica Racing Commission, with four persons having over fifteen years of experience. A minimum of eleven staff members are degree holders, and only about five staff members having only high school level education. While in theory, given the attributes of the staff, succession planning would appear to be a relatively simple venture, owing to the highly specialized skills required, understudy programmes are at best feasible within the two divisions with a considerable about of time needed for pre-posting training. For example, for a member of the Registration Department to function near adequate in the Stewards’ Department, at least three months of on-the-track at the races exposure would be needed. The staff experience with horses is very limited, with less than four staff members knowing how to ride a horse and only some thirty six percent of them having ever visited a stud farm. Sixty five percent of staff members feel that their training and knowledge of the industry is adequate enough for their effective functioning, and less than fifty percent feels that the Jamaica Racing Commission facilitates their training in the area of racing and equine management, with less than forty percent of staff members receiving any form of training in this area. Some seventy-five percent of staff members have made proposals on how to improve the Jamaica Racing Commission as a regulatory body and an equal number of staff members are of the view that given the mandate of the Commission, it should be concerned about the wider development of the equine industry. Sixty four percent of staff members are of the view that the Commission would be better able to carry

out its mandate were it better funded and having the status of an executive agency. Below are samples of the comments of staff members to given questions:4. What is meant by the term “handicapping”? Ans.;-“ Weight that the jockey is supposed to run with.” “The allotment of weight given to the horse based on their previous performance so as to ensure that the race is run on even ground.” 5. Is a “racing card” and a “meet” the same thing? Explain your answer. Ans:- “No, Race card is an outline of the programme, the race meet is the race day” “Basically it is the races to be run on a particular day” “No! The race card is a schedule of time, number of races, horses and their jockeys, equipment used by their jockeys, weight. The meet is the actual event that takes place on the day.” 14. Do you think that the Jamaica Racing Commission, given its mandate should be concerned about the wider development of the equine industry? Explain your answer, Ans.:- “ I think they should, although they have been involved with breeders and importation of horses for the breeding to be improved. But more needs to be done. ‘Funding!’. Yes, because without development and keeping abreast of international advancement, the industry will stagnate. New owners and breeders are needed and the JRC must encourage that”. “The Commission does have as part of its mandate the development of horse-racing in Jamaica. Development related to the participation, particularly the occupational groups, the professionals in the industry as well as the breed (thoroughbred horse). The Commission should also be concerned about the quality of the racing product and the development of infrastructure of the racing plant. Some Observations a. The General Manager is highly respected and has authority based on her knowledge of the industry and her abilities, as different from authority given by office. b. The Director of Racing is very talented and has a sound knowledge of his job.. c. The relationship between all levels of management and the staff and between individuals themselves is excellent and the organization is seen as a family-type close knit organization. d. It is felt that senior management needs also to give recognition to all who do good work and not only some of those who are doing good work. e. It is felt that more needs to be done to have the Ministry of Finance to increase the allocation of resources for overseas training in order to increase the availability of specialized training to a wider cross section of the staff. f. Management and the Ministry of Finance need to show a greater level of appreciation for the quality and variety of the work done and the high level of efficiency shown by staff members. Rivalries and Conflicts The Jamaica Racing Commission has a relatively small staff, who has known each other for a number of years. In addition, the high level of non-substitutability of jobs across departments, added to the extremely limited or no-existent possibility for upward mobility within the organization has significantly reduce the space for rivalry between departments and between individuals. Of note also,

is the high level of shared values and common principles among staff members and the management team, thus being into a level of similarity in the way that task and environment assessments are done, and commonness in starting point in terms of judging or validation. Notwithstanding, the Commission is staffed by individuals who have strong personalities and clear position on issues. This reality makes the various internal meetings within the Commission very lively, and demands that the General Manager have advance skills in the chairing of meetings. The high male composition and long industry experience of the Racing Division has made it into a reservoir of opinions and debates, which have in the main enhanced the efficiency of decision making within the Commission, while at the same time in some instances can contribute to a de-acceleration of the pace of task implementation if “Buy-in” is not sought. Thus, while the General Manager is a strong and experienced person with a high level of individual authority within the industry and in the Jamaica Racing Commission in particular, the relative strength of personality and experience of key individuals within the organization means that her approach had been and has to be one of negotiation rather than dictate. The Security Environment While in the process of carrying out its day to day duties, the Jamaica Racing Commission might cause injury to individuals or parties in terms of negatively affecting their income flows and their ability and level of participation in racing, the Commission’s approach to security appears to remain naïve and out of keeping with the conditions prevailing within its task and policy environment. The main office of the Jamaica Racing Commission is located at Winchester Road, very close to Half Way Tree, it is partially surrounded by the Bureau of Standards, and it is bordered in the north by the Jamaica Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. While the premises of the Jamaica Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to animals is unsecured and unguarded with an open gate policy in operation, the Bureau of Standards has in force a closed gate policy with guards posted at the gates and on the reception area of the building. Ground security for either premises is none existent. Thus, it is a real possibility for a person to move in a straight line though the chain-link border fence with the Young Men Christian Association, through the Bureau of Standards and through the Jamaica Racing Commission’s chain-link border fence, undetected if this operation is carried out at the proper time. The Jamaica Racing Commission operates an open gate and open policy, without active security presence during the days. Both the vehicles of the General Manager and the Director of Racing are parked on the compound in a straight line from the gates and at the left side of the building. This enhances potential criminals’ ability to plan both time of entry and mode of departure from the premises. The fact that an open gate policy is in operation means that any and all vehicles parked on the compound can be targeted. The open door policy of the Commission also means there is no security system or means of meaningful deterrent, anywhere in the building, thus a person off the road can enter through the front door and move through any area of the building, with the use of just the name of one Steward. It also means that individuals who are in the building for legitimate purposes such as jockeys or trainers can access all areas within the building.

Additionally there is no evidence that the premises of the Jamaica Racing Commission is toured during the night by the guard on location, who tend to be either under the parking shed during the night and by the Hall of Fame during the early mornings. This guard is armed with a piece of steel pipe that is left next to the cherry tree and or a long kitchen knife. The work of the guard is at times compounded by visitors to the grounds man, visitors whom the guard is not general in advance notified about. The compound by way of externalities benefit from some additional level of security from the Bureau of Standards, the housing estate and office complex across the road, locations with manned security presence at their entrance, from which the Commission’s compound is visible. The fact that a major police center is located within close proximity also enhances the sense of security. Welfare Office Security The Welfare Office, which given it nature and scope of work, can be defined as a high-risk area has no form of active security. The guard at the entrance gate of the compound at Caymanas Park is not in a position to see the entrance to the Welfare Office, and that part of the compound in general does not benefit from security patrols, which are as a rule irregular and infrequently done. The fact that the office is located at the back of a building and facing a concrete wall, with a passage at the side of the building formed by a section of the same concrete perimeter fence, does nothing to enhance security. Security at this location stems from the age and gender of the Welfare Officer and the fact that her work has been of benefit to many, added to the fact that she is quite frequently in and around the backstretch carrying out her inspections. The Veterinary Office The veterinary office is in the main a secure location in terms of the presence of a guard and the enforcement of a closed-door policy. It is however to be noted that security in this location is one of perception, rather than real. The presence of an unharmed female security guard, who is clearly a mother of growing children, has more a deterrent effect than giving a sense of actual security. Secondly the examination barns do not benefit from any type of visual or electronic security. An area of significant weakness, identified elsewhere, is the fact that at least one of the vets’ computer is not password secured nor from observation the computer of the secretary. Thus information on those computers is secured only to the extent that a member of staff of the Commission is present in the office. Electronic Security A major area of weakness is in the area of the security of the Jamaica Racing Commission information system. The fact that the server used by the Commission is out of the Commission’s control creates particular types of vulnerabilities and increases the potential scope for hacking into the system. While the Commission’s computers are Firewall and anti-virus protected, one should note that the software in use is that used throughout the civil service and whose strengths and weaknesses are known, thus providing the opening for the remote disabling of the anti-virus and Firewall system if needed. Location and Land Use The Jamaica Racing Commission is located at 8 Winchester Road on roughly two acres of prime commercial lands. Over the decades, the neighbourhood has been changed

from a mainly upper income residential area to one dominated by government institutions along with a few from the private sector. It forms part of the Greater New Kingston area, from the perspective of those who work there and in terms of land use, however, from a geographical point of view it is part of the Half Way Tree Area, served by the Half Way Tree Post Office and the Half Way Tree Police Station, unlike New Kingston Proper which is served by the Cross Roads Post Office and the Cross Roads Police Station albeit that it has its own police post. The area is well lit, and the roads are in relative good condition although in a state of repair that is below those found in New Kingston proper. Unlike other neighbouring communities to the west of Half Way Tree, the area has a reliable source of treated piped water. It is also well served by public transportation. The neighbourhood in terms of crime, shares similar features to those in the shadows of New Kingston, with prostitution, pimping and illegal vending being the main form of crime. This is so in part owing to the high level of property security features within the community, the presence of large number of security guards and the presence of a major police office. Unlike in the Half Way Tree or New Kingston areas, crime against the person and crime against property are relative rare; it is possible to park anywhere in the neighbourhood without fear. Roughly two-fifth of the Commission’s land is build on, with the larger area serving as the parking needs of staff and visitors. The main office building was designed and built some thirty years ago and is in a relatively good state of repair for a government building. It has three floors and with large transparent glass windows, thus increasing the use of natural light while reducing the need for artificial lighting. One should note however that the long enclosed passage on the ground floor is in conflict with the energy efficient design of the building. Secondly, the fact that the windows are closed and with many with drapes, defeats the intent of the architect, as more electricity has to be used for both lighting and cooling than was intended in the design. The blue Jamaica Racing Commission sign on the building cannot be seen from the street, as it was placed in a line of vision blocked by a tree. The fence at the entrance and its grassed strip is one of the best on the road, however the column at the chained gate area are in need of repair. The paved parking area has seen better years, and is now in need of repairs. The neighbouring veterinary office with its resident population of animals and banana orchard, at times abuse the nose, however reminds one of a more homely place with a semi-rural feel in terms of sight, sound and smell. In The Office The front office is very unattractive and is reminiscent of a public health facility, with its long wooden bench, a wall clock that is either slow or not working and a receptionist area that could have doubled as the cashier or appointment area in a health facility. The long passage from the reception area to the conference room and the work areas again adds to the feeling that one is in a hospital. The building assumes good health and immunity of staff members from severe trauma, as there are no ramps into the building for the physically challenged nor any of the bathrooms designed to accommodate wheel chairs or users of wheel chairs. The canteen area is located on the third floor of a staired building without elevators, thus making it difficult to access for those in less than good health or for women in an advanced state of pregnancy. Given the size of the staff there is an adequate amount of bathroom facilities,

however the lack of drapes on the windows to the two next to the Registry and that in the Stewards’ Department creates unnecessary exposure to those persons standing in or using that section of the Bureau of Standards car park; from the car park it is possible to say who and how frequent one uses the bathroom. The second floor is well laid out, and aired. The offices, with exception to those in the IT Department, receive natural light in adequate quantity, unlike those on the ground floor which are draped. The bathroom area however feels a bit too small for comfort and gives a sense of an absence of privacy. The General Manager’s bathroom is very drab and feels a bit too strongly masculine. The third floor, apart from the canteen is under-utilized. However there are plans afoot to put it to greater use. The Jamaica Racing Commission Act The Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977 gives the Commission broadly interpreted significant scope in terms of its span of regulation. The Commission under law is empowered to take action to regulate any and all matters relating to horse racing and horse breeding. The Act, in so doing, defines the sphere within which the Commission is able to act as an agent of development, for example schedules 6,1,c, states that the Commission may apply its funds for all or any of the following undertaking including ( c) the setting up or the operation of any undertaking, or both, for the provision of horses, amenities and any other matters or things relating to horse racing. The Act further reinforces this interpretation in schedule 22-(2) The Racing Rules may contain provisions relating to- (e) all such matters, whether similar to the foregoing or not, relating to horses that are bred for racing and matters relating to racing, breeding, training and grooming as the Commission may from time to time require. In Part IV, general, 24-(3) it gives an authorized person the right to enter any premises at reasonable times believed to be used for the breeding of horses. Therefore, while from the perspective of available resources the Jamaica Racing Commission has done a very good job, from the perspective of the Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977, more can be done and be reasonably expected from the Commission. Here it is important to note that it is highly possible that the Mission Statement of the Jamaica Racing Commission limits and restricts its understanding of the Act. The Act also gives the Commission, significant room to improve its self-financing activities, for example Schedule 4 gives the Commission the right ( c) to introduce and implement or assist in or undertake the implementation of any scheme for the development of the horse-racing industry. This is further re-emphasized in schedule 6, which outlines for what purposes the Commission may apply its funds. It is a wider understanding of the Jamaica Racing Commission Act of 1977, and the revisiting of the Mission Statement of the Commission that will play no small role in outlining the developmental path of the Commission in the near future. The Commission in many areas, is already functioning outside of or near to the boundaries established by the Racing Rules 1977, in terms of the duties and responsibilities of its personnel, thus calling for its immediate review and amendment to reflect current realities. Performance Over the years, the Jamaica Racing Commission has been forced to meet growing demands for its service while spending only a fraction of what it spent in the year 2001.

In simple terms the Racing Commission, has been forced to raise it level of productivity and efficiency while spending less. See table below. Year Expenditure Exchange Rate In Total Expenditure over 2001 2001 $132,093,738.00 2002 $140,748,382.00 2003 $149,252,134.00 2004 $107,772,820.00 2005 $106,272,601.00 2006 $115,642,076.00 2007 $136,728,443.00 Source:-Jamaica Racing Total Expenditure in US$ Percentage Change

$46.08 $2,866,617.58 100 $48.54 $2,899,637.04 101 $57.93 $2,576,422.13 90 $61.34 $1,756,974.57 61 $62.50 $1,700,361.62 59 $65.88 $1,755,344.20 61 $69.06 $1,979,850.03 69 Commission Financial Statements.

Equally as real expenditure declined, one also saw a decline in real income over the period. In short, not only was the Jamaica Racing Commission spending less while doing more than the year 2001, it was also receiving less to do more. This situation can only be justified from either of two perspectives: (1) The Jamaica Racing Commission was assumed to have a lot of unused reserves on which it could call on, or, (2) The Jamaica Racing Commission was assumed to be producing at a level significantly below its optimal potential and thus could do more with what it had. See income table below:-

Year

Total Income Exchange Rate

Total income in US$

% change in Total Income over

2001 2001 $135,619,103.00 2002 $134,000,260.00 2003 $140,028,766.00 2004 $105,463,623.00 2005 $121,987,964.00 2006 $119,695,038.00 2007 $136,876,950.00 Source:-Jamaica Racing

$46.08 $2,943,122.89 100 $48.54 $2,760,615.16 94 $57.93 $2,417,206.39 82 $61.34 $1,719,328.71 58 $62.50 $1,951,807.42 66 $65.88 $1,816,864.57 62 $69.06 $1,982,000.43 67 Commission Financial Statements

If there were spare reserves, these reserves appear to be long exhausted, with the Commission forced to demand more and more from its staff in terms of output. See graph below:-

This approach of substituting income for labour, can lead to an increase level of stress and frustration over the long run, if relief is not found. Government Direct Investment While the Jamaica Racing Commission is a Division of the Ministry of Finance and Planning, Central Government direct investment in the Jamaica Racing Commission has declined in a marked negative direction over the period as is shown in the table and graph below:

Year

Government Subvention Exchange Rate Government Subvention in US $ Percentage change in Government subvention over 2001 2001 $112,978,249.00 $46.08 $2,451,784.92 100.00 2002 $119,497,453.00 $48.54 $2,461,834.63 100.41 2003 $37,125,785.00 $57.93 $640,873.21 26.14 2004 $46,146,989.00 $61.34 $752,314.79 30.68 2005 $47,421,550.00 $62.50 $758,744.80 30.95 2006 $36,693,605.00 $65.88 $556,976.40 22.72 2007 $13,876,143.00 $69.06 $200,928.80 8.20 Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission Financial Statements

Here one should note that the Levy has not completely been able to substitute for the loss incurred in Government Direct Investment (i.e. subvention) and only twice over the period has it been more than the subvention and substantially less than the subvention of the year 2001. See table below:Year Government Levy in J$ Subvention in J$ Difference between subvention and levy 2001 $112,978,249.00 $5,620,472.00 $107,357,777.00 2002 $119,497,453.00 $0.00 $119,497,453.00 2003 $37,125,785.00 $107,906,519.00 ($70,780,734.00) 2004 $46,146,989.00 $81,179,582.00 ($35,032,593.00) 2005 $47,421,550.00 $45,979,650.00 $1,441,900.00 2006 $36,693,605.00 $36,693,605.00 $0.00 2007 $13,876,143.00 $13,876,143.00 $0.00 Source:-Jamaica Racing Commission Financial Statements

The Role of the Jamaica Racing Commission in the Production Chain The essential role of the Jamaica Racing Commission is that of defining, measuring and ensuring product quality in the racing industry. In earlier years, pri-1977, the industry was largely self regulated, with the Jamaica Jockey Club playing a small but important role in ensuring quality. That period was characterized by grave problems in the identification of lineage, problems in relation to the level of training of jockeys and resultant injuries and losses of horses, problems with the usage of performance enhancing drugs and electrical devices such as the “battery”, the beating and other forms of physical abuse of trainers, owners and jockeys; problems with the predetermination of results before the races ran, etc. The Jamaica Racing Commission, is charged with ensuring that the Jamaican racing product is in keeping with the best international standards in terms of transparency, quality of inputs, rules, validity of results and fairness of races and in the application of the Rules of Racing, ensuring minimum standards in the training of racing professionals, the exportability of Jamaican native bred among other quality maintenance tasks. It is from this perspective that the industry multiplier is calculated, with the expenditure of the Jamaica Racing Commission, taken as the direct investment by the state in the production chain as a whole.

Economic Contribution of the Racing Industry in US dollars, for year 2007 Purse Paid Out 4189805.166 JRC Expenditure 1979850.029 Breeders and owners 483470.1709 Promoters Sales 57040747.02 Bookmakers Local sales 2623218.02 Bookmakers Overseas Sales 1203534.728 Caymanas Park LTD Turnover 57043.17 Value of Claimed horses 1653527.368 Stable costs 112042797.57 Crop culture Contribution 3625855.778 Mare Covering Fee 365217.3913 Revenue from Foal crop 413829 Revenue from keep and care at Stud farm 2951244 TOBA Sales 819722 Total Contribution 189449861.4 The size of the industry Multiplier= 94.688996 In other words one US dollar invested into the Jamaica Racing Commission created a value of 94.69 times greater than the initial investment. Productivity for one US dollar invested in Jamaica Racing Commission personnel expenses (i.e. wages etc)= $176.50, in other words one US dollar invested in personnel creates a total of $176.50. Jamaica’s Gross Domestic Product at end for 2007, using World Bank figures, was US$10,739,000,000.00, which means that the racing product, narrowly defined, contributed some two percent of the Gross Domestic Product

Appendix 1 Caymanas Horse and Stable Count Form Date of count:-_____________________ Counted by:-_____________________ Stable number and state of repair Number of stalls in stable Number of female in stable Number of horses in stable Number of foreign bred in stable by gender Number of grooms employed by stable Number of trainers employed at stable Number of owners with horses in stable

Appendix 2 Claiming Races (Some Possible Things To Look At) Years under review: - 2003, 2004, 2006 Question: Is a claiming race a clearing market or is it a market for speculation, collusion and hedging? 1. Total number of races ran, 2. Total amount paid out in purse money and or stakes. 3. Total number of claiming races ran, 4. Total amount of purse money paid out in claiming races 5. Total number of horses started in all races. 6. Total number of horses started in claiming races. 7. Total number of horses claimed. 8. Total value of claims. 9. Number of claims per horse ( lowest highest) 10. Total number of claimers 11. Total number of claims by large claimants (owners/ trainers of ten or more horses). 12. Total value of claims made by large claimants (owner/trainers of ten or more horses). 13. Number of cross claiming between large claimants. 14. Value of cross claiming between large claimants. 15. Number of “double cross claiming” between large claimants (i.e. John claims Paul’s horse in one race and within a two year period the same horse is reclaimed by John)

Appendix 3 Farm Community Survey Dear Resident; The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local racing industry. It is the informed opinion of the Jamaica Racing Commission, that your views of the industry as a neighbour are both extensive and rich; as such we are seeking your assistance in completion of this project, by completing questionnaire below. Thanks for your cooperation. QUESTIONNAIRE Please Answer All Questions___________________________________ 1. The name of the community____________________________ 2. Gender_________________________ 3. Age (please tick one):- 18-23 years , 24-29 years, 30-35 years, 36-41 years, 42-47 years, 48-53 years, 54-59 years, 60 and over. 4. How long have you lived in this community? ________________ 5. Are you a practicing Christian? ___ 6. Do you rent or live in your own home? _____________ 7. Do you work at the near by stud farm? _________ 8. If yes for question “6” for how long? _____ 9. Do you know anyone from this community who works at the near by stud farm? _________ 10. To your knowledge has the near by stud farm sponsored any activities or competitions in the community during the last twelve (12) months?_________ 11. Does the near by stud farm provides jobs for residents of this community?______ 12. Do you know anyone who sells things to employees of the near by stud farm or to people going to races at the track? ________ 13. What does the farm purchases from the community? __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 14. Has any official from the near by stud farm visited your community during the year? ______ 15. Has any official from the farm visited your Church? _________ 16. Do you think that if the near by stud farm were to be closed, your community would be badly affected as a result of the closure?_________ 17. Do you think that the near by stud farm at its present location has been for business in the community?_________ 18. Do you think that the near by stud farm has contributed to the stability, economic and social well being in the community?__________ 19. What good or bad would you say about the near by stud farm? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ End. Thank you.

Appendix 4 Female Questionnaire Dear Madam; The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local racing industry. It is the opinion of the Jamaica Racing Commission that your views of the industry as a woman are of importance. It is in this light your assistance in completing the questionnaire below is being requested. The information you give will be handled with the strictest confidence. Thank you. Please Answer All Questions________________________________________________ Location:-______________________________________ Date of interview:-_______________________ Time of interview:-__________ 1. Have you ever gone to horse racing at Caymanas Park ?_____ 2. Do you think that upstanding progressive young women should visit Caymanas Park?_________ 3. Have you ever placed a bet on horse racing?______ 4. Do you play lotto or “Prick Three” or any other such betting?__________ 5. Do you think that it is ok for upstanding progressive young women to gamble?____ 6. If your husband or boyfriend invited you on a date to Caymanas Park , would

you go?_________ 7. Do you know of any woman of any age who goes to watch horse racing at Caymanas Park?__________ 8. Have you ever seen a live horse racing competition?_________ 9. Have you ever seen a live donkey racing competition?________ 10. Do you think to going to watch horse racing is a sinful act?____________ 11. Is betting on horse racing a sinful act?_________ 12. Do you watch horse racing on television?________ 13. Can you give the name of one racing horse?________ 14. Can you give the name of one jockey?____________ 15. What in your view prevent most women from visiting Caymanas Park?_____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 16. Have you ever being in a betting shop?_________ 17. Do you think that betting shops are female friendly?____________ End, Thank You For Your cooperation. Could you please give a contact number :-__________________ Appendix 5 Items to be looked at the Community Level 1. Name of the community. 2. Location of the community. 3. Position of the community on the Planning Institute of Jamaica “Poverty Map”. 4. Number of persons living in the community. 5. The number of persons employed from the community. 6. Number of full time employees of the farm/track living in the community. 7. The categories of workers employed from the community. 8. The number of females employed from the community. 9. The number of persons under the age of 35 employed from the community. 10. The number of males under the age of 35 years employed by the community. 11. The number of students who did holiday work on the farm or at the track last summer. 12. The number of youth clubs in the community surrounding the farm or the track. 13. The number and type of schools in the community. 14. Number and types of Churches in the community. 15. Number and type of sports teams in the community. 16. Number of farm/track employees involved in community based organizations. 17. Number and types of community based activities sponsored by the farm/track. 18. Types and quantities of goods and or services bought by the farm/track from the community. 19. Types and quantities of goods and or services bought by the community from the farm/track. 20. Types and quantities of market and non market produce harvested by the community from the farm/track. 21. Number and type of small business in the community. 22. Number and types of crimes reported in the community over the last seven months. 23. Is there a police station in or near to the community? 24. Number of new families or individuals who moved into the community over the last seven months. 25. Number of new families or individuals who removed from the community over the last seven months. 26. Number of small businesses that were opened in the community during the last seven months. 27. Number of small businesses in the community that closed during the last

seven months.

Appendix 6 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR BREEDERS, OWNERS, TRAINERS, JOCKEYS Dear Sirs; The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local racing industry. This study is intended to provide the Commission with a detailed understanding of the state of the industry, its contribution to the national economy and to job creation, etc; in addition to providing the Commission with the type of information needed for long term planning. By providing the information requested on this questionnaire, you will be making an immense contribution to this study. We hurry to assure you that all information given will be held with the strictest sense of confidentiality and will not under any given circumstances be transferred to a third party. Thanks for your cooperation. 1. Is the sport of racing in Jamaica properly recognized?________________ 2. Where would you like to see the sport in ten (10) years? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 3. Compare racing today to when you first started? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 4. What is the cost of gear now, compared to when you started riding, training, breeding?__________________________________________________ 5. Compare the condition of racing facilities now and then: a. Racing plant:_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ b. Racing surface:__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ c. Stables:__________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ d. Stable area:______________________________________________________ 6. What are your short and long term goals? a. Short term :______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ b. Long term :______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ 7. Do you think the purse structure is adequate at this time compared to yesterday?__________________________________________________________ 8. What would be a satisfactory wage for you?__________________________ 9. Racing is seen by some people as a corrupt sport, how can this be changed and what can you do to help this? __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 10. What does local racing need to move it forward? a. Short term _______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________ b. Long term _______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 11. Is the sport as professional in your area as you would like?___________ 12. What would you like to see changed in your area of the sport? _____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 13. Has it improved in your area since you started?______________________ 14. Do you think that you have the type of support you would need to do your best in the sport?______________________________ 15. If your answer is “no” to question 14, what type of support do you think that you would need to do your best and which agency or institution should provide this support.__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 16. How can you help in making the sport better in your area? _______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ 17. If you had a choice, would you leave the sport and what would make you leave?_________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ 18. Should there be a limit on the number of Trainers and Jockeys being graduated?_________________________________________________________ 19. In you view, is the racing a business venture or is it strictly a sport? Explain your answer.___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 20. For those who see racing as a business venture and an area of investment,

what in your view can be done to make this business more profitable?_______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _________________ 21. What type of incentives can the government give to make the business of racing more attractive? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 22. What are the challenges in your view, the industry faces in disposing of retired horses? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________

23. What can be done to reduce the challenges faced in disposing of the retired horses? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 24. Do you think that the services provided by grooms, exercises riders and farriers (black smiths) are at the standard desired? Explain your answer.___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 25. Do you think that there is a problem with the quality of local bred horses? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 26. Would you support the establishment of a “national stud”? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 27. Overall, how can the game be improved?_____________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 28. Do you think that we need a new racing plant? _____________________________________________________________________ 29. How can the Jamaica Racing Commission better serve your needs? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _________________

30. What are the three main challenges facing you as a professional and or business person in racing? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____ 31. Would you support and or encourage the establishment of a “racino” at Caymanas Park? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ___ 32. Do you think that owners, breeders, trainers and jockeys are doing enough to market the intellectual property (names, colours, photos etc) they create by participating in racing? Explain your answer. ._________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________ _ 33. Do you think that the exportation of retired horse or horse meat to countries such as Mexico, Guadeloupe or Haiti, for human consumption is a feasible idea to be encouraged? Explain your answer.___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _______________ End. Thank you for you cooperation

Appendix 7 Punters’ Questionnaire Dear Race Goer : The Jamaica Racing Commission is in the process of conducting a study of the local racing industry. It is the opinion of the Jamaica Racing Commission that your views of the industry as a punter and or a supporter of racing are of importance. It is in this light your assistance in completing the questionnaire below is being requested. The information you give will be handled with the strictest confidence. Thank you.

Please Answer All Questions________________________________________________ Section of the Track:-______________________________________ Date of interview:-_______________________ Time of interview:-__________ 8. Gender:___________ 9. Age:- (please tick one) 18-23 ____24-29_____30-35_____36-41___42-47_____4853_____54-59________60 and over_________ 10. How long have you been visiting Caymanas Park? ___________ 11. How long have you been betting on horses? _________ 12. Do you also place bets at Off-Track betting shops? _____ 13. Do you do most of your betting on horses at the track?________ 14. Do you also bet on Lotto and other games? _______ 15. Do you think that horse racing is corrupt? _________ 16. Do you think that horse racing has to be (must be) corrupt?_______ 17. Are the conditions at the track better than they were when you first started to visit the track? ________ 18. Are the conditions at the track worst than they were when you first started to visit the track? ________ 19. Are you getting value for money for the services provided at the track?_______ 20. What percent of your salary or wage do you spend on gambling (lotto, horse racing etc)? ________ 21. Would you carry your children to the track? _______ 22. Is parking at the track adequate? __________ 23. Is security at the track adequate? ________ 24. Do you live further than two (2) miles from the track? _______ 25. Do you use your own transportation to get to the track? ________ 26. Do you buy refreshment or food at the track? ___________ 27. What percent of your salary or pay do you gamble on horses? ________ 28. Do you think that Caymanas Park has a good influence on the communities next door to the track?_________ 29. Do you think that the track has a bad influence on the value of property around the track? _____ 30. Do you think that Caymanas Park is doing enough to assist in the development of the neighbouring communities?_____________ 31. Do you know if Caymanas Park has a programme to facilitate the development of youth and service clubs in at the neighbouring communities?__________ 32. Would you buy a house next door to Caymanas Park?________ 33. Would you visit a casino? __________ 34. Would you actively seek to gamble at a casino? _______ 35. Would it be a good idea to build a casino near to the track? ______ 36. What could be done to improve the general situation in and around Caymanas Park?_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 37. What could be done to make racing at Caymanas Park more attractive?_______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____ 38. Where you the manager of Caymanas Park, what would you do to attract more 18

to 25 year old youths to the track? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 39. Do you think that there is enough women involved in horse racing?___________________________________________________________ 40. Is horse racing a dying sports?_______________________________ 41. What would you do to attract more young women to the track? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 42. What turns you off the most about Caymanas Park?___________________ 43. Would you invite your girlfriend or wife to lunch at Caymanas Park?______________ End. Thank you. Please give a contact number so that further contacts maybe made:______________

Appendix 8 Some items that could be looked at Off Track and Caymanas Park (Finance) 1. Sales per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars). 2. Sales per race for the last ten years (in constant dollars) 3. Lowest and highest average monthly sales over the last ten years (constant dollars) 4. Lowest and lowest sales per race for the last ten years (in constant dollars). 5. Stakes per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars). 6. Purse per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars) 7. Lowest and highest stakes. 8. Lowest and highest purse. 9. Value of claims made per month for the last ten years (in constant dollars) 10. Value of claims made per race for the last ten years (in constant dollars) 11. Lowest and highest monthly claims. 12. Monthly rate of inflation for last ten years. 13. Monthly rate of interest on BOJ loans to commercial banks for the last ten years. 14. Monthly rate on treasury bills for the last ten years. 15. Average monthly stock market index for last ten years. 16. Average monthly volume of sales on stock market for the last ten years. 17. Average monthly increase or decrease in the value of the US dollar over/under base year. 18. Average monthly increase or decrease in the value of the British Sterling over/under base year. 19. Average monthly increase or decrease in the value of the Canadian dollar over/under base year. 20. Highest and lowest average monthly increase and decrease in the value of the US dollar over the last ten years. 21. Highest and lowest average monthly increase and decrease in the value of the British Sterling over the last ten years. 22. Average monthly increase or decrease in the price of unleaded gasoline over/under base year for last ten years.( Percentages calculated using constant dollars)

23. Highest and lowest average monthly increase and decrease in the price of unleaded gasoline over/under base year for last ten years.( Percentages calculated using constant dollars)

Appendix 9 Some Items To Be Looked At On At The Farms: 1. Location of the farm by village and parish. 2. Age of the farm. 3. The housing of horses :- In Stalls, Stables, communal stables or barns, their dimensions, material used in their construction, state of repair, value, and six monthly cost of repair. 4. Number of stalls, stables or etc on farm, and six monthly cost of repair. 5. The presences of a quarantine stable for horses with contagious diseases, material used in its construction, adequacy of ventilation, state of repair, and six monthly cost of repair. 6. the presence of folding stables , value, material used in its construction, adequacy of ventilation, state of repair, and six monthly cost of repair. 7. Number of foaling stables on farm. 8. The presence of a covered lunch area for farm staff, material used in its construction, value, state of repair, and six monthly cost of repair. 9. The presence of adequate sanitary facilities and shower area for field staff, material used in its construction, value, state of repair, and six monthly cost of repair. 10. The adequacy of fencing, type of fencing, length, state of repair and value, and six monthly cost of repair. 11. Average monthly cost of hay and saw dust, as used for feed and for flooring. 12. Average monthly cost of utility bills, i.e. water, electricity and telephone service. 13. Total area of the farm. 14. Amount of hay produced per season. 15. Total area of the farm being used to produce other agricultural crops.. 16. Types and quantities of agricultural crops produced per year. 17. Number of non horse husbanded animals on the farm e.g. pigs, goats, cows etc. 18. Total yearly production of these animals. 19. Total area of land used for pasturage. 20. Total number of brood resident mares. 21. Total number of resident stallions. 22. Total number of resident foals. 23. Average age of resident brood mares. 24. Average age of resident stallion. 25. Total number of visiting brood mares. 26. Total number of visiting stallions. 27. Average age of visiting brood mare. 28. Average age of visiting stallions. 29. Number of non-productive horses on farm (both mare and stallions). 30. Frequency of visits by Vet. 31. Average cost per visit. 32. Number of animals examined during Vet. visits.

33. Frequency of visits by farriers. 34. Average number of horses shoed by farrier on an average visit. 35. Cost for shoeing an average horse. 36. Daily feed schedule for average brood mare and monthly cost. 37. Composition of feed for average brood mare. 38. Daily feed schedule for average stallion and monthly cost. 39. Composition of feed for average stallion. 40. Daily feed schedule for average foal and monthly cost. 41. Composition of feed for average foal. 42. Average yearly cost of medicines for one brood mare. 43. Average yearly cost of medicines for one stallion. 44. Average yearly cost of medicines for one foal. 45. Average cost of delivery of a foal 46. Total number of persons employed full time on the farm and monthly cost of employment. 47. Categories of personnel employed full time on the farm. 48. Total number of persons employed part time on the farm monthly cost of employment. 49. Categories of persons employed part time on the farm monthly cost of employment. 50. Number of employees with formal training. 51. Number of employees completed primary school monthly cost of employment. 52. Number of employees who have completed secondary (high) school monthly cost of employment. 53. Number of employees who are members of a citizen association. 54. Number of employees who are members of a Youth Club. 55. Number of employees who are members of a Church. 56. Donations to community based activities. 57. Donations to other charities.

Appendix 10 Staff Questionnaire Dear staff member, As you are aware, the Jamaica Racing Commission is conducting a study of the racing industry. You as a member of staff of the JRC play a critical role in regulating and in influencing the future development of the industry. As such it is necessary to request your participation in this study, through the completion of this questionnaire. Your responses will not be transferred to any given third party, and its use will be restricted to the study. Yours truly, Basil Fletcher 12/3/2007

Questionnaire________________________________ Instructions: - Pleaser answer all questions 1. How long have you been employed to the Jamaica Racing Commission? _______________ 2. In gambling, what does the term “To Draw Less” means? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 3. What is your highest level of education attainment? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 4. How do you approach a standing horse (give direction and side)? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ 5. What is meant by the term “handicapping”? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ 6. Is a “racing card” and a “meet” the same thing? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 7. Do you think that your training and knowledge is adequate to allow you to effectively function and contribute to the functioning of the Jamaica Racing Commission as a regulatory body?________________ 8. Does the Jamaica Racing Commission facilitate you further education in the area of racing and or equine management? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ 9. Have you ever attended a race meet? _____________ 10. Have you ever visited a stud farm? ____________ 11. Have you ever participate in any educational programme geared towards a specialization in thoroughbred racing and or equine management? _____________________________ 12. Can you ride a horse?_________________ 13. Have you ever made a proposal about improving in any way the functioning of the JRC as a regulatory body?_____________ 14. Do you think that the Jamaica Racing Commission, given its mandate should be concerned about the wider development of the equine industry? Explain your answer, __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __ 15. Would the JRC be better able to carry out its mandate were it an executive agency? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________

Thanks for your cooperation

Appendix 11 Printing Industry (Possible Items To Look At) 1. Quantity of programmes (weights) produced per quarter for the last ten years. 2. Value of programmes (weights produced per quarter for the last ten years using constant dollars. 3. Quantity of Track and Pool produced per quarter for the last ten year. 4. Value of Track and Pool produced per quarter for the last ten year using constant dollars. 5. Quantity of T shirts with racing motifs produced per year for the last ten years. 6. Value of T shirts with racing motifs produced per year for the last ten years. 7. Quantity of articles in major news papers written about the equine industry per year for the last ten years. 8. Value of articles in major news papers written about the equine industry per year for the last ten years using constant dollars. 9. Quantity of post cards produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten years. 10. Value of post cards produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten years using constant dollars. 11. Quantity of posters produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten years.

12. using 13. years 14. years 15. 16.

Value of posters produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten years constant dollars. Quantity of calendars produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten . Value of calendars produced with racing motifs per year for the last ten using constant dollars. Donations to community activities. Donations to other charities.

Appendix 12 SEGMENT THREE – TRAINERS NUMBER OF TRAINERS (SECONDARY RESEARCH) 1. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF TRAINER

AGE GROUP 18-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 OVER 60 2. NUMBER OF PERSONS IN FAMILY

HOUSEHOLD SIZE 1 2-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 3. NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED TO TRAINER

NUMBER EMPLOYED 1 2-4 5-6 7-8 9-10

4.

AVERAGE MONTHLY COST FOR LABOUR

AVERAGE WAGES PER LABOUR (MONTHLY) Less than J$30,000 J$30,000– 50,000 J$51,000 – 75,000 J$76,000 – 100,000 Over J$100,000 5. AVERAGE MONTHLY COST FOR TRAINING MATERIALS

AVERAGE COST OF TRAINING MATERIALS (MONTHLY Less than J$30,000 J$30,000– 50,000 J$51,000 – 75,000 J$76,000 – 100,000 Over J$100,000

6.

NUMBER OF HORSES UNDER THEIR CHARGE

NUMBER OF HORSES TRAINED 1 2-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 7. AVERAGE EARNINGS PER MONTH AS TRAINER

AVERAGE EARNINGS (MONTHLY) Less than J$50,000 J$50,000– 100,000 J$101,000 – 150,000 J$151,000 – 200,000 J$201, 000 – 300,000 Over J$300,000 NAME OF TRAINER……………………………………………………………… ADDRESS OF TRAINER…………………………………………………………. DATE OF INTERVIEW…………………………………………………………………. NAME OF INTERVIEWER……………………………………………………………. NAME OF SUPERVISOR……………………………………………………………… SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR………………………………………………………

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