The National Broadband Strategy

Published on January 2017 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 51 | Comments: 0 | Views: 291
of 61
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content


0









utoft


1PL nA1lCnAL 88CAu8Anu S18A1LC? lC8
kLn?A





Ministry of Information and Communication
1




















© CovernmenL of Lhe 8epubllc of kenya, 2013

All rlghLs reserved. no parL of Lhls publlcaLlon may be reproduced, sLored ln a reLrleval sysLem, or LransmlLLed
ln any form, or by any means, elecLronlc, mechanlcal, phoLocopylng, recordlng, scannlng or oLherwlse, wlLhouL
Lhe prlor permlsslon ln wrlLlng of Lhe CovernmenL of kenya.
2
1A8LL CI CCN1LN1S

Lxecut|ve Summary ...................................................................................................... 3
1. Introduct|on ........................................................................................................ S
1.1 1he Þrocess ........................................................................................................................ 3
1.2 ueflnlng 8roadband for kenya ........................................................................................... 3
1.3 Why a naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy? ................................................................................ 7
1.4 vlslon and Þrlnclples .......................................................................................................... 8
2. Nat|ona| 8enef|ts of 8roadband ............................................................................ 10
3. Strategy ................................................................................................................. 13
3.1 lnfrasLrucLure, ConnecLlvlLy and uevlces ......................................................................... 13
3.2 ConLenL, AppllcaLlons and lnnovaLlon .............................................................................. 19
3.3 CapaclLy 8ulldlng and Awareness ..................................................................................... 22
3.4 Þollcy, Legal and 8egulaLory LnvlronmenL ....................................................................... 23
3.3 llnance and lnvesLmenL ................................................................................................... 31
4. Strategy Imp|ementat|on ....................................................................................... 34
4.1 lmplemenLaLlon Þlan ........................................................................................................ 34
4.2 LsLlmaLed CosL of lmplemenLaLlon ................................................................................... 46
4.3 lnsLlLuLlonal lramework ................................................................................................... 47
4.4 8lsks and MlLlgaLlon SLraLegles ........................................................................................ 47
4.3 MonlLorlng and LvaluaLlon ............................................................................................... 49
S. Conc|us|on ............................................................................................................. S0
6. Annexes ................................................................................................................. S1
6.1 lnLernaLlonal 8enchmarks on 8roadband ueflnlLlons ...................................................... 32
6.2 LlsL of AbbrevlaLlons ......................................................................................................... 33
6.3 ueflnlLlon of 1erms ........................................................................................................... 34
6.4 Speclflc ConsLlLuLlonal AsplraLlons for lC1s under Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs ................................ 36
7. keferences ............................................................................................................ S9




3
LkLCU1IVL SUMMAk¥

1he kenyan CovernmenL presenLs Lhe naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy for kenya. 1he
vlslon of Lhls 8roadband SLraLegy ls Lo Lransform kenya Lo a knowledge-based socleLy
drlven by a hlgh capaclLy naLlonwlde broadband neLwork.

1hls 8roadband SLraLegy ls crlLlcal Lo Lhe achlevemenL of vlslon 2030 LhaL seeks Lo
provlde kenyan clLlzens wlLh a llfesLyle LhaL ls equlvalenL Lo Lhe experlence LhaL a newly
lndusLrlallzed counLry provldes. kenya's vlslon 2030 recognlses Lhe enabllng role of lC1s
and anchors some of lLs key asplraLlons upon Lhe avallablllLy and adopLlon of broadband
Lechnologles. kenya, Lherefore, needs a very clear roadmap Lowards Lhe reallsaLlon of a
connecLed and knowledge-based economy.
1hls sLraLegy provldes such a roadmap.

1he overall ob[ecLlve of Lhls SLraLegy ls Lo provlde quallLy broadband servlces Lo all
clLlzens. 1he broadband deflnlLlon for kenya for Lhe perlod 2013 - 2017 ls as follows:

!"#$%&'%(& *$((+*,-.-,/ ,0%, -1 %23%/14$( %(& ,0%, &+2-.+#1 % 5-(-565 $7 85'91 ,$
0$5+1 %(& '61-(+11+1 7$# 0-:0 19++& %**+11 ,$ .$-*+; &%,%; .-&+$ %(& %992-*%,-$(1 7$#
&+.+2$95+(,<=

Access Lo broadband ln kenya for all clLlzens has Lhe poLenLlal Lo generaLe enormous
soclal economlc beneflLs. Some of Lhe beneflLs LhaL accrue from naLlonal access Lo
broadband lnclude economlc growLh, [ob creaLlon, growLh of lnvesLmenL opporLunlLles,
access Lo onllne governmenL servlces, lmproved educaLlon and Lralnlng servlces,
lmproved naLlonal safeLy and securlLy servlces among oLhers.

1o advance Lowards achlevlng vlslon 2030, Lhls 8roadband SLraLegy caplLallzes on
kenya's sLrengLhs and lmproves on ldenLlfled weaknesses Lo explolL opporLunlLles and
mlLlgaLe agalnsL challenges LhaL we face as a naLlon ln respecL Lo naLlonal broadband
developmenL and upLake. llnally, lL deLalls a clear sLraLegy for achlevlng our goals wlLh
Lhe means Lo monlLor and evaluaLe our progress. 1he SLraLegy focuses on flve key
LhemaLlc areas LhaL have dlrecL lmpacL on lLs lmplemenLaLlon and success. 1hese are:

• lnfrasLrucLure, ConnecLlvlLy and uevlces
• ConLenL, AppllcaLlons and lnnovaLlons
• CapaclLy 8ulldlng and Awareness
• Þollcy, Legal and 8egulaLory LnvlronmenL
• llnanclng and lnvesLmenL

1he role of Lhe governmenL ln Lhls SLraLegy ls Lo provlde an enabllng envlronmenL Lo
allow opLlmum markeL growLh of broadband servlces. lL ls expecLed LhaL publlc and
prlvaLe secLor lnvesLmenL and compeLlLlon wlll expand Lhe broadband markeL. 1he
SLraLegy provldes for Lhe promoLlon of Þubllc and ÞrlvaLe ÞarLnershlps so LhaL lndusLry
4
sLakeholders, and Lhe naLlonal and counLy governmenLs work LogeLher Lo deploy
lnfrasLrucLure, lnvesL and bulld awareness and capaclLy for use of broadband.

1hls SLraLegy ls vlslonary yeL flexlble enough Lo adapL Lo evolvlng markeLs and
accommodaLe new Lechnologles. lL fulflls Lhe requlremenLs of our new ConsLlLuLlon of
kenya 2010 LhaL provldes for lnformaLlon access Lo all clLlzens as a baslc rlghL and Lhe
recognlLlon LhaL kenya asplres Lo be a globally compeLlLlve and prosperous naLlon.
5
1. IN1kCDUC1ICN

1.1 1nL ÞkCCLSS

1hls naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy (n8S) provldes a clear roadmap Lowards Lhe
reallsaLlon of a connecLed and knowledge-based economy. 1he MlnlsLry of lnformaLlon
and CommunlcaLlon (MolC), ln collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon of
kenya (CCk), spearheaded Lhe developmenL of Lhe 8roadband SLraLegy wlLh Lechnlcal
asslsLance from uSAlu's Clobal 8roadband lnlLlaLlve Þrogram.

MolC esLabllshed a naLlonal SLeerlng CommlLLee comprlslng represenLaLlves from Lhe
CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon of kenya, naLlonal CommunlcaLlons SecreLarlaL, L-
CovernmenL ulrecLoraLe, vlslon 2030 SecreLarlaL, kenya lC1 8oard, and local and
lnLernaLlonal Lechnlcal experLs from uSAlu's Clobal 8roadband lnlLlaLlve Þrogram. 1he
CommlLLee's mandaLe was Lo gulde Lhe overall developmenL of a comprehenslve
sLraLegy for promoLlng naLlonal developmenL of broadband-based lnformaLlon and
CommunlcaLlon 1echnologles (lC1s) ln Lhe counLry. 1he CommlLLee achleved Lhls
Lhrough a consensus-based sLraLegy and by acLlve collaboraLlon wlLh a wlde range of
sLakeholders ln boLh Lhe publlc and prlvaLe secLors LhroughouL kenya.

A mulLl-secLor consulLaLlve approach lnvolvlng all relevanL lnsLlLuLlons ln Lhe counLry
was adopLed ln Lhe developmenL of Lhe n8S. SubsequenLly, Lhe naLlonal 8roadband
SLeerlng CommlLLee organlsed a serles of consulLaLlve sLakeholder meeLlngs and
workshops. 1he lnlLlal drafL of Lhe sLraLegy was developed Lhrough a Lechnlcal worklng
group meeLlng comprlslng experLs on Lhe varlous lssues wlLhln Lhe broadband
ecosysLem namely, lnfrasLrucLure and ConnecLlvlLy, AppllcaLlons and uevlces, ConLenL
and lnnovaLlon, CapaclLy 8ulldlng and Awareness, Þollcy, Legal and 8egulaLory lssues,
and llnance and lnvesLmenLs. 1hen Lhe drafL n8S was avalled for wlder consulLaLlon and
revlew by all sLakeholders.

1.2 DLIINING 8kCAD8AND ICk kLN¥A

1he deflnlLlon Lakes cognlsance of Lhe varlous needs wlLhln Lhe broadband ecosysLem
lncludlng Lhose from Lhe demand and Lhe supply sldes. 1he key drlvers LhaL lnfluence
Lhe deflnlLlon from a demand perspecLlve are vlslon 2030 (Cok, 2007) whlch seeks Lo
provlde lLs clLlzens a llfesLyle LhaL ls equlvalenL Lo Lhe experlence LhaL a newly
lndusLrlallzed counLry provldes, and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of kenya 2010 LhaL anLlclpaLes
lnformaLlon access Lo all clLlzens as a baslc rlghL as well as Lhe recognlLlon LhaL kenya
asplres Lo be a globally compeLlLlve and prosperous naLlon. Cn Lhe supply slde,
broadband ls broken down Lo Lechnlcal parameLers LhaL are easlly measurable. 1hese
parameLers lnclude speeds, bandwldLh and quallLy of servlce.

6
Whereas fasL-changlng Lechnologles may rapldly see deflnlLlons based on speed become
obsoleLe, counLrles seL mlnlmum speeds ln deflnlng broadband largely ln order Lo
measure progress.

1he key drlvers ln deflnlng broadband for kenya are summarlsed ln llgure 1 below.

I|gure 1: Def|n|ng 8roadband for kenya



1he deflnlLlon also Lakes lnLo conslderaLlon lnLernaLlonal benchmarks of selecLed
counLrles LhaL are provlded ln Annex 1.

SubsequenLly, Lhe broadband deflnlLlon ln kenya for Lhe perlod 2013- 2017 ls as follows:

!"#$%&'%(& *$((+*,-.-,/ ,0%, -1 %23%/14$( %(& ,0%, &+2-.+#1 % 5-(-565 $7 85'91 ,$
0$5+1 %(& '61-(+11+1 7$# 0-:0 19++& %**+11 ,$ .$-*+; &%,%; .-&+$ %(& %992-*%,-$(1 7$#
&+.+2$95+(,<=

8ecognlslng Lhe presenL reallLles wlLh respecL Lo Lhe exLenL of lnfrasLrucLure roll-ouL
wlLhln Lhe counLry, and Lhe lmmedlaLe plan Lo furLher deploy broadband Lhrough a
naLlonwlde L1L sysLem, Lhe deflnlLlon ls dlsaggregaLed on Lhe basls of rural and urban
areas as shown ln 1able 1. lL ls also recognlsed LhaL Lhe rural-urban dlvlde ls slowly
geLLlng obscured and Lhe devolved sysLem of governmenL may redeflne lL furLher wlLh
counLles belng Lhe focal polnLs of developmenL plannlng. SubsequenLly, Lhe dlsLlncLlon
ln broadband speeds beLween Lhe rural and urban areas wlll be blurred wlLh Lhe
convergence LhaL wlll arlse ouL of reglonal developmenL.

1he speeds proposed from 2017 onwards are sub[ecL Lo revlew based on Lechnologlcal
developmenLs and oLher facLors LhaL may lnfluence Lhelr revlslon.


7
1ab|e 1: M|n|mum 8roadband Speeds

2013-2017 2018-2022 2023-2027 2028-2030
Urban 40 Mbps 300 Mbps 1024 Mbps 2048 Mbps
kura| 3 Mbps 30 Mbps 100 Mbps 300 Mbps

ÞeneLraLlon LargeLs have furLher been arLlculaLed aL Lhe lndlvldual level ln order Lo
measure Lhe access and usage levels of broadband. 1hese LargeLs are deflned ln 1able 2:
1ab|e 2: 8roadband Þenetrat|on 1argets
8ase||ne 1arget by 2017
¼ of penetrat|on by househo|ds 6.3°
1
33°

¼ of penetrat|on by schoo|s n/a 100°

¼ of penetrat|on by hea|th fac|||t|es n/a 100°



1.3 Wn¥ A NA1ICNAL 8kCAD8AND S1kA1LG¥

8roadband ls a sLraLeglc lnfrasLrucLure for a 21
sL
cenLury economy. noL only does
broadband secure lncluslon wlLhln Lhe global economy, buL lL also goes a long way Lo
underpln Lhe compeLlLlveness of a naLlon and lLs success ln progresslng Lhe reallsaLlon
of Lhe Mlllennlum uevelopmenL Coals.
Pavlng a naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy glves kenya a compeLlLlve edge ln Lhe reglon as
very few counLrles ln Afrlca have esLabllshed a slmllar framework.
1he n8S provldes a crlLlcal lC1 roadmap LhaL shall enable kenya achleve lLs asplraLlon of
becomlng a globally compeLlLlve and prosperous newly lndusLrlallzed mlddle-lncome
counLry wlLh a hlgh quallLy of llfe by 2030. 8roadband ls Lhe plaLform for a developed
kenya, a kenya LhaL reglsLers economlc growLh and lnnovaLlon. 8roadband enables
healLhcare, educaLlon, employmenL and governmenL servlce dellvery.
vlslon 2030 recognlses Lhe enabllng role of lC1s and anchors some of lLs key asplraLlons
upon Lhe avallablllLy and adopLlon of broadband Lechnologles. ?eL 90° of kenyans do
noL have access Lo broadband, sLudenLs do noL have access Lo compuLers, and kenyans
do noL have skllls Lo use Lhe lnLerneL. unless Lhls approach ls revlewed Lo address Lhese

1
Source: 2010 lC1 Survey (page 22)
8
gaps, kenya wlll fall as a counLry Lo Lake advanLage of Lhe opporLunlLles Lo upllfL
kenyans' soclo-economlc sLaLus and adversely affecL Lhe counLry's global poslLlonlng
and compeLlLlveness. kenya, Lherefore, needs a very clear roadmap Lowards Lhe
reallsaLlon of a connecLed and knowledge-based economy.
1hls sLraLegy descrlbes such a roadmap.

1.4 VISICN AND ÞkINCIÞLLS
1.4.1 V|s|on

1he vlslon of Lhe naLlonal broadband sLraLegy ls:

A koowleJqe-boseJ soclety Jtlveo by o blqb copoclty ootloowlJe btooJbooJ
oetwotk.
1.4.2 Þr|nc|p|es

1he fuLure of broadband ln kenya shall be more Lhan vlewlng Lelevlslon, surflng Lhe
lnLerneL and maklng phone calls. lL shall be abouL new forms of communlcaLlon and
mass collaboraLlon Lhrough Lhe vlrLually unllmlLed poLenLlal for sharlng lnformaLlon,
sLorage capaclLy, processlng power and sofLware made posslble Lhrough hlgh-capaclLy
bandwldLh connecLlons. 1hls collaboraLlon wlll generaLe new ldeas, acceleraLe economlc
developmenL and lead Lo opporLunlLles for wealLh creaLlon, soclal developmenL and
personal expresslon. 1he followlng key prlnclples wlll gulde Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
broadband sLraLegy:

1. Cpen access: 8roadband access and use wlll be avallable wlLhouL dlscrlmlnaLlon.
MulLlple servlce provlders wlll be encouraged Lo compeLe on shared plaLforms
and servlces.

2. 1echno|ogy neutra||ty: use of common, lnLeroperable sLandards and proLocols
wlll be encouraged. All local broadband neLworks shall have Lhe rlghL Lo non-
dlscrlmlnaLory and cosL-based lnLerconnecLlon wlLh oLher broadband neLworks.

3. kesearch and |nnovat|on: Lndeavour Lo develop and provlde susLalnable
servlces Lhrough research and lnnovaLlon. kenya wlll pursue conLlnuous
lnnovaLlon and producLlvlLy lmprovemenLs by enhanclng global connecLlvlLy for
research and developmenL, and by promoLlng and applylng world class,
lnnovaLlve broadband Lechnologles, appllcaLlons, conLenL and servlces.

4. Lqu|ty: unlversal access Lo broadband servlces wlll be promoLed. Plgh-capaclLy
broadband connecLlvlLy shall be affordable and wldely accesslble. CovernmenL
9
pollcy wlll pay close aLLenLlon Lo barrlers of prlce, locaLlon, culLure and language.
Local communlLles wlll have access Lo lnLeracLlve, open, broadband neLworks
wlLh sufflclenL capaclLy Lo meeL Lhe lncreaslng lnformaLlon on communlcaLlons
and enLerLalnmenL needs of Lhelr resldenLs, buslnesses, lnsLlLuLlons and local
governmenLs. ÞarLlcular concern wlll be glven Lo lmpoverlshed, lsolaLed and
dlsadvanLaged populaLlons lncludlng people wlLh dlsablllLy and women.

3. Co-ord|nat|on and co||aborat|on: Þubllc and ÞrlvaLe ÞarLnershlps (ÞÞÞ) shall be
promoLed. lndusLry sLakeholders, Lhe naLlonal and counLy governmenLs wlll
work LogeLher Lo deploy lnfrasLrucLure and bulld awareness and capaclLy for use
of broadband.

6. Susta|nab|e |ntervent|ons: 8roadband pollcles, regulaLlons and oLher lnlLlaLlves
wlll endeavour Lo be LransparenL and flexlble so as Lo bulld foundaLlons for
susLalnable conLesLable markeLs, lncludlng lnnovaLlve Lechnology soluLlons.

7. Compet|t|ve cho|ce of techno|og|es: 8roadband neLworks use several wlre-
based and wlreless Lechnologles wlLh dlfferenL Lransmlsslon bandwldLh,
rellablllLy characLerlsLlcs and capablllLles. lL ls recognlzed LhaL lL wlll noL be
economlcally feaslble Lo dellver flbre opLlcs Lo all communlLles ln Lhe near Lerm.
Where flbre connecLlon ls noL pracLlcal, oLher Lechnologles such as hlgh capaclLy
wlreless broadband may be deployed.

8. Þo||cy respons|veness: 1echnology, user needs and markeLs are hlghly dynamlc.
1herefore pollcy seLLlngs and programmes wlll be responslve and adapLlve.
Þollcles and regulaLlons wlll embrace Lechnologlcal and compeLlLlve neuLrallLy.
8egulaLory prlnclples such as Lransparency and open compeLlLlon wlll be applled
Lo new Lechnologles.

9. Market-based |nvestment: CompeLlLlve markeLs ln whlch servlce provlders
recelve approprlaLe reLurns on Lhelr lnvesLmenLs wlll drlve Lhe provlslon of
broadband connecLlvlLy, appllcaLlons and conLenL. Where markeLs do noL dellver
servlces ln a Llmely, affordable, efflclenL or equlLable manner, governmenL wlll
lnLervene ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL. ln all cases, commerclally sound and susLalnable
lnvesLmenL wlll underpln declslon-maklng and markeL operaLlon.

10. Þromot|on of a nat|ona| va|ue system that cata|yses V|s|on 2030 and
safeguards kenya's cu|tura| her|tage: LfforLs wlll be made Lo ensure LhaL
uLlllzaLlon of Lhe broadband ls Lowards fulfllllng Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe
consLlLuLlon ln regard Lo human rlghLs Lo communlcaLlon and lnformaLlon and ln
llne wlLh vlslon 2030 of kenya becomlng a globally compeLlLlve and prosperous
naLlon wlLh a hlgh quallLy of llfe by 2030.
10
2. NA1ICNAL 8LNLII1S CI 8kCAD8AND

8roadband roll-ouL and access has Lhe poLenLlal Lo generaLe enormous soclal economlc
beneflLs Lo varlous users and Lhe general economy. 1hls 8roadband SLraLegy shall
provlde a coherenL roadmap Lo a ublqulLous deploymenL of communlcaLlons
lnfrasLrucLure and sLraLegles LhaL are almed aL harnesslng Lhe opporLunlLles LhaL shall
generaLe slgnlflcanL beneflLs ln varlous secLors of Lhe economy. Some of Lhe general
beneflLs LhaL accrue from naLlonal access Lo broadband lnclude:

1. Lconom|c growth and emp|oyment: 1here ls a slgnlflcanL proven correlaLlon
beLween broadband access and economlc growLh and developmenL. ublqulLous
broadband servlces lower Lhe cosL of communlcaLlon and can aLLracL lnvesLmenL
parLlcularly ln rural areas Lhereby sLlmulaLlng local economlc envlronmenLs and
lncreaslng economlc growLh. 8roadband neLworks have been shown Lo have a
dlrecL lmpacL on employmenL - an lncrease ln broadband peneLraLlon would
resulL ln addlLlonal [obs.

2. Þromote bus|ness processes outsourc|ng (8ÞC): 1he developmenL of broadband
lnfrasLrucLure and lC1 sklll wlLhln Lhe counLry wlll dlrecLly lmpacL Lhe success of
Lhe 8ÞC sub-secLor, a flagshlp pro[ecL under vlslon 2030.

3. 8us|ness opportun|t|es and |nvestment compet|t|veness: 8roadband wlll
enhance boLh backward and forward economlc llnkages. lorward llnkages wlll be
enhanced Lhrough access Lo new domesLlc and lnLernaLlonal markeLs. 8uslnesses
wlll also beneflL from enhanced backwards llnkages, especlally ln Lhe rural
conLexL, by galnlng access Lo more suppllers and more compeLlLlve lnpuLs
subsequenLly lncreaslng Lhe compeLlLlveness of Lhelr producLs. lurLher, a well-
esLabllshed lC1 secLor provldes a conduclve envlronmenL for buslness
lncubaLors. 8uslness lncubaLors nurLure Lhe developmenL of enLrepreneurlal
companles and Lhose LhaL are lC1-orlenLed would provlde kenya Lhe opporLunlLy
Lo ascend Lo Lhe level of a Lechnologlcal hub as envlsaged ln vlslon 2030.

4. L-government: ublqulLous access Lo fasL-speed lnLerneL ln all parLs of Lhe
counLry ls an lmporLanL lnpuL Lo Lhe success of Lhe e-governmenL sLraLegy. 1he
naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy effecLlvely addresses key relaLed lssues such as
efflclenL backhaul, lasL mlle broadband neLwork and end user devlces Lo supporL
an efflclenL e-governmenL sLraLegy.

3. Nat|ona| safety and secur|ty: lnLeroperable broadband neLworks wlLhln Lhe
counLry and Lhe reglon would supporL securlLy agencles and oLher agencles Lo
respond fasLer Lo emergencles and naLural dlsasLers. 8roadband would, for
example, ald communlcaLlon of naLlonal securlLy alerLs on securlLy webslLes and
oLher relevanL agencles ln order Lo proLecL Lhe publlc.
11

6. D|stance |earn|ng opportun|t|es: ueploymenL of broadband enables more
people Lo engage ln onllne learnlng. ulsLanL learnlng powerfully expands
educaLlon opporLunlLles boLh for exlsLlng sLudenLs and for Lhose who may be
unable Lo physlcally aLLend educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons.

7. L-hea|th: 8roadband lnLerneL access has Lhe capaclLy Lo provlde soluLlons Lo Lhe
consLralnLs of healLhcare dellvery sysLems ln Lhe rural and oLher marglnallzed
areas by faclllLaLlng roll-ouL of e-healLh appllcaLlons ln Lhe counLry.

8. L-educat|on and tra|n|ng: 1echnology and skllls play crlLlcal and complemenLary
roles ln lncreaslng producLlvlLy, hence conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe economlc
developmenL process. 8roadband ln kenya wlll ensure avallablllLy of low-cosL
and quallLy educaLlon over Lhe lnLerneL and Lhus provlde opporLunlLles Lo
sLudenLs who are unable Lo geL adequaLe educaLlon ln a classroom seLup.

9. Work|ng and env|ronmenta| benef|ts from te|ecommut|ng: ueploymenL of
broadband would mosL llkely lncrease LelecommuLlng. Whlle employees would
recelve mosL of LhaL beneflL ln Lhe form of reduced Lravel Llme, socleLy would
also beneflL Lo Lhe exLenL LhaL Lravellers would noL pay Lhe full soclal cosL of
Lravelllng such as polluLlon and Lrafflc congesLlon. 8educed Lravel would boosL
socleLal welfare.

10. Lff|c|ent frequency spectrum use: lrequency specLrum ls a naLural scarce
resource LhaL ls requlred for wlreless servlces. A coherenL broadband plan ln
kenya would drasLlcally reduce Lhe currenL demand for frequency specLrum by
promoLlng sharlng of lnfrasLrucLure and use of alLernaLlve Lechnologles.

11. 8roadband for Þeop|e L|v|ng w|th D|sab|||t|es: lor Þeople wlLh ulsablllLles
(Þwus) ln kenya, broadband provldes an lmporLanL llnk Lo employmenL and
educaLlon opporLunlLles as well as lncluslon ln socleLy. 1hls group ls Lyplcally
employed aL a lower raLe Lhan people wlLhouL dlsablllLles. Access Lo advanced
Lechnology aL home would lncrease, for example, Lhe avallablllLy of dlsLance
learnlng programmes LhaL provlde [ob cerLlflcaLlon among oLher preparaLlons.

12. Un|versa| access: unlversal access Lo communlcaLlon servlces depends on Lhe
level of deploymenL of communlcaLlon lnfrasLrucLure ln a counLry. An
lnfrasLrucLure LhaL ls well spread across Lhe counLry forms Lhe basls of
lnLegraLlng cosL effecLlve Lechnologles Lo reach Lhe rural and remoLe areas.
1elecommunlcaLlon servlce provlders are able Lo provlde lC1 servlces lncludlng
Lelephone servlces Lo a wlder populaLlon where lnfrasLrucLure ls well developed.

13. 8roadcast|ng serv|ces: 1he naLlonal backbone neLwork ln kenya wlll provlde a
ready plaLform for broadcasLlng lnformaLlon Lo Lhe ma[orlLy of kenyans and
12
ulLlmaLely promoLe naLlonal, pollLlcal, economlc and culLural coheslon. 8ural
communlLles wlll be empowered Lo parLlclpaLe and conLrlbuLe Lowards naLlonal
soclo-economlc developmenL.

13
3. S1kA1LG¥

1o advance Lowards achlevlng vlslon 2030, Lhe n8S caplLallzes on kenya's sLrengLhs and
lmproves on ldenLlfled weaknesses Lo explolL opporLunlLles and mlLlgaLe agalnsL
challenges LhaL may hlnder Lhe developmenL, adopLlon, use, and growLh of broadband
servlces.

Ma[or sLrengLhs lnclude Lhe avallablllLy of a naLlonal Lconomlc 8lue ÞrlnL - vlslon 2030,
a MlnlsLry dedlcaLed Lo lC1s, requlslLe lnfrasLrucLure such as roads, lnvesLmenL ln
alLernaLlve energy sources, an enabllng flscal pollcy reglme, and a progresslve
consLlLuLlon.

1he followlng flve key lssues are core Lo naLlonal broadband developmenL, and as such
form Lhe basls for developlng Lhls naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy:

a) lnfrasLrucLure, ConnecLlvlLy and uevlces
b) ConLenL, AppllcaLlons and lnnovaLlon
c) CapaclLy 8ulldlng and Awareness
d) Þollcy, Legal and 8egulaLory LnvlronmenL
e) llnanclng and lnvesLmenL

ln Lhe followlng subsecLlons, each of Lhese sLraLeglc lssues ls explalned, deLalllng Lhe
currenL sLaLus, addresslng speclflc sub-lssues and provldlng correspondlng sLraLegles
LhaL shall be adopLed Lo address Lhe lssues.

3.1 INIkAS1kUC1UkL, CCNNLC1IVI1¥ AND DLVICLS

3.1.1 Current Status

kenya has made Lremendous efforLs Lo lmprove access Lo lC1 lnfrasLrucLure for volce
and daLa servlces ln efforLs Lo enhance Lhe developmenL of Lhe lC1 secLor.

1he compeLlLlve envlronmenL ln Lhe moblle and daLa sub-secLor has resulLed ln
exLenslve and aggresslve deploymenL of lnfrasLrucLure ln mosL parLs of Lhe counLry.
1hrough wlreless Lechnologles, moblle operaLors are Lhe prlmary provlders of
daLa/lnLerneL servlces ln kenya, accounLlng for 98° of LoLal lnLerneL subscrlpLlons (CCk,
2012).

Among Lhe key lnfrasLrucLural sLrengLhs ls Lhe compleLlon and operaLlonallzaLlon of Lhe
undersea flbre cables, whlch has faclllLaLed global connecLlvlLy of Lhe counLry. 1he
connecLlon Lo Lhe flbre submarlne sysLems provldes kenya wlLh rellable and affordable
hlgh capaclLy bandwldLh. 1hls has been augmenLed by Lhe compleLlon of Lhe naLlonal
CpLlc llbre 8ackbone lnfrasLrucLure (nCl8l) phase l LhaL covers parLs of Lhe counLry.
14
1hls wlll be furLher enhanced afLer Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of nCl8l phase ll as shown ln
llgure 2.

SaLelllLe connecLlvlLy bandwldLh ls also lncreaslng (CCk, 2012) Lhus enhanclng
connecLlvlLy and provldlng redundancy Lo Lhe flbre neLwork.

I|gure 2: NCI8I Coverage


5ootce - commoolcotloos commlssloo of keoyo

key




OFC (New) of NOFBI Phase 2
OFC (Existing) of NOFBI Phase 1
15
Whlle Lhe CovernmenL has lndeed made some sLrldes ln Lhe developmenL of and
lncreased access Lo bandwldLh, Lhe presence and avallablllLy of bandwldLh has noL yeL
reached/covered a large parL of Lhe counLry especlally Lhe rural areas. ln addlLlon Lhe
Lechnologles and devlces Lo ensure hlgh-speed connecLlvlLy Lo homes especlally ln rural
areas are noL ln place due Lo markeL lnequallLy. 1herefore Lhe lasL mlle connecLlvlLy ls
lndeed a weakness LhaL Lhe CovernmenL and operaLors need Lo focus on (see llgure 3
on servlce access gaps).

Þrovlslon of lasL mlle connecLlvlLy ls cosLly and requlres oLher general lnfrasLrucLure
such as access roads, elecLrlclLy and securlLy of cables. Ceneral securlLy concerns have
slowed down broadband lnsLallaLlons and adopLlon. Loosely deflned or weak access
frameworks for avallable lnfrasLrucLure capaclLy, poor road lnfrasLrucLure, hlgh energy
cosLs, lnsecurlLy, weak llnkages beLween rural and urban economles are also ma[or
weaknesses.

1he ofLen unco-ordlnaLed and dlsparaLe lnfrasLrucLure lnlLlaLlves ls a key weakness LhaL
resulLs ln unwarranLed dupllcaLlon of resources LhaL ulLlmaLely leads Lo hlgher cosL of
servlces and lnhlblLs furLher roll-ouL of neLworks. 1o Lhls end Lhe governmenL wlll
develop a pollcy Lo seL clear guldellnes for operaLors Lo share operaLor-speclflc
lnfrasLrucLure Lo avold dupllcaLlng lnfrasLrucLure ln Lhe same areas. 1hls would resulL ln
Lhe counLry savlng cosLs. Llkewlse, harmonlslng relaLed lnfrasLrucLure developmenL by
relevanL mlnlsLrles such as roads and energy Lo ensure provlslon of cable ducLs ln Lhe
deslgn of roads, plpellnes, rallways and power llnes wlll go a long way ln allevlaLlng Lhe
cosL burden of deploylng flbre neLworks.

8y ensurlng adherence Lo mlnlmum consLrucLlon sLandards ln Lhe laylng of flbre,
speclflcally relaLed Lo Lhe depLh of laylng cable, accldenLal damage Lo flbre and Lhe
subsequenL dlsrupLlon of servlces shall be mlnlmlsed.











16
I|gure 3: Serv|ce Access Gaps

5ootce. commoolcotloos commlssloo of keoyo


1he dynamlc and rapld evoluLlonary naLure of Lechnology poses a challenge Lo long Lerm
plannlng of broadband Lechnologles. 1hls means LhaL Lhe currenL and upcomlng
lnfrasLrucLure may noL supporL fuLure appllcaLlons LhaL wlll necesslLaLe conLlnuous
upgrades.

1he vlbrancy of Lhe kenyan markeL has aLLracLed global lC1 lndusLry glanLs such as
Puawel, Z1L and Clsco LhaL have seL up locally ln collaboraLlon wlLh local operaLors. 1hls
glves Lhe counLry access Lo alLernaLlve and affordable lC1 lnfrasLrucLure connecLlvlLy
devlces LhaL are cusLomlzed Lo meeL Lhe needs of Lhe ma[orlLy of kenyans.

kenya's repuLaLlon as a progresslve counLry wlLh foreslghL and wlLh an lnnovaLlon
culLure has opened up opporLunlLles for kenyans Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe global economy.
lncreaslng Lhe use of broadband and lC1 also has Lhe poLenLlal Lo enable Small and
Medlum LnLerprlses (SMLs) compeLe effecLlvely wlLh larger companles by explolLlng Lhe
new buslness opporLunlLles LhaL wlll be creaLed by use of new and rapldly growlng
Lechnology areas llke e-commerce whlch ls envlsloned Lo exLend beyond Lhe kenyan
borders. AL Lhe same Llme, Lhere ls Lhe opporLunlLy for local manufacLurlng assembly
and fabrlcaLlon of lC1 equlpmenL requlred for broadband Lo address Lhe facL LhaL
devlces wlll be requlred LhaL address local lssues aL an affordable cosL whlle creaLlng
[obs.

3.1.2 Strategy

1hls secLlon deals wlLh Lhe sLraLeglc lssues relaLed Lo lnfrasLrucLure, ConnecLlvlLy and
uevlces necessary Lo dellver broadband servlces and proposes speclflc sLraLegles Lo
17
address Lhe currenL challenges whlle ouLllnlng Lhe expecLed ouLcomes for each
lnLervenLlon. A summary of Lhe key sLraLeglc lssues ls presenLed ln 1able 3 followed by a
deLalled analysls.

1ab|e 3: Strategy for Infrastructure, Connect|v|ty and Dev|ces

Sub-Issue Cb[ect|ves Cutcomes Strateg|es
CuallLy
broadband
neLwork
Þrovlde quallLy
broadband
servlces Lo all
clLlzens
lmproved quallLy of llfe
ln Lhe way clLlzens
work, llve and learn
• CovernmenL sponsored ÞÞÞs Lo
fund lnfrasLrucLure developmenL
• use of unlversal Servlce lund Lo
exLend broadband neLwork
peneLraLlon
• Lnhance regulaLory overslghL wlLh
respecL Lo quallLy of servlce
CoordlnaLlon and
compllmenLary
servlces
Þrovlde a
harmonlzed and
enabllng
envlronmenL for
lnfrasLrucLure
deploymenL
8educed cosL of
deploylng and
operaLlng broadband
neLworks
• Þrovlde a framework for
synchronlzed plannlng of clvll and
lC1 daLa pro[ecLs
• ÞromoLe and ensure operaLors
share common lnfrasLrucLure
• CovernmenL Lo provlde
rebaLes/Lax lncenLlves for
operaLors provldlng
compllmenLary servlces (uLlllLles)
ln marglnallzed areas
AccesslblllLy and
affordablllLy
Þrovlde accesslble
and affordable
broadband
servlces Lo all
clLlzens
lncreased demand for
and use of broadband
servlces
• CovernmenL Lo provlde subsldles
for access devlces
• ÞromoLe local producLlon of
access devlces
• ÞromoLe and avall onllne local
conLenL (e.g. e-CovL. lnformaLlon
& servlces) Lo spur demand
• ConLlnued expanslon of power,
road, securlLy lnfrasLrucLure
across Lhe counLry
• 8evlew regulaLory framework Lo
opLlmlse specLrum
• 8e-farm and avall addlLlonal
specLrum Lo enhance lasL-mlle
soluLlons
AvallablllLy and
rellablllLy
uevelop a robusL
and rellable back-
bone for Lhe
broadband
neLwork
A rlch, lnLerrupLlon-
free broadband
experlence
• LsLabllshlng redundancy aL Lhe
lnLernaLlonal gaLeways and
Landlng ÞolnLs
• LsLabllshlng redundancy wlLhln
Lhe domesLlc neLwork (counLy
level)
• 8ulldlng daLa-cenLres of
lnLernaLlonal sLandards
• Lnhance capablllLles of Local
Lxchange ÞolnLs

18

1he flrsL sLraLeglc lssue focuses on Lhe lnfrasLrucLure, ConnecLlvlLy and uevlces
necessary Lo dellver broadband servlces. A hlgh-quallLy physlcal and core neLwork ls
requlslLe Lo avalllng broadband servlces. ln addlLlon, faclllLaLlng access Lo such a
broadband neLwork by Lhe clLlzenry ls necessary Lo sLlmulaLe and opLlmlze use of Lhe
broadband neLwork. 1he n8S addresses Lhls lssue ln four sub-lssues, namely:
! Þrovldlng and exLendlng a quallLy broadband neLwork,
! CoordlnaLlng and compllmenLlng lLs consLrucLlon,
! AccesslblllLy and affordablllLy, and
! AvallablllLy and rellablllLy.

Conslderlng LhaL presenLly avallablllLy of broadband servlces ls llmlLed Lo urban areas
and covers only 18° of Lhe kenyan geographlc space, Lhere ls need Lo provlde
ublqulLous quallLy broadband servlces Lo all clLlzens. Þrovldlng and exLendlng a quallLy
broadband neLwork across Lhe counLry wlll lead Lo lmprovemenL ln Lhe quallLy of Lhe llfe
of clLlzens ln Lhe way Lhey work, llve and learn uslng Lhe broadband neLwork.

1he second lssue deals wlLh coordlnaLlon and compllmenLary servlces relaLed Lo
consLrucLlng Lhe broadband neLwork. 1he perslsLenL dupllcaLlon of resources by
operaLors lnsLalllng core cabllng lnfrasLrucLure ln Lhe same place aL dlfferenL Llmes ls a
challenge Lo developmenL. lurLher Lhe loss of opporLunlLy ln bulldlng communlcaLlon
lnfrasLrucLure durlng deploymenL of roads, power, waLer and oLher uLlllLy neLworks
needs Lo be mlnlmlsed. 1he challenge Lo communlcaLlon lnfrasLrucLure ls furLher
exacerbaLed by Lhe frequenL cuLs Lo flbre cables by road conLracLors. llnally, Lhe lack of
rellable compllmenLary servlces such as roads, power supply and securlLy for Lhe
neLwork slLes and equlpmenL places an addlLlonal burden Lo operaLors who ofLen
commlL resources Lo bulld Lhls lnfrasLrucLure ln order Lo provlde communlcaLlon
servlces. 1hls SLraLegy recommends Lhe need Lo creaLe a harmonlzed and enabllng
envlronmenL for lnfrasLrucLure deploymenL wlLhln Lhe lndusLry and wlLh oLher
sLakeholders as well as conslderaLlons Lo provlde lncenLlves and rebaLes Lo operaLors
exLendlng roads and power.

1here are challenges relaLed Lo accesslblllLy and affordablllLy of broadband servlces
especlally wlLh respecL Lo access devlces such as compuLers, smarL-phones, seL-Lop
boxes amongsL oLhers. ln mlLlgaLlng Lhls, Lhe sLraLegy proposes LhaL governmenL
subsldlses and/or zero-raLes Lax and duLy on access devlces. lnlLlaLlves Lo supporL local
manufacLurlng of access devlces such as seL-Lop boxes should also be encouraged.
SLraLegles Lo promoLe onllne local conLenL wlll spur demand and evenLually reduce Lhe
cosL of access as a crlLlcal mass of users ls reallsed.

1he unrellablllLy of Lhe neLwork ln relaLlon Lo quallLy of servlce ls a key lssue LhaL affecLs
Lhe degree of upLake and usage of broadband servlces. 1hls ls ofLen aLLrlbuLed Lo
CuallLy of Servlce (CoS) and ls largely relaLed Lo cable cuLs LhaL affecL boLh Lhe domesLlc
and lnLernaLlonal llnks, vandallsm, power supply lnLerrupLlons and lack of neLwork
19
redundancy. 1he esLabllshmenL of a robusL and rellable backbone for Lhe broadband
neLwork wlll mlLlgaLe Lhls and ensure an lnLerrupLlon-free broadband experlence Lo
clLlzens.

1he sLraLegles addresslng avallablllLy and rellablllLy lnclude esLabllshlng redundancy
boLh aL Lhe lnLernaLlonal and Lhe domesLlc levels of Lhe broadband neLwork. 8ulldlng
daLa-cenLres of lnLernaLlonal sLandards wlll aLLracL lnLernaLlonal conLenL LhaL wlll be
hosLed and accessed locally. Lnhanclng capablllLles of local lnLerneL Lxchange ÞolnLs wlll
also provlde redundancy wlLh regard Lo accesslng local conLenL. 8ellable and sufflclenL
energy supply across Lhe counLry ls also necessary Lo ensure un-lnLerrupLed provlslon of
broadband servlces.

3.2 CCN1LN1, AÞÞLICA1ICNS AND INNCVA1ICN

3.2.1 Current Status

1he avallablllLy of a robusL broadband lnfrasLrucLure enables Lhe provlslon of
lnformaLlon conLenL and relaLed appllcaLlon servlces and faclllLles LhaL are lnLended Lo
lmprove a socleLy's quallLy of llfe. lnformaLlon conLenL covers all forms of elecLronlc
sofLware and conLenL from on-llne lnformaLlon servlces Lo communlcaLlons neLworklng
appllcaLlons Lo e-governmenL and e-commerce. vlslon 2030 recognlzes lC1 as an enabler
of Lhe varlous secLors of Lhe kenyan economy and lndeed developed lC1 speclflc flagshlp
pro[ecLs. 1hls recognlLlon sLrengLhens and aL Lhe same Llme challenges Lhe lC1 secLor Lo
provlde relevanL conLenL Lo meeL Lhe needs of Lhe clLlzenry.

kenya's culLural dlverslLy provldes a wlde pool of lndlgenous conLenL LhaL can be made
avallable for culLural herlLage and preservaLlon ln llne wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal
requlremenLs. ln addlLlon, Lhe counLry already has a funcLlonlng manual-based buslness
conLexL accrulng non-dlglLal conLenL LhaL ls readlly avallable for dlglLlzaLlon desplLe Lhe
hlgh cosL of Lhe process.

uesplLe kenya belng a fasL adopLer of Lechnologlcal servlces, Lhere are noLable
weaknesses LhaL LhreaLen Lhe developmenL of local conLenL, appllcaLlons and lnnovaLlve
servlces LhaL are relevanL and approprlaLe Lo Lhe general clLlzenry. 1hese weaknesses
lnclude general non-allgnmenL beLween demand and supply (for example lgnorance of
conLenL creaLors on naLlonal agenda and naLlonal lnLeresLs), low or lnexlsLenL
synergy/collaboraLlon exacerbaLed by a value sysLem LhaL does noL encourage sharlng
or openness beLween creaLors/servlce, and Lhe absence of quallLy assurance
mechanlsms for onllne conLenL. lurLher, Lhe kenyan consumer has a preference for low-
cosL/low-prlced producLs and a Lendency Lo dlsLrusL onllne conLenL whlch conLrlbuLe Lo
Lhe slow pace of local onllne conLenL, appllcaLlons and lnnovaLlons.

20
Whlle lL ls wldely recognlsed LhaL Lhe cosL of dlglLlzlng exlsLlng conLenL shall be hlgh,
broadband wlll provlde opporLunlLles for efflclenL and effecLlve lnLeracLlon beLween Lhe
governmenL and lLs clLlzens enhanced by Lhe mandaLory use of governmenL e-servlces.

lurLher, kenya's cenLral geographlcal locaLlon provldes an advanLage for aLLracLlng boLh
local and lnLernaLlonal conLenL on lLs lnLerneL exchange polnLs LhaL shall ensure
opLlmum and efflclenL use of our broadband lnfrasLrucLure and conLenL generaLlon. ln
addlLlon Lhe lnLerneL, supporLed by hlgh-speed broadband, promlses Lo creaLe ma[or
opporLunlLles ln all secLors of Lhe economy. Lmbedded devlces llke pace makers ln
healLhcare, blo-sensors, 8llu Lags for securlLy, and concepLs llke smarL clLles are all
examples of areas LhaL wlll greaLly beneflL from hlgh speed broadband.

AvallablllLy of local conLenL ls a challenge LhaL presenLs an opporLunlLy for [ob creaLlon
lnvolvlng bulldlng Lhe necessary lnfrasLrucLure and plaLforms LhaL enable capable
clLlzens generaLe Lhelr own conLenL.

1he facL LhaL kenyans are generally conLenL consumers means Lhe counLry ends up
paylng much more for lnLernaLlonal bandwldLh ln comparlson Lo hosLlng Lhe conLenL
locally.

3.2.2 Strategy

Lack of dlglLal conLenL and appllcaLlons LhaL have local relevance ls a ma[or hlndrance Lo
broadband upLake. 1hls lssue manlfesLs lLself ln Lhree dlmenslons whlch are ldenLlfled as
sub-lssues LhaL wlll be addressed. 1he flrsL sub-lssue ls relaLed Lo avallablllLy of local
conLenL ln dlglLal formaLs. Lven Lhough Lhere ls no shorLage of dlglLal conLenL globally, lL
ls dlglLal conLenL LhaL has local relevance LhaL ls lmporLanL for broadband upLake locally.
Coplous amounLs of local conLenL exlsL such as our culLural (lndlgenous) conLenL, paper-
based conLenL especlally ln governmenL, as well as uncollecLed daLa (e.g. weaLher daLa
and Lrafflc daLa), buL whlch ls noL ln dlglLal form. 1he ob[ecLlve Lherefore ls Lo converL
non-dlglLal conLenL lnLo dlglLal forms and Lo promoLe collecLlon of relevanL daLa ln
dlglLal forms.

A relaLed sub-lssue ls access Lo dlglLal conLenL. Lven lf Lhe conLenL were avallable ln
dlglLal form, Lhere ls a lack of appllcaLlons (sofLware and hardware soluLlons) LhaL serve
Lhls conLenL Lo Lhe local consumers. lor example, dlglLlzlng core governmenL reglsLrles
avalls publlc daLa ln dlglLal form. Powever, wlLhouL appllcaLlons LhaL enable onllne
servlce dellvery, Lhe percelved value of dlglLlzlng Lhe reglsLrles would noL be reallsed.
uevelopmenL of hlgh quallLy appllcaLlons LargeLlng local consumers remalns a challenge
for varlous reasons lncludlng a lack of appreclaLlon of local needs by conLenL creaLors
and appllcaLlon developers, lack of sufflclenL hlghly-skllled Lechnlcal experLlse as well as
an lneffecLlve process of developlng, proLecLlng and offerlng susLalnable onllne servlces.
1here ls a need Lherefore Lo promoLe developmenL of hlgh-quallLy relevanL appllcaLlons
LhaL avall local dlglLal conLenL Lo all.
21

8elevance ls a key deLermlnanL on wheLher local conLenL wlll be consumed and wheLher
Lhe conLenL wlll conLrlbuLe Lo soclo-economlc developmenL ln llne wlLh Lhe broadband
vlslon slnce lf Lhe conLenL ls noL relevanL Lo local needs Lhen broadband wlll noL be
useful. lnnovaLlon ls Lhe process by whlch conLenL creaLors and appllcaLlon developers
maLch Lhelr producLs Lo Lhe needs of local consumers, Lhereby creaLlng relevanL conLenL
and appllcaLlons. 1he prevalllng unsLrucLured lnnovaLlon chaln, especlally wlLh respecL
Lo lnnovaLlons LhaL lnLegraLe lC1s, has been ldenLlfled as anoLher sub-lssue LhaL lnhlblLs
developmenL of relevanL conLenL and appllcaLlons. 1hls ls characLerlzed by a lack of
collaboraLlon beLween dlverse sklll seLs (Lechnlcal, creaLlve, 8&u, legal, markeLlng,
buslness and enLrepreneurlal) LhaL are crlLlcal for successful and susLalnable
lnnovaLlons, lack of fundlng, and poor enforcemenL of lÞ8 proLecLlon. 1he ob[ecLlve
Lherefore ln addresslng conLenL relevance ls Lo lnsLlLuLlonallze Lhe lnnovaLlon value
chaln wlLh Lhe overall alm of nurLurlng a Lhrlvlng lnnovaLlon ecosysLem LhaL wlll lead Lo
an lncrease ln lnnovaLlons LhaL address local needs.

1o address Lhls sLraLeglc lssue and relaLed sub-lssues, Lhe ob[ecLlves and sLraLegles Lo be
pursued and ouLcomes Lo be reallzed are shown ln 1able 4.

1ab|e 4: Strategy for Content, App||cat|ons and Innovat|ons

Sub-|ssue Cb[ect|ve Lxpected Cutcome Strateg|es
AvallablllLy of
local conLenL ln
dlglLal form
Avall local conLenL
ln dlglLal form
lncreased
avallablllLy of local
dlglLal conLenL

• ulglLlze exlsLlng local conLenL
• CapLure new local conLenL
• CreaLe publlc awareness on
avallable onllne conLenL
Access Lo local
dlglLal conLenL
ÞromoLe Lhe
developmenL of
quallLy, relevanL
appllcaLlons LhaL
enhance access Lo,
and use of, dlglLal
conLenL
lncreased
avallablllLy of
appllcaLlons LhaL
serve dlglLal
conLenL
• ÞromoLe developmenL of relevanL
appllcaLlons Lo serve conLenL
onllne
• ÞromoLe developmenL of soluLlons
for unlversal accesslblllLy
• Þrovlde lncenLlves for buslnesses
Lo offer onllne servlces
• uevelop sLandards and guldellnes
for quallLy assurance of
appllcaLlons
• lund 8&u Lo ldenLlfy vlable
soluLlons
• CreaLe publlc awareness on
avallable appllcaLlons
unsLrucLured
lnnovaLlon chaln
1o lnsLlLuLlonallze
Lhe lnnovaLlon
value chaln
A sLrucLured, well-
funded ecosysLem
LhaL generaLes
lnnovaLlve and
quallLy soluLlons Lo
enhance access Lo
dlglLal conLenL

• LsLabllsh cerLlfled lncubaLors
across Lhe counLry
• CreaLe a one-sLop shop Lo supporL
and promoLe lnnovaLlon servlces
Lo lncubaLors
• LsLabllsh an lnnovaLlon fund
• underLake capaclLy bulldlng Lo
22
Sub-|ssue Cb[ect|ve Lxpected Cutcome Strateg|es
sLrengLhen Lechnlcal skllls of
conLenL and appllcaLlon
developers

3.3 CAÞACI1¥ 8UILDING AND AWAkLNLSS

3.3.1 Current Status

kenya's adulL llLeracy raLe ls esLlmaLed aL 87° (unlCLl, 2003). 1hls lmplles LhaL kenya,
whose clLlzens value educaLlon, has an opporLunlLy Lo enhance Lhe general populace
llLeracy Lo lnclude dlglLal llLeracy. ln addlLlon, Lhe hlgh raLe of moblle peneLraLlon of
71.3° (CCk, 2011) ls lndeed an lndlcaLlon of Lhe 'Lechnology LhlrsL' avallable ln kenya
LhaL provldes a base upon whlch capablllLy can be enhanced Lo use approprlaLe
emerglng Lechnologles, servlces and appllcaLlons. ln addlLlon, 73° of kenya's populaLlon
ls youLhful (lrancls and ClLhagul, 2003) and readlly wllllng Lo learn, adopL, and adapL Lo
new Lechnologles. 1hls youLhful populaLlon accounLs for a crlLlcal mass lnLeresLed ln lC1
and avallable Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe secLor as appllcaLlon developers, conLenL creaLors,
and Lechnlcal supporL when approprlaLe Lechnlcal skllls are acqulred.

1here ls a skllls gap boLh ln Lhe Lechnlcal aspecLs lnvolvlng Lhe developmenL of
broadband lnfrasLrucLure and Lhe general clLlzenry ln Lhe baslc use of lC1s. 1he currenL
currlculum ln baslc and hlgher learnlng lnsLlLuLlons does noL adequaLely address Lhe
currenL and fuLure lC1 needs. 1here ls an obvlous opporLunlLy Lo bulld capaclLy for Lhe
lC1 lndusLry and aL a naLlonal level as a means of lncreaslng lC1 llLeracy. LfforLs Lo
lnLegraLe lC1 lnLo Lhe formal educaLlon sysLem as recommended ln Lhe proposed
prlmary school lC1 currlculum, and Lhe on-golng creaLlon of lC1 laboraLorles ln publlc
secondary schools, provlde anoLher plaLform Lo empower a large pool of poLenLlal users
of broadband servlces. 1ralnlng ln emerglng Lechnologles such as Lhe lÞv6 and moblle
broadband are requlred as Lhe counLry moves Lowards Lhelr deploymenL ln globally
poslLlonlng Lhe counLry.

1he presence of broadband servlces can provlde enormous opporLunlLles Lo kenyans.
Powever, Lhe slow upLake of e-governmenL servlces ls aLLrlbuLed Lo low l1 llLeracy skllls
resulLlng ln poor knowledge ln ldenLlfylng credlble sources of lnformaLlon and lnablllLy
Lo consume sophlsLlcaLed producLs. Low l1 skllls also conLrlbuLe Lo lack of awareness of
consumer rlghLs and legal provlslons provlded for by Lhe producLs such as quallLy of
servlce provlslons ln consumer Servlce Level AgreemenLs (SLAs).

Whlle Lhe ma[orlLy of young people ln kenya are lnLeresLed ln lC1 programmes, a recenL
evaluaLlon of l1 skllls ln kenya (klC18, 2011) has shown LhaL Lhere ls a gap ln Lhe hlgh-
end LalenL pool of Lhe l1 skllled workforce. ln parLlcular, of Lhe LoLal 27,000 l1
professlonals ln kenya ln 2010, l1 supporL people represenL Lhe largesL porLlon (27°),
23
followed by AppllcaLlons SysLems AnalysLs and SysLem Lnglneers (13° each). 1hls can be
aLLrlbuLed Lo focuslng on Sclence, 1echnology and Lnglneerlng (S1L) currlculum as
opposed Lo encouraglng creaLlvlLy and problem-solvlng Lo enhance avallablllLy of
Lechnlcal skllls requlred Lo develop, malnLaln and susLaln vlbranL broadband-supporLed
servlces.

1he facL LhaL Lhe use of lC1s may be consldered dlsrupLlve Lo Lhe LradlLlonal way
kenyans work, llve and learn shall be mlLlgaLed by a naLlonwlde lC1 llLeracy and
awareness campalgn LhaL should gradually lncrease adopLlon and usage of lC1s.

1he success and poslLlve lmpacL of broadband ln kenya depends on Lhe capaclLy and lC1
skllls of Lhe clLlzens Lo use Lhese servlces resulLlng ln clLlzens Lhrlvlng ln an lnformaLlon
socleLy, and enhanclng Lhe lnfuslon of lC1s as a llfesLyle ln kenya.

3.3.2 Strategy

Puman capaclLy remalns Lhe blggesL sLrengLh LhaL a counLry can harness for
developmenL. WlLh respecL Lo broadband, lL ls lmporLanL Lo dlsLlngulsh beLween Lwo
aspecLs of human capaclLy - supply and demand. Supply focuses largely on Lhe Lechnlcal
skllls requlred Lo develop, manage and malnLaln broadband servlces, whlle demand
focuses on dlglLal llLeracy skllls and awareness creaLlon LhaL empower Lhe general
clLlzenry Lo consume and leverage broadband servlces. CapaclLy bulldlng and awareness
ls Lherefore a sLraLeglc lssue LhaL wlll be addressed Lo acceleraLe broadband upLake and
uLlllzaLlon. 1here are four relaLed sub-lssues LhaL have been ldenLlfled ln relaLlon Lo Lhls,
namely:
! ulglLal llLeracy,
! 1echnlcal skllls,
! Awareness, and
! Co-ordlnaLlng capaclLy bulldlng and awareness acLlvlLles.

Wldespread broadband upLake and uLlllsaLlon requlres a dlglLally llLeraLe clLlzenry.
lurLher, Lhe ablllLy of Lhe end-user Lo leverage dlglLal conLenL for enhanced soclal or
economlc value requlres LhaL Lhey have Lhe capaclLy Lo undersLand and apply Lhe
knowledge conLalned Lhereln. Whlle Lhe end-user's capaclLy ls a funcLlon of Lhe
lndlvldual's knowledge level and reasonlng capablllLy, wldespread broadband upLake
and uLlllsaLlon requlres clLlzens empowered wlLh lC1 Lo access and use broadband
servlces ln a knowledge-based socleLy. ulglLal llLeracy should Lherefore be addressed aL
all levels of Lhe socleLy - wlLhln Lhe educaLlonal secLor by addresslng lC1 currlcula lssues
and ln Lhe general populace by engaglng ln naLlon-wlde dlglLal llLeracy Lralnlng. ln
addlLlon, Lhere ls need Lo ralse awareness on Lhe avallablllLy and usefulness of
broadband servlces so as Lo spur upLake.

1echnlcal skllls are essenLlal Lo faclllLaLe Lhe supply slde of broadband servlces.
1echnlcal skllls are requlred for Lhe lnsLallaLlon and managemenL of broadband
24
lnfrasLrucLure and servlces as well as ln Lhe developmenL and provlslon of hlgh-quallLy
local conLenL and appllcaLlons. 1here ls a shorL supply of hlgh quallLy Lechnlcal experLlse
LhaL ls needed Lo supporL wldespread broadband developmenL. Compoundlng Lhls
problem ls Lhe lack of sLandard currlcula ln areas such as lC1 and englneerlng Lralnlng, as
well as a mls-allgnmenL of exlsLlng currlcula wlLh Lhe Lechnlcal needs of Lhe counLry as
we Lransform lnLo a knowledge-based socleLy. 1o address Lhls sub-lssue, lL ls lmporLanL
Lo e!"#!$% '(#)*+, -+#!.#/.- 01/ $(//*$()# .%2%)134%!+5 *43)%4%!+#+*1! #!.
!""#""$#%& !& !(( #)*+!&,-% (#.#("/

!"# %"&'( )*+-!""#$ !" &'&($)$"" *&(+$*$, !" $%&-!"#$" &'() *+ ()# ,!&-*. /+0 ,$*1/(#
!"#$%&' )! *"++ )! $," -"."&)+ #/$/0".&12 3,/! /! ) #".$&)+ /!!4" )! "5/6".#"6 71 $," +%*
!"#$%&'("#)"* ("# (,,%$-)(')." ./ '0$ )1,.%'("-$ ./ 234& /.% &.-).-!"#$#%&"
!"#"$%&'"() +, !"-./.%( 0(! &%$.-, '01"2/3 )4! #$%& '(%)*+%, %- !-!"#$%&"! ()*%+(),,-.
!"# %&' '()*%'"+' ,- +./%.0!/ 1!00)'0* )"+/.#)"2 %'+&",3&,1)! 4&)+& &)"#'0* !#,3%)," ,-
!"# %& % '%( )* +,*-. #/,& ,&&0- !" !""#$%%$" !" $%!& '() !"#$% !'$$%!!(') *+,-.",# *#+
!"#$#%&"#'( '* +,'&-+&(- .#(/01 '( -02!"#$%&' ) *%+,)&- -!./&#-!"#$%&! !()$(%"* +,"
!"#$%&'($ !* +,,-$..'/0 &1'. '. &! '23-!($ +4+-$/$.. !* $5'.&'/0 +/, $2$-0'/0
!"#$%&'&()"*+ *"-.)#"* /%0 /11')#/!)&%*+ /%0 !$")- 2*"32'%"** /! /'' '"."'* /%0 *"#!&-* &3
!"#$%&'(

!"##$%&'() !"#$%&%'( "*#'"'+'",!" $!% $&'!()'" *!%'+,$-' !"#"!$%& !"#$%#&' )&% )*)+,&,--
!"#$%$#$&' $) ! *$+*,- .)"//01$)!#&1 2!'*$/) 0&'.,#$)+ $) 1.3,$"!#&1 &22/0#' !)1 $)&22$"$&)#
!"# %& '#"%!'(#") *+#'# ," -."% - '#.-/#0 (+-..#12# %& -((#"" /% !"##-!"#$%%!& !"#
!"#$%&'(& *&"+,&- ."' !"#"$%& (%)*"!% !%&#)%( +,%)% !-.-!"#/ 01"23"&4 -&3 -+-)%&%((
!"#$%$#$&' "!) *& +),&-#!.&) &//&"#$%&012 34& 5*6&"#$%& 5/ !,,-&''$)7 #4$' $' #5 4!-85)$9&:
!"#$"%!& %(")(*+,$-! $", +./0(1! $%%!)) -( %$/$%+-2 34+*,+"5 $", $6$0!"!)) +"+-+$-+1!)7

!"# %#& '( '!"#$%&'#(! !"#$"%&'%! ") *% +,#!,%-! !"# %&'%()%# *+)(*,%- )* !##.%-- )/0-
!"#$"%&'( '!!*% $+, #%-$"%, !*.-!""#$" &'$ (!)$* !* 1able 3.

1ab|e S: Strategy for Capac|ty 8u||d|ng and Awareness

Sub-|ssue Cb[ect|ve Lxpected Cutcome Strateg|es
ulglLal LlLeracy 1o enhance
dlglLal llLeracy
skllls ln Lhe
populaLlon
A dlglLally-llLeraLe
clLlzenry capable of
parLlclpaLlng ln a
knowledge-based
socleLy
• lmplemenL e-CovernmenL's currlculum
on clLlzens' dlglLal llLeracy
• lmplemenL klL's prlmary-school level
lC1 currlculum
• 8evlew and lmplemenL secondary
school, 1vL1 and 11Cs lC1 currlcula ln
llne wlLh Lhe requlred skllls for a
knowledge-based socleLy
1echnlcal
experLlse
1o develop
sufflclenL quallLy
Lechnlcal
experLlse
lncreased hlgh-end
Lechnlcal LalenL Lo
develop, manage
and malnLaln
broadband servlces
Lnhance quallLy sLandards for hlgher
educaLlon currlcula lmplemenLaLlon and
assessmenL of core Lechnlcal programs
25
Sub-|ssue Cb[ect|ve Lxpected Cutcome Strateg|es
Awareness 1o creaLe
awareness of
exlsLlng and
emerglng
Lechnologles,
servlces, and
appllcaLlons aL all
levels and secLors
lmproved
awareness of
Lechnologles,
servlces, and
appllcaLlons aL all
levels and secLors
• !"# %&'()*" +#,(& -.&/0)'+" /) 1'#&/#
!"!#$%$&&
• !"#$%& ()*+),%-& ./" %0 "-!"#$%&"! ()
!"##$%$&' )*+'#,%-. "& +** .$/',%.
• !"#$%# $'( ()**#+)'$%# +,-%)-)!"#$%
!"#$%&%'( &*+',+'
CoordlnaLlon of
and access Lo
capaclLy
bulldlng and
awareness
acLlvlLles
1o harmonlze,
enhance,
consolldaLe and
lmprove access Lo
capaclLy bulldlng
and awareness
lnlLlaLlves
8eLLer coordlnaLlon
of capaclLy bulldlng
lnlLlaLlves and
lmproved access Lo
quallLy capaclLy
bulldlng and
awareness servlces
• SLrengLhen coordlnaLlon of capaclLy
bulldlng lnlLlaLlves
• LsLabllsh capaclLy bulldlng cenLres and
sLrengLhen exlsLlng ones


3.4 ÞCLIC¥, LLGAL AND kLGULA1Ck¥ LNVIkCNMLN1

3.4.1 Current Status

1he facL LhaL kenya has converged regulaLory auLhorlLy - Lhe CommunlcaLlons
Commlsslon of kenya (CCk) - ls a key advanLage. CCk has provlded regulaLlon LhaL
promoLes lnvesLmenL, equlLy, affordablllLy and access of servlces. Cnce operaLlonallzed,
Lhe unlversal Servlce lund (uSl) ls expecLed Lo provlde an lncenLlve Lo Lhe roll-ouL of
lC1 servlces ln Lhe underserved and un-served areas.

1he CovernmenL, ln recognlLlon of Lhe key role of lC1, has puL ln place Lhe naLlonal lC1
Þollcy of 2006 and a legal framework Lo supporL Lhe secLor (Cok, 2009). ln addlLlon, Lhe
consLlLuLlon and oLher leglslaLlons (Consumer ÞroLecLlon AcL, 2012, 8egulaLlons 2010,
CompeLlLlon AcL, 2010, Þersons wlLh ulsablllLles AcL, 2003, and urafL laws on uaLa
ÞroLecLlon and Access Lo lnformaLlon) augmenL Lhe exlsLlng lC1-speclflc pollcy, legal and
regulaLory frameworks Lo accommodaLe a wlde scope of lssues relaLed Lo Lhe
progresslon of Lhe lC1 secLor such as access Lo lnformaLlon, securlLy and daLa
proLecLlon.

WlLh broadband belng globally recognlsed as a fundamenLal developmenL facLor, lL
merlLs conslderaLlon as a crlLlcal naLlonal lnfrasLrucLure. Cne of Lhe currenL llmlLaLlons ls
Lhe facL LhaL broadband ls noL adequaLely addressed wlLhln Lhe currenL naLlonal pollcy,
legal and regulaLory framework. ln addlLlon, Lhere ls no clear leglslaLlve provlslon on
publlc secLor parLlclpaLlon ln relaLlon Lo broadband lnfrasLrucLure/servlces.

Whlle Lhere ls llmlLed pollcy and leglslaLlve conslderaLlons for broadband, Lhe new
consLlLuLlonal dlspensaLlon creaLes an opporLunlLy Lo develop and lmplemenL a
26
progresslve legal framework allgned Lo oLher naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal pollcles and
laws for lC1 and broadband-relaLed lssues. 1hls also provldes a wlndow for Lhe
developmenL of a robusL leglslaLlon on lnLernaLlonal cyber LerrorlsL aLLacks and oLher
relevanL and lmporLanL concerns.

3.4.2 Strategy

1he fourLh sLraLeglc lssue focuses on Lhe pollcy, legal and regulaLory envlronmenL. lor
effecLlve and efflclenL deploymenL and uLlllzaLlon of servlces dellvered and accessed
Lhrough broadband, an enabllng and faclllLaLlng pollcy, legal and regulaLory
envlronmenL ls needed. 1hls ls expecLed Lo fasL Lrack Lhe fulfllmenL of Lhe requlremenLs
of Lhe new consLlLuLlon LhaL provldes Lhe broader framework for Lhe governance of lC1s
almed aL enhanclng access Lhrough enabllng legal and regulaLory envlronmenL. vlslon
2030 envlslons a globally compeLlLlve and prosperous kenya. ln addlLlon, ln Lhe new
consLlLuLlon, some rlghLs Lo clLlzens have been deflned. 1he 8lll of 8lghLs has Louched on
fundamenLal rlghLs and freedoms wlLh focus on access Lo and use of boLh lnfrasLrucLure
and conLenL, whlle governance prlnclples and sLrucLures are malnly concerned wlLh
regulaLlng access and lmplemenLlng consLlLuLlonal requlremenLs on conLenL LransmlLLed
Lhrough Lhe lnfrasLrucLure. 1he speclflc ConsLlLuLlonal asplraLlons for lC1s under Lhe 8lll
of 8lghLs are deLalled ln Annex 4.

1he ConsLlLuLlonal asplraLlons envlsage access Lo, use of, and beneflL from lC1 servlces.
1he currenL pollcy, legal and regulaLory sLaLus has noL addressed Lhe above lssues
adequaLely. 1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe lssues have been addressed Lhrough Lhe exlsLlng
pollcles and regulaLlons ls summarlzed ln 1able 6. 1o address Lhe above consLlLuLlonal
requlremenLs and exlsLlng pollcy and regulaLory gaps, Lwo sLraLeglc sub-lssues have
been ldenLlfled namely pollcy framework on broadband, and legal and regulaLory
framework on broadband.

1ab|e 6: Status of, and kecommendat|ons for, Þo||cy and Leg|s|at|ve Lnv|ronment

Issue
!"#!"#$ &$'$()
Way Iorward
kespons|b|||ty &
1|meframe
Þollcy LeglslaLlon
(AcLs &8egulaLlons)
k|ghts and
Iundamenta|
Ireedoms
spec|f|c to IC1
Þrlvacy - ArLlcle 31
lreedom of medla
- ArLlcle 34
Access Lo lnformaLlon -
ArLlcle 33 (Access Lo
lnformaLlon held by
publlc lnsLlLuLlons
avallable on onllne
plaLforms Lhrough
broadband servlces)
lnLermedlary llablllLy wlLh
respecL Lo daLa
Lransmlsslon
All rlghLs recognlsed
under Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon.
uaLa ÞroLecLlon and
lreedom of
lnformaLlon Þollcles
ln place
A. 31 - uaLa
ÞroLecLlon 8lll Lo be
Labled ln ÞarllamenL
A. 33 - Access Lo
lnformaLlon 8lll Lo be
Labled ln ÞarllamenL
A. 34 - Medla 8lll and
lCCk 8lll under
dlscusslon
lnLermedlary llablllLy
leglslaLlon noL
harmonlsed
lmplemenL proposed
leglslaLlon
ParmonlsaLlon of
leglslaLlon on
lnLermedlary llablllLy

MolC and oLher
sLakeholders e.g.
ClC, ALLorney-
Ceneral, kenya Law
8eform Commlsslon
2013
k|ghts and lreedom of expresslon - All rlghLs recognlsed varlous AcLs caLerlng 8evlew leglslaLlon Consumer
27
Iundamenta|
Ireedoms |n
genera|

ArLlcle 33
CulLure - ArLlcle 11
lnLellecLual ÞroperLy
8lghL - ArLlcle 40
Consumer ÞroLecLlon -
ArLlcle 46, lncludlng CoS
and SLAs
under Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon.
Þollcy gap on
fosLerlng creaLlvlLy
and arLlsLlc
expresslon (A.33
and A.11)
for lÞ8s:
1rademarks AcL, Cap
306
AnLl CounLerfelL AcL,
2008
lndusLrlal ÞroperLy
AcL, 2001
CopyrlghL AcL, Cap
130

Consumer ÞroLecLlon
leglslaLlon:
Consumer ÞroLecLlon
AcL, 2012
kenya lnformaLlon
and CommunlcaLlons
(Consumer
ÞroLecLlon)
8egulaLlons 2010
CompeLlLlon AcL,
2010
lnLernaLlonal
lnsLrumenLs and
benchmarks
CLher naLlonal
leglslaLlon e.g. 1rade
uescrlpLlon AcL
deallng wlLh Consumer
ÞroLecLlon Lo caLer for
broadband speclflc
lssues.


ÞroLecLlon - MolC
2014
LffecLlve enforcemenL
e.g. lÞ8s.






lÞ8 - MlnlsLry of
1rade, klÞl, oLher
sLakeholders
(conLlnuous)

LsLabllshmenL of Þollcy
on creaLlvlLy and arLlsLlc
expresslon
CreaLlvlLy & arLlsLlc
expresslon pollcy-
MolC, and MlnlsLry
of SLaLe for naLlonal
PerlLage and
CulLure
2014
Inc|us|on of
spec|a| groups
Þersons wlLh ulsablllLy
(ÞWu) - ArLlcle 7 and 34
Language and CulLure -
ArLlcle 44
Marglnallsed groups -
ArLlcle 36

8ecognlsed under
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
CovernmenL
lnsLlLuLlonal
framework
recognlses Lhese
groups
Þersons wlLh
ulsablllLles AcL, 2003
Þollcy and leglslaLlon Lo
be revlewed Lo caLer for
requlremenLs of ÞWu
and oLher speclal
groups ln uslng lC1
servlces e.g. e-
AccesslblllLy Þollcy and
LeglslaLlon
MolC
2013
Susta|nab|e
Lnv|ronment
LnvlronmenL - ArLlcle 69 Þollcy caLerlng for
envlronmenL lssues
ln general exlsLs
CovernmenL
lnsLlLuLlonal
framework Lo
recognlse Lhese
groups
urafL lnfrasLrucLure
Sharlng Þollcy and
lndusLry Code of
ÞracLlce provldes
for envlronmenLal
aesLheLlcs
need for L-WasLe
ManagemenL Þollcy
(boLh lnfrasLrucLure
and consumer
Lermlnals)
LnvlronmenLal
ManagemenL and Co-
ordlnaLlon AcL 1999
no speclflc e-wasLe
ManagemenL
8egulaLlons ln place
LsLabllshmenL of L-
WasLe managemenL
pollcy and regulaLlons
by 2014


(e-WasLe) MlnlsLry
of LnvlronmenL and
Mlneral 8esources,
nLMA
2013

llnallsaLlon of Lhe drafL
pollcy on lnfrasLrucLure
sharlng and
lmplemenLaLlon
lmplemenLaLlon of
lndusLry Code of
ÞracLlce
(lnfrasLrucLure
Sharlng Þollcy, Code
of ÞracLlce) MolC,
lCCk
2013
Governance and
Infrastructure
uevoluLlon and access Lo
servlces - ArLlcle 6, 176,
lourLh, llfLh and SlxLh
Schedule
8ecognlsed under
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
urafL lC1 Þollcy
(Cok, 2011) refers
CounLy AuLhorlLy AcL
(ÞarL lx, xll), oLher
AcLs

ParmonlsaLlon of
counLy and cenLral
governmenL lssues as
Lhey relaLe Lo lC1 e.g.
MlnlsLry of 8oads,
CounLy
CovernmenLs
2013
28
lnsLlLuLlonal framework
LhaL caLers for
managemenL of publlc-
funded naLlonal lC1
lnfrasLrucLure
Lo expanslon of
lnfrasLrucLure by
munlclpallLles and
counLles
roads auLhorlLles, way
leaves, cable and plpe
locaLlng devlces, safe
dlgglng pracLlce,
assoclaLed levles
Amend leglslaLlon Lo
requlre provlders of
physlcal lnfrasLrucLure
(roads, rallway,
plpellnes, power llnes,
properLy developers) Lo
make provlslon for
fuLure lnsLallaLlon of
lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
Cu|tura| 8arr|ers 1echno-phobla
LlLeracy
CulLural Laboos
Pousehold dynamlcs
ConsLlLuLlon seeks
Lo address Lhese
barrlers
no speclflc leglslaLlon
requlred
Þubllc awareness Lo
close Lhe gap
MlnlsLry of SLaLe for
naLlonal PerlLage
and CulLure wlLh
Lhe asslsLance of
MolC
2013
1rust and
Secur|ty
Cyber-securlLy
neLwork securlLy, Laklng
lnLo accounL redundancy
and dlverslLy/resLoraLlon
8obusL e-commerce
framework
CLher e-servlces (e-
healLh, e-educaLlon, e-
agrlculLure, eLc.)
CapaclLy bulldlng ln Lhe
[usLlce sysLem
no harmonlsed
pollcles relaLlng Lo
LrusL, securlLy and
e-commerce
neLwork lnLegrlLy
recognlsed ln lC1
Þollcy Culdellnes
(2006)
urafL laws on uaLa
ÞroLecLlon and Access
Lo lnformaLlon
no leglslaLlon
recognlslng lC1 as
crlLlcal naLlonal
lnfrasLrucLure

need for speclflc
leglslaLlon
8ecognlLlon of lC1 as
crlLlcal naLlonal
lnfrasLrucLure and
puLLlng ln place
approprlaLe leglslaLlon.

LeglslaLlon - SLaLe
deparLmenL ln
charge of
lnformaLlon and
CommunlcaLlons
2013

Llalse wlLh Lhe kenya
Þollce Servlce and Lhe
!udlclary Lo puL ln place
approprlaLe sLrucLures
Lo address cyber-crlmes
e.g. lC1 courL, lC1 Þollce
unlL
Lnhanced regulaLlons
on enforcemenL of
provlslons of neLwork
lnLegrlLy
!usLlce sysLem
reforms, neLwork
lnLegrlLy - MolC,
lCCk, kenya Þollce
Servlce, !udlclary
2013
Affordab|||ty of
IC1 Serv|ces -
1axes
Consumer Laxes on end-
user devlces - vA1
Consumer Laxes on lC1
servlces - vA1, exclse
duLy
ulrecL Laxes on
lnfrasLrucLure -
lmporL/cusLoms, exclse
duLy, vA1, oLher fees
no speclflc pollcy
addresslng lssue of
affordablllLy
need Lo provlde for
a pollcy LhaL
mlnlmlses effecL of
LaxaLlon on
affordablllLy of lC1
under-user
equlpmenL and
servlces
8enchmark on
exlsLlng
lnLernaLlonal besL
pracLlce on Lhe
maLLer.
need Lo harmonlse
LAC pollcy on Lhe
maLLer.
no speclflc
leglslaLlon.
Þrovlde for Lhls maLLer
under naLlonal llnance
Þollcy, Laklng lnLo
accounL lnLernaLlonal
and reglonal
agreemenLs
AmendmenL of exlsLlng
LaxaLlon leglslaLlon.
MolC and MlnlsLry
of llnance
2013
29
Affordab|||ty of
IC1 Serv|ces -
Lnergy, koads
8educe burden on
affordablllLy due Lo
unavallablllLy and cosL of
energy and road
lnfrasLrucLure
Þollcles wlLh
respecL Lo energy
and roads are noL
harmonlsed wlLh
lC1 pollcles.
8evlew of leglslaLlon
ln llne wlLh proposed
pollcy.
• Parmonlsed pollcles
and leglslaLlon relaLed
Lo energy, roads and
lC1, as approprlaLe.
• Speclflc provlslon for
rebaLes for energy
and road deploymenL
by lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
provlders
• uellberaLe regulaLlon
ln case of markeL
fallure Lo lncrease
consumer welfare.
• Þrovlslon of
caLegorlsaLlon of lC1
servlces as hlgh
energy users (speclal
Larlff)

MolC, L8C,
MlnlsLrles of
llnance, Lnergy and
8oads
2014
Un|versa| Access Access Lo broadband Speclflc unlversal
Servlce pollcy
relaLed Lo
broadband under
developmenL
8evlew of leglslaLlon
ln llne wlLh proposed
pollcy, lf necessary
llnallse revlew and
adopLlon of naLlonal
broadband pollcy



MolC
2013
Þrovlde for robusL and
hollsLlc approach ln Lhe
use, managemenL and
governance of uSl as
well as lmplemenLaLlon
of leglslaLlon
MolC, lCCk
2013
Spectrum Þrovlslon of adequaLe
specLrum for moblle
broadband servlces
lC1 Þollcy
Culdellnes (2006)
provlde for
specLrum
managemenL ln
general
8evlew of leglslaLlon
ln llne wlLh proposed
pollcy.

8evlew of pollcy
guldellnes and
leglslaLlon
need Lo revlew pollcy
guldellnes Lo prlorlLlse
avallablllLy and
allocaLlon of specLrum
for broadband servlces
Laklng lnLo accounL
markeL-based specLrum
allocaLlon prlclng
MolC, lCCk
2013
Commun|ty
8ased Cperators
uevolve ownershlp of
lnfrasLrucLure and
servlces Lo Lhe grassrooLs
and counLles
no speclflc pollcy
LhaL encourages
lnvesLmenLs ln lC1
aL grassrooLs
no speclflc leglslaLlon
requlred
Þrovlde for enabllng
pollcy and regulaLory
framework
MolC, lCCk
2013
Standard|sat|on
of IC1 Curr|cu|um
SLandardlsaLlon of
currlculum ln prlmary,
secondary and LerLlary
levels
lC1 Þollcy
Culdellnes (2006)
provldes
sLandardlsaLlon of
lC1 currlculum ln
prlmary, secondary
and LerLlary levels
no speclflc leglslaLlon
requlred
8evlew lC1 Þollcy Lo
provlde for
sLandardlsaLlon of lC1
currlculum aL prlmary,
secondary and LerLlary
levels.
MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, MolC,
Commlsslon for
Plgher LducaLlon
2013


30
Þollcy framework on broadband has been ldenLlfled as a sub-lssue because Lhe currenL
pollcy does noL prlorlLlze deploymenL of broadband. Whlle broadband ls menLloned ln
secLlon 3.8 of Lhe lC1 Þollcy Culdellnes (2006) where lL has sLaLed LhaL ºLo faclllLaLe
access Lo affordable lnLerneL servlces Lhe CovernmenL wlll encourage Lhe deploymenL
of broadband access Lechnologles", new and emerglng Lechnologles ln relaLlon Lo
broadband developmenL should be consldered. Lmphasls has been glven Lo ulglLal
subscrlber llne on copper, Cable 1v neLworks and SaLelllLe neLworks, and lndusLrlal and
SclenLlflc (lSM) apparaLus frequency band. uue Lo broadband servlce(s) belng a mlnuLe
secLlon of Lhe broader lC1 pollcy, and consolldaLed wlLh oLher servlces such as
broadcasLlng and Lhe posLal servlces whlch are noL as fasL growlng as Lhe broadband
servlce, lL does noL recelve Lhe slgnlflcanL aLLenLlon LhaL lL deserves. ln order Lo address
Lhe lssue, Lhere ls need Lo develop a broadband pollcy framework LhaL shall lead Lo
l!"#$%&' )*' +,#&)!-.*&' /#$0,1 $2 ,1& 345 +&6,$# ,1#$7/1 7,.-.+),.$* $2 8#$)'8)*'
!"#$%&"!'

1he second ldenLlfled sub-lssue ls Lhe legal and regulaLory framework on broadband.
1he currenL klCA 411(a) places emphasls on baslc servlces and has noL consldered
broadband as a baslc servlce. lurLher, Lhere ls no clear leglslaLlve provlslon for publlc
secLor parLlclpaLlon ln relaLlon Lo lnfrasLrucLure/servlces provlslon. CreaLlon of a legal
and regulaLory framework on broadband wlll lead Lo an enhanced lnsLlLuLlonal and legal
framework for pollcy lmplemenLaLlon.

8roadband lnfrasLrucLure ls becomlng a key lssue and needs Lo be managed ln a way
LhaL publlc and prlvaLe lnvesLmenL can be accommodaLed. lor lnsLance, Lhere ls no
lnsLlLuLlonal framework Lo manage publlc-funded lnfrasLrucLure such as Lhe nCl8l,
1LAMs and Lhe upcomlng L1L neLworks.
lssues relaLed Lo way leaves, rlghLs of way, vandallsm, and cable cuLs have hlndered
growLh ln Lhe secLor. ConslderaLlon of lnformaLlon and communlcaLlon Lechnology
lnfrasLrucLure as a crlLlcal naLlonal lnfrasLrucLure wlLhln Lhe legal framework should
address Lhese concerns. 1hls can be reallsed Lhrough harmonlsaLlon wlLh Lhe relevanL
legal lnsLrumenLs lncludlng Lhe 8oads AcL, and Lhe 8ulldlng and ConsLrucLlon AcL.

1he regulaLory lmperaLlve musL, of necesslLy, address Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of affordablllLy
from boLh Lhe access and devlce polnL of vlew. A Lhorough revlew of Lhe prlclng
sLrucLure across Lhe broadband value chaln wlll be necessary Lo ldenLlfy sLrucLural and
cosL lnefflclencles (lncludlng domlnance, wholesale/reLall prlclng, fundlng sLrucLures eLc)
whlch conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe hlgh cosL of broadband servlces and hence creaLe arLlflclal
barrlers Lo access. 1he currenL lC1 Þollcy seems Lo downplay Lhls lmporLanL regulaLory
requlremenL and lnsLead focuses on oLher cosL lnhlblLlons such as flscal pollcy and cosL
of requlslLe requlremenLs such as energy. lL wlll also be useful Lo seL LargeLs LhaL seek Lo
base prlces as a percenLage of average monLhly lncomes.

1o address Lhe pollcy, legal and regulaLory lssue and relaLed sub-lssues, Lhe ob[ecLlves
and sLraLegles Lo be pursued and ouLcomes Lo be reallzed are summarlsed ln 1able 7.
31

1ab|e 7: Strategy for Þo||cy, Lega| and kegu|atory Lnv|ronment

Sub-Issue Cb[ect|ve Lxpected Cutcome Strateg|es
!"#$%&
!"#$%&'"( '*
!!"#$%#&$
!"#"$%&
!"#$%!$&%
!"#$%&
!"#$%&'"(
!"#$%&'( *+(
!"#$%&'()$* ,#-."/
!" $%& '()*!+


• !"#$"% '() '*$+( ,-" .',$!"#$
!"#$%&'()$" '"+ ,$&&-").'()$"/ 0$1).2
!"#$%&#'%( *+ ,%-&%.* #(("%( +-
!"#$%!$&%
• !"#$%# $ '$%()*$+ ,")$-.$*- /)+(01
• !"#"$%&" () $"&*()%+ %), *)-"$)%-*()%+
!"#$%&'"() !'" +',,#-'"#./'0 '0
!"#$%!$&%
!"#$% $'(
!"#$%&'(!)
!"#$%&'"( '*
!!"#$%#&$
!"#"$%& !"#$!
!"# %&'()!*+%,
!"#$%&'"( '*
!"#$%!$&%
!"#$"%&'
!"#$!$%$!&"'( '"* (+,'(
!"#$%&'"( !'" *'+,-.
!"#$%"%&'('!)&


• !"#$"% '() '*$+( ",$-.$(+ *"+$-*'.$/(
!"#$%& ($)*+,&-.*$ &$/ 0*,,1$.2&-.*$
!"# %!& '((! )*+ ,#-./ /.0.1)*# !"#2
!"#" %&'() *+,- ./01(02# '2(
!"#$%&'(%)"# +(%, -)%. %./
!"#$%!"&"'() +, (-" '". /+')(%($(%+'
!"# %!&'("!) *+(!#*!"# ,()'-.
• !"#$"% '() '*$+( ,"*"#'(- ,"+.*'-$/(0
!"#$ #$& '&()"'&*&+#, -. /&0",/1#"-+

3.S IINANCL AND INVLS1MLN1

3.S.1 Current Status

Clobally, mosL governmenLs have recognlzed Lhe need Lo fund core lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
lncludlng broadband. ln kenya Lhe governmenL was a key shareholder ln laylng Lhe flrsL
submarlne flbre opLlc cable - Lhe LasL Afrlcan Submarlne Cable SysLem (LASSy).
CurrenLly, Lhe presence of a sLable flnanclal sysLem, a llberal regulaLory framework for
publlc-prlvaLe parLnershlps and Lhe prevalllng enLrepreneurlal splrlL provlde lncenLlves
for oLher lnLeresLed players Lo lnvesL ln broadband.

Whereas Lhere are emerglng SMLs ln Lhe lC1 secLor boosLed by Lhe lnherenL
enLrepreneurshlp culLure, Lhese enLerprlses are sLlfled by lack of local lnvesLmenL funds
and venLure caplLal Lo boosL Lhelr growLh. 1he unavallablllLy of funds and Lhe generally
llmlLed managemenL capaclLy lmpacLs negaLlvely on Lhe adopLlon of lC1 appllcaLlons by
SMLs.

Pavlng a counLrywlde hlgh capaclLy backbone Lo supporL hlgh-speed broadband servlces
wlll creaLe boLh opporLunlLles and challenges for Lhe counLry. 1o sLarL wlLh, Lhere are
opporLunlLles for exlsLlng operaLors and new lnvesLors Lo parLlclpaLe ln exLendlng Lhe
broadband backbone and lasL mlle neLworks. 1he counLy governmenLs also have an
opporLunlLy Lo flnance, promoLe and roll-ouL broadband servlces ln Lhelr locallLles, and
32
leverage on Lhe neLwork Lo promoLe local and cross counLy Lrade and lnvesLmenL. ln
Lerms of naLlonal lnvesLmenL, Lhe CovernmenL and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons have an
opporLunlLy Lo leverage on Lhelr resources Lhrough creaLlve flnanclal lnlLlaLlves such as a
broadband lnfrasLrucLure bond. lurLhermore, Lhere ls an opporLunlLy Lo provlde pollcy
and leglslaLlve frameworks LhaL reduce Lhe cosL of deploylng neLworks by encouraglng
sharlng of lnfrasLrucLure and specLrum Lo ensure greaLer coverage and affordable
broadband servlces Lo all kenyans ln llne wlLh vlslon 2030.

As kenya advances Lowards belng a newly lndusLrlallsed naLlon, Lhe grappllng for
governmenL resources for lC1s shall perslsL conslderlng Lhe compeLlLlon needs and
prlorlLlsaLlon wlLh oLher baslc and fundamenLal needs.

3.S.2 Strategy

1he flfLh sLraLeglc lssue focuses on Lhe flnance and lnvesLlng aspecLs relaLed Lo Lhe
broadband sub-secLor. 1he LoLal fundlng requlred Lo deploy Lhe requlslLe broadband
lnfrasLrucLure uslng boLh flbre and L1L Lechnologles, underLake naLlonal capaclLy
bulldlng and awareness, as well as conLenL and lnnovaLlons wlLhln Lhe flrsL flve years ls
kenya Shllllngs Lwo hundred and flfLy bllllon (ksh. 230 bllllon). AvallablllLy of funds ls
Lherefore crlLlcal Lo Lhe overall execuLlon and acLuallzaLlon of Lhe broadband sLraLegy.
AnoLher flnanclal aspecL relaLes Lo Lhe use of lC1s wlLhln Lhe llnanclal SecLor. ln
addresslng Lhls lssue, sLraLegles are provlded for fundlng lC1 pro[ecLs relaLed Lo
broadband, and lncrease ln Lhe use of lC1 Lo dellver servlces by flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons.

AL Lhe momenL Lhere ls very llLLle fundlng allocaLed Lo lC1 pro[ecLs by flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlons. 1here seems Lo be very llmlLed undersLandlng of Lhe lC1 value proposlLlon
by Lhe flnanclal secLor - and Lhls mlghL be Lhe reason behlnd low lnLeresL ln fundlng lC1
relaLed pro[ecLs. 1o address Lhls lssue, Lhere ls need Lo sLlmulaLe ÞrlvaLe SecLor
lnvesLmenLs and promoLe Þubllc, ÞrlvaLe ÞarLnershlps (ÞÞÞs) wlLhln Lhe lC1 SecLor. 1he
expecLed ouLcome ls Lo see an lncrease ln Lhe amounL of lnvesLmenLs golng lnLo Lhe lC1
secLor parLlcularly wlLh regard Lo broadband relaLed pro[ecLs.

varlous sLraLegles addresslng Lhls lnclude developlng lnnovaLlve flnanclal lnsLrumenLs
such as launchlng a 8roadband lnfrasLrucLure 8ond, a 8roadband venLure CaplLal lund
and explolLlng exlsLlng lnsLrumenLs such as Lhe CrowLh LnLerprlse MarkeL avallable
wlLhln Lhe CaplLal MarkeLs. Clobally, governmenLs are Lhe largesL slngle users of lC1s.
1he kenyan governmenL currenLly spends 0.3° of Lhe naLlonal budgeL on lC1s. 1hls
sLraLegy wlll ensure LhaL governmenL spends aL leasL 3° of lLs overall budgeL on lC1s
and broadband wlLhln Lhe flrsL flve years. AnoLher sLraLegy lnvolves developlng and
promoLlng llnkages beLween Lhe lC1 secLor and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons. 1hls ls expecLed Lo
faclllLaLe and deepen Lhe appreclaLlon of Lhe lC1 value proposlLlons on Lhe parL of
flnanclers.

33
1he second sub-lssue looks aL how flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons can lncrease Lhe use of lC1s Lo
dellver Lhelr servlces. Whereas Lhere ls parLlal auLomaLlon of flnanclal servlces ln
governmenL and prlvaLe enLerprlses, Lhere remalns a large pool of flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons
LhaL have noL fully auLomaLed Lhelr flnanclal operaLlons. Speclflcally, many SACCCs,
Mlls and Þenslon lund Schemes are yeL Lo auLomaLe Lo a level where Lhelr cllenLs can
access Lhelr flnanclal servlces over Lhe lnLerneL. 1o address Lhls lssue, Lhere ls need Lo
fosLer developmenL and use of lC1s wlLhln Lhe llnanclal SecLor. 1he expecLed ouLcome
wlll be Lo see wldespread uLlllzaLlon of lC1s ln Lhe dellvery of flnanclal servlces.

1he sLraLegles addresslng Lhls sub-lssue lnclude ensurlng LhaL CovernmenL provldes
compleLe auLomaLlon of lLs flnanclal operaLlons Lo enable clLlzens Lo fully compleLe
flnanclally-relaLed LransacLlons onllne. AnoLher sLraLegy ls Lo provlde local banks wlLh a
naLlonal ÞaymenL CaLeway Lo enable cusLomers Lo share banklng lnfrasLrucLure such as
A1Ms, amongsL oLhers. A sLraLegy Lo encourage medlum-slzed flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons Lo
share resources such as cloud-compuLlng-based servlces ls envlsloned. A flnal sLraLegy ls
Lo ensure LhaL all e-flnanclal-relaLed leglslaLlon such as e-1ransacLlon, e-Crlme and uaLa
ÞroLecLlon AcL are ln place by Lhe year 2017.

1o address flnanclng and lnvesLmenL sLraLeglc lssues and relaLed sub-lssues, Lhe
ob[ecLlves and sLraLegles Lo be pursued and Lhe ouLcomes Lo be reallzed are
summarlzed ln 1able 8.


1ab|e 8: Strategy for I|nanc|ng and Investment

Sub-|ssue Cb[ect|ves Cutcomes Strateg|es
llnanclng of lC1
pro[ecLs
1o sLlmulaLe
ÞrlvaLe
lnvesLmenLs &
ÞromoLe ÞÞÞs
wlLhln Lhe lC1
secLor
lncreased
lnvesLmenLs ln Lhe
lC1 SecLor
! uevelop lnnovaLlve flnanclal
fundlng mechanlsms (e.g.
8roadband lnfrasLrucLure 8onds,
CovL. SupporLed 8roadband
venLure CaplLal lund).
! LxplolL exlsLlng lnnovaLlve
flnanclal mechanlsms (e.g.
CrowLh LnLerprlse MarkeL from
nSL)
! CperaLlonallze Lhe uSl Lo avall
opporLunlLy for exLendlng
broadband coverage.
! Lnhance Lhe role of CovernmenL
ln promoLlng broadband-relaLed
lnvesLmenLs.
! uevelop llnkages beLween Lhe
flnanclal and Lhe lC1 secLors.
! uevelop lC1-relaLed lnsurance
schemes
! uevolved funds for reglonal
pro[ecLs
34
Sub-|ssue Cb[ect|ves Cutcomes Strateg|es
lC1-relaLed
flnanclal
servlces and
appllcaLlons
1o fosLer Lhe
developmenL and
use of lC1
flnanclal servlces
and appllcaLlons
Wldespread
uLlllzaLlon of lC1s ln
Lhe dellvery of
flnanclal servlces
! ÞromoLe & expand Lhe use of
lC1s ln governmenL-relaLed
flnanclal LransacLlons
! 1lghLen securlLy of flnanclal
sysLems Lhrough cyber-relaLed
leglslaLlon & enforcemenL
! ÞromoLe Lhe use of shared lC1
flnanclal appllcaLlons amongsL
Mlls/SACCCS/SMLs
! ÞromoLe collaboraLlon amongsL
servlce provlders wlLhln Lhe
llnanclal SecLor


35
4. S1kA1LG¥ IMÞLLMLN1A1ICN

4.1 IMÞLLMLN1A1ICN ÞLAN

An lmplemenLaLlon plan has been developed speclflc Lo Lhe flve sLraLeglc lssues ln
SecLlon 3. 1able 9 hlghllghLs flagshlp pro[ecLs based on Lhe flve sLraLeglc areas ouLllnlng
Lhe ob[ecLlves, expecLed ouLcomes and lmplemenLlng agencles.

1he consolldaLed 2013-2017 lmplemenLaLlon plan ls presenLed ln 1able 10. lL shows Lhe
ouLcomes, performance lndlcaLors for each ouLcome, LargeLs Lo be achleved over Lhe
plan perlod and Lhe persons/offlces responslble for achlevlng Lhese LargeLs.

1ab|e 9: N8S Þro[ects for M1Þ 2013 - 2017
Þro[ect 1|t|e Cb[ect|ves Lxpected Cutcome Imp|ement|ng Agency
Infrastructure and Connect|v|ty
naLlonal llbre
8ackbone
2

uevelop a robusL lC1
backbone
lnfrasLrucLure
LxLenslon of nCl8l Lo all dlsLrlcL headquarLers
lncreased lnvesLmenL by prlvaLe secLor Lo
exLend lC1 8ackbone lnfrasLrucLure Lo achleve
LargeL of 30,000kM
MolC, kenya lC1 8oard

ÞrlvaLe SecLor
Wlreless
8roadband
neLwork
3
- L1L
Plgh Speed
8roadband for all
8roadband wlreless naLlonal neLwork MolC/ ÞÞÞ
CCk
naLlonal uaLa
CenLres
4

1o hosL local conLenL
rellably
2 neuLral naLlonal daLa cenLres MolC, kenya lC1 8oard
ulglLlzaLlon of core
CovernmenL
8eglsLrles
1o avall crlLlcal publlc
servlce dellvery daLa
ln dlglLal form and
develop appllcaLlons
Lo enhance access
All mlnlsLrles and agencles Lo dlglLlze Lhelr
core reglsLrles.
ulrecLoraLe of e-
CovernmenL
uevelopmenL of a
CounLy
ManagemenL
lnformaLlon SysLem
1o develop a robusL
managemenL
lnformaLlon sysLem
for counLles
lmplemenLaLlon of a robusL lMS ln every
counLy LhaL promoLes Lransparency,
accounLablllLy and equlLy
ulrecLoraLe of e-
CovernmenL
CounLy CovernmenLs
Innovat|on
LsLabllshmenL of
open-access lC1
lncubaLors ln publlc
unlverslLles and
speclal economlc
zones across Lhe
counLry
1o esLabllsh a vlbranL
lnnovaLlon ecosysLem
LhaL Laps local LalenL
Lo address local
problems

lC1 lncubaLors ln each publlc unlverslLy







lC1 lncubaLors ln all SLZ
kenya naLlonal
lnnovaLlon Agency
Þubllc unlverslLles -
Mol unlverslLy,
unlverslLy of nalrobl,
!kuA1, Maseno
unlverslLy, LgerLon
unlverslLy, kenyaLLa
unlverslLy, Maslnde

2
ICT Board is currently handling NOFBI (Phase2) projects
3
Discussions are already underway on an open LTE network for Kenya
4
ICT Board is currently handling the National Data Centre Projects
36
Þro[ect 1|t|e Cb[ect|ves Lxpected Cutcome Imp|ement|ng Agency
Mullro unlverslLy of
Sclence & 1echnology
SLZ
Capac|ty 8u||d|ng
ulglLal llLeracy 1o lncrease Lhe dlglLal
llLeraLe populaLlon
10 mllllon kenyans Lralned ln lC1 llLeracy L-governmenL
ulrecLoraLe
All 1vL1 & 11C musL lncorporaLe lC1 Lralnlng MoL
Lnhanclng hlgh-end
1echnlcal Skllls
CreaLe sLandards and
guldellnes for lC1
currlcula
lmplemenLaLlon and
assessmenL aL all
educaLlon levels ln
llne wlLh global
sLandards
CuallLy assurance
uevelopmenL of currlcula LhaL allgns skllls
wlLh lndusLry demands


MoL & CPL
CreaLe a model lC1
resource cenLre per
ward
1o lncrease access
and acceleraLe dlglLal
llLeracy
LsLabllsh lC1 cenLres ln all wards

CounLy governmenL
Iund|ng
8roadband
lnfrasLrucLure 8ond
ksh.70 8llllon
fundralslng for
broadband sLraLegy
lmplemenLaLlon
lncreased peneLraLlon of broadband
llnanclng Lhe expanslon of nCl8l, publlc
moblle broadband wlreless, esLabllshmenL of
daLa cenLres
MlnlsLry of llnance,
CenLral 8ank of kenya
CovernmenL
SupporLed venLure
CaplLal lund for
8roadband servlces
ksh.30 8llllon
fundralslng for
8roadband sLraLegy
lmplemenLaLlon
lncreased esLabllshmenL of a broadband vC
fund
MlnlsLry of llnance,
CenLral 8ank of kenya
ÞrlvaLe SecLor
Lega| and kegu|atory keforms
8lghLs and
lundamenLal
lreedoms ln
general

All rlghLs recognlzed
under Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon.
Þollcy gap on
fosLerlng creaLlvlLy
and arLlsLlc expresslon
(A.33 and A.11)
LsLabllshmenL of pollcy on creaLlvlLy and
arLlsLlc expresslon
CreaLlvlLy & arLlsLlc
expresslon pollcy-
MolC, and MlnlsLry of
SLaLe for naLlonal
PerlLage and CulLure

lnLellecLual
ÞroperLy 8lghLs
LffecLlve enforcemenL
e.g. lÞ8s.

8ulld capaclLy for lÞ8 lÞ8 - MlnlsLry of 1rade,
klÞl, oLher sLakeholders
(conLlnuous)
lncluslon of speclal
groups
Allgn wlLh
ConsLlLuLlonal
recognlLlon of Lhese
groups
Þollcy and leglslaLlon Lo be revlewed Lo caLer
for requlremenLs of ÞWu and oLher speclal
groups ln uslng lC1 servlces e.g. e-AccesslblllLy
Þollcy and LeglslaLlon
MolC, nCÞWu
lnfrasLrucLure
sharlng
CpLlmlzaLlon of
uLlllzaLlon of lC1
lnfrasLrucLure and
envlronmenLal
susLalnablllLy
llnallzaLlon of Lhe drafL pollcy on
lnfrasLrucLure sharlng and lmplemenLaLlon
lmplemenLaLlon of lndusLry Code of ÞracLlce
CCk
LnvlronmenLal
susLalnablllLy
LnvlronmenLal
susLalnablllLy
LsLabllshmenL of e-wasLe managemenL pollcy
and regulaLlons
nLMA
CCk
Co-ordlnaLlon ln ParmonlzaLlon of Lase Lhe developmenL & deploymenL of lC1 MolC, CCk, CounLy
37
Þro[ect 1|t|e Cb[ect|ves Lxpected Cutcome Imp|ement|ng Agency
lnfrasLrucLure
deploymenL
counLy and cenLral
governmenL lssues as
Lhey relaLe Lo lC1 e.g.
roads auLhorlLles, way
leaves, cable and plpe
locaLlng devlces, safe
dlgglng pracLlce,
assoclaLed levles
lnfrasLrucLures ln counLles

Parmonlze & sLandardlze way leave fees ln all
counLles
CovernmenLs
naLlonal co-
ordlnaLlon ln
complemenLary
lnfrasLrucLure
deploymenL
Amend leglslaLlon Lo
requlre provlders of
physlcal lnfrasLrucLure
(roads, rallway,
plpellnes, power llnes,
properLy developers)
Lo make provlslon for
fuLure lnsLallaLlon of
lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
AmendmenL of 8oads AcL Lo caLer for Lhe
provlslon of lC1 lnfrasLrucLure along and
across roads.

LnacL leglslaLlon Lo mandaLe provlslon for
ducLs for lC1 lnfrasLrucLure ln developmenL of
rallway, power llnes

Amend Lhe 8ulldlng AcL Lo ensure properLy
developers make provlslons for lC1
lnfrasLrucLure.
MolC, MlnlsLry of
8oads


MlnlsLry of 1ransporL,
Lnergy, L8C, MolC

MolC & MlnlsLry of
Pouslng
1rusL and SecurlLy 8ecognlLlon of lC1 as
crlLlcal naLlonal
lnfrasLrucLure and
puLLlng ln place
approprlaLe
leglslaLlon.
ÞuL a provlslon ln klCA deslgnaLlng lC1
lnfrasLrucLure as crlLlcal lnfrasLrucLure
MolC
lC1 lnvesLmenL on
compllmenLary
servlces: Lnergy,
8oads
Parmonlsed pollcles
and leglslaLlon relaLed
Lo energy, roads and
lC1, as approprlaLe.
Speclflc provlslon for
rebaLes for energy
and road deploymenL
by lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
provlders
Þrovlslon of
caLegorlsaLlon of lC1
servlces as hlgh
energy users (speclal
Larlff)

LsLabllsh a framework for rebaLes for energy
and road deploymenL by lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
provlders

LsLabllshmenL of framework Lo caLegorlze
energy users recognlzlng consumpLlon levels
MolC, L8C, MlnlsLrles of
llnance, Lnergy and
8oads

unlversal Access llnallze revlew and
adopLlon of naLlonal
broadband pollcy
A pollcy framework LhaL addresses naLlonal
broadband lssues
MolC
Þrovlde for robusL and
hollsLlc approach ln
Lhe use, managemenL
and governance of
uSl as well as
lmplemenLaLlon of
leglslaLlon
CperaLlonallze uSl MolC, CCk
38
Þro[ect 1|t|e Cb[ect|ves Lxpected Cutcome Imp|ement|ng Agency
SpecLrum Þrovlslon of adequaLe
specLrum for moblle
broadband servlces
Avall a specLrum plan on avallablllLy and
allocaLlon of specLrum for broadband servlces
Laklng lnLo accounL markeL-based specLrum
allocaLlon prlclng
MolC, CCk
Cpen Access Þollcy framework on
open access
Access by all Lo naLlonal backbone neLworks CCk, MolC
Cperat|ona||z|ng the N8S
lnsLlLuLlonallzaLlon
of Lhe n8S
Lnhance capaclLy of
Lhe vlslon 2030 lC1
secreLarlaL
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe n8S MolC, CCk
lnfrasLrucLure
ManagemenL
Co-ordlnaLe publlc
lnfrasLrucLure
developmenL and
managemenL
LfflclenL and effecLlve uLlllzaLlon of publlc
fundlng ln lC1 lnfrasLrucLure
MolC, CCk


1ab|e 10: Med|um 1erm (2013 - 2017) Imp|ementat|on Þ|an

1. Infrastructure, Connect|v|ty and Dev|ces

Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
Çua||ty
S

broadband
network
lmproved
quallLy of llfe
ln Lhe way
clLlzens work,
llve and learn
Mlnlmum
broadband
speed (8ural)
6

236 kbps
7



3 Mbps 2017 MolC, CounLy
CovernmenLs,
ÞrlvaLe SecLor
Mlnlmum
broadband
speed (urban)
236 kbps 40 Mbps 2017
Coord|nat|on
and comp||-
mentary
serv|ces
8educed cosL
of deploylng &
operaLlng Lhe
broadband
neLwork
no. of Clvll
Works wlLh
uaLa
Þrovlslonlng
none 60° 2017 MolC




MlnlsLry of Lnergy


MlnlsLry of Þubllc
Works

CounLy
CovernmenLs,
ÞrlvaLe SecLor
no. of
CperaLors
sharlng
common/core
lnfrasLrucLure
none 70° 2017
° of broadband
neLwork
supporLed by
Lhe naLlonal
power grld and
road neLwork
60° 93° 2017
Access|b|||ty lncreased ° of 6.3°
8
33° 2017 ÞrlvaLe SecLor,

5
CÞCn, wlmax, wlfl, 3C already exlsL for 'hlgh' bandwldLh dellvery, L1L ls ln Lhe process of belng seL up.
6
1he sparse populaLlon ln mosL rural areas makes lL dlfflculL Lo glve Lhe same capaclLy as urban areas.
(hLLp://www.oecd.org/lnLerneL/broadbandandLelecom/44381793.pdf)
7
Source: CuarLerly SecLor reporL (CCk) C4 2012
39
Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
and
affordab|||ty
demand for
and use of
broadband
servlces
peneLraLlon by
households
MolC, CounLy
CovernmenLs
° of
peneLraLlon by
Schools
43.40°
9
100° 2017 MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon
° of
peneLraLlon by
healLh faclllLles
100° 2017 MlnlsLry of PealLh
° of broadband
subscrlpLlons
(populaLlon)

10
23° 2017 lCCk
° of geographlc
coverage
(populaLlon)
12° 23° 2017 lCCk
CosL per Mbps
ln relaLlon Lo
average lncome
30°
11
of
average
naLlonal
lncome




10°
12
2017 lCCk
Spectrum
13
More open
and
LransparenL
specLrum
managemenL
3yr specLrum
reporL and
forecasL reporL
ln response Lo
Lhe LargeLs
1 1 2017 lCCk
Ava||ab|||ty
and re||ab|||ty
A rlch,
lnLerrupLlon-
free
broadband
experlence
no. of acLlve
submarlne
landlng sLaLlon
locaLlons
14

1 2 2017 ÞrlvaLe secLor,
MolC
no. of
submarlne flbre
resLoraLlon
rouLes
13

4 6 2017 ÞrlvaLe secLor,
MolC,
no. of dlverse
rouLes Lo Lhe 47
4 2 2017 ÞrlvaLe secLor,
MolC, CounLy CovL.

8
Source: 2010 lC1 Survey (page 22)
9
Source: 2010 lC1 Survey (page 49)
10
Source: CuarLerly SecLor reporL (CCk) C4 2012
11
Source:
12
Average cosL of lnLerneL per Mbps ls ksh 3000. Average lncome ls ksh. 8000 - used Lo calculaLe Lhe
basellne
13
lor moblle, Lhe specLrum ls allocaLed as follows: - (3Mhz ln 800, 23Mhz ln 900, 40Mhz ln 1800,30Mhz ln
2100) 8and. kÞl ls Lo geL aL leasL 1 publlshed reporL from CCk/lCCk wlLh a full specLrum plan for Lhe M1Þ
14
lL was noLed LhaL all landlng sLaLlons are aL Mombasa, oLhers aL locaLlons llke Mallndl, Lamu, klllfl,
Shlmonl and Lungalunga were proposed by 2032
13
1he currenL ones as aL CcLober 2012 are: Seacom, LASS?, 1LAMS, LlCn
40
Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
counLles -
naLlonal
16

number of
neuLral naLlonal
daLa cenLres
17

1 2 2017 CounLy CovL.,
Servlce Þrovlders,
MolC
no. of cross
border
connecLlon
polnLs per
nelghbourlng
counLry
18

1 2 2017 ÞrlvaLe secLor,
MolC
CuallLy of
Servlce
19

99° 2017 Servlce Þrovlders,
lCCk

naLlonal
peerlng polnLs
20

3 2017 ÞrlvaLe secLor,
MolC


2. Content, App||cat|ons and Innovat|on

Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
Ava||ab|||ty of
|oca| content
|n d|g|ta|
form
lncreased
avallablllLy
of local
dlglLal
conLenL

° of reglsLered
kenyan
buslnesses LhaL
are onllne
n/a
21
73° 2017 kLnlC
° of webslLes ln
local languages
n/a 20° 2017 MlnlsLry of SLaLe
for naLlonal
PerlLage and
CulLure
° of local
languages wlLh
onllne conLenL
n/a 73° 2017 MlnlsLry of SLaLe
for naLlonal
PerlLage and
CulLure
° of broadcasL
conLenL LhaL ls
local
16°
22
40° 2017 lCCk
° of onllne n/a 20° 2017 CuL, kLnL1

16
A physical route connecting all 47 counties to ensure redundancy, scalability and improved service levels
for citizens
17
KDN is the only truly neutral data centre that meets international standards. The government is in the
process of building another one. Ref: ICT Board representatives at the technical working group.
18
Connections to each country have to be redundant. The strategy proposes having at least two links per
crossing.
19
For QOS, all parameters taken have to meet the standards 99% of the time. For example, if say the delay
is 10ms, one has to meet that 99% of the time. ICCK will use these guidelines to come up with specific
SLA’s for Service Providers. They will also decide on how to measure the parameters.
20
More exchange points and peering will be needed whether public or private. SLAs will cater for public
peering points that will be distributed at strategic points in the country.
21
Online businesses as a percentage of total registered businesses in Kenya.
22
Synovate Media Research Report, September 2012.
41
Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
educaLlonal
programs
° of culLural
herlLage
lnsLlLuLlons wlLh
onllne
presence
23

n/a 30° 2017 MlnlsLry of SLaLe
for naLlonal
PerlLage and
CulLure
Access to
|oca| d|g|ta|
content
lncreased
avallablllLy
of
appllcaLlons
LhaL serve
dlglLal
conLenL
CuallLy
Assurance
Culdellnes for
onllne
appllcaLlons
n/a Approved
Culdellnes
2014 ulrecLoraLe of e-
CovernmenL
° of publlc
servlce
appllcaLlons
LhaL meeL
unlversal
accesslblllLy
requlremenLs
24

n/a 100° 2017 ulrecLoraLe of e-
CovernmenL
° of publlc
servlce
appllcaLlons
hosLed ln
governmenL
daLa cenLres
n/a 100° 2017 ulrecLoraLe of e-
CovernmenL
SecLor-speclflc
lncenLlves for
buslnesses Lo
offer onllne
servlces
n/a Approved
and
adopLed
lncenLlves
2014 SLaLe ueparLmenLs
° lncrease ln
onllne servlces
per secLor
n/a 10° p.a 2017 SLaLe ueparLmenLs
° lncrease ln
onllne
LransacLlons per
secLor
n/a 13° p.a 2017 SLaLe ueparLmenLs
° lncrease ln
ouLgolng Lrafflc
dlfferenLlaLed
by reglons
23

n/a 10° p.a 2017 MolC
° lncrease ln
counLy lnLerneL
Lrafflc accesslng
kenya uaLa
CenLres
n/a 20° p.a 2017 CounLy LxecuLlve ln
charge of lC1

23
Such institutions include museums, historical sites, CBOs etc
24
In this context, universal accessibility requires compliance with bilingualism (Kiswahili and English) as well
as addressing special needs groups e.g. persons with visual or aural disabilities.
25
Regions include EAC, Continental and International
42
Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
° of SLaLe
ueparLmenLs
and agencles
wlLh core
reglsLrles on-
llne
n/a 100° 2017 ulrecLoraLe of e-
CovernmenL
° of CounLles
wlLh core
reglsLrles onllne

0° 100° 2017 CounLy LxecuLlve ln
charge of lC1
° of populaLlon
lnLeracLlng wlLh
governmenL vla
locallzed soclal
medla plaLforms
n/a 30° 2017 SLaLe ueparLmenLs
Unstructured
|nnovat|on
va|ue cha|n

A
sLrucLured,
well-funded
ecosysLem
LhaL
generaLes
lnnovaLlve
and quallLy
soluLlons Lo
enhance
access Lo
dlglLal
conLenL
CerLlflcaLlon
crlLerla and
guldellnes for
lncubaLors

none Approved
CrlLerla &
Culdellnes
2014 kLnlA
° of CounLles
wlLh cerLlfled
lncubaLor
acLlvlLy

0° 30° 2017 kLnlA
° of successful
lncubaLes
n/a 20°
26
2017 kLnlA


3. Capac|ty 8u||d|ng and Awareness


Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
D|g|ta|
L|teracy
A dlglLally-
llLeraLe
clLlzenry
capable of
parLlclpaLlng
ln a
knowledge-
based socleLy
° of
populaLlon
LhaL ls dlglLally
llLeraLe
n/a 40° of LoLal
populaLlon
27

2017 L-governmenL
ulrecLoraLe,
MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, ÞÞÞs
° of prlmary
school
populaLlon
LhaL ls dlglLally
llLeraLe
n/a 19° prlmary
school
populaLlon
28

2017 MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, ÞÞÞs
° of n/a 38° secondary 2017 MlnlsLry of

26
This estimate is informed by reports from Kauffmann Foundation (2012) and Gompers et al. (2006)
27
Assumption: On average, 1,905,277 citizens will be trained annually, and a similar number will go through
alternative training programs
28
Estimated 5% public and 80% private enrolments have access to computers, primary school curriculum
will be rolled out in 2013
43
Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
secondary
school
populaLlon
LhaL ls dlglLally
llLeraLe
school
populaLlon
29

LducaLlon, ÞÞÞs
° of 1vL1
populaLlon
LhaL ls dlglLally
llLeraLe
n/a 60° of 1vL1
populaLlon
30

2017 MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, ÞÞÞs
° of 11C
populaLlon
LhaL ls dlglLally
llLeraLe
n/a 100° of 11Cs
populaLlon
31

2013 MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, ÞÞÞs
1echn|ca|
expert|se
lncreased
hlgh-end
Lechnlcal
LalenL Lo
develop,
manage and
malnLaln
broadband
servlces
AdopLed and
lmplemenLed
sLandards for
lC1 currlcula
n/a LsLabllshed
sLandards for
lC1 currlcula
lmplemenLaLlo
n and
assessmenL aL
all hlgher
educaLlon
levels
32

2014 MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, ÞÞÞs
Awareness lmproved
awareness of
Lechnologles,
servlces, and
appllcaLlons aL
all levels and
secLors
° lncrease of
usage
n/a ° lncrease of
usage of
Lechnologles,
servlces, and
appllcaLlons aL
all levels and
secLors
33

2013-
2017
MolC , e-
CovernmenL
ulrecLoraLe, lCCk
° of
populaLlon
aware
n/a 80° of Lhe
naLlonal
populaLlon
aware of
exlsLlng and
emerglng
Lechnologles,
servlces, and
appllcaLlons aL
all levels and
secLors
MolC ,L-
CovernmenL
ulrecLoraLe, klC1
8oard, lCCk, Medla
Cwners AssoclaLlon
Coord|nat|on
of, and access
to capac|ty
lmproved
coordlnaLlon
of capaclLy
number of
coordlnaLed
lnlLlaLlves
n/a 3 naLlon-wlde
lnlLlaLlves ln
each counLy
2013-
2017
MolC, MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, L-
CovernmenL

29
Estimated 33% public and 80% private enrolments have access to computers, secondary school
curriculum will be rolled out in 2014
30
TVET curriculum will be implemented by 2014
31
Only 22 TTCs and all must implement curriculum by 2014
32
Standards to be implemented by all middle level colleges, polytechnics and universities offering IT related
courses
33
1he governmenL wlll deploy all mandaLory e-governmenL servlces for access by clLlzens
44
Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
bu||d|ng and
awareness
act|v|t|es
bulldlng
lnlLlaLlves
lmproved
access Lo
quallLy
capaclLy-
bulldlng and
awareness
servlces
annually ulrecLoraLe, CounLy
CovernmenL
ConsolldaLed
daLabase
n/a A naLlonal
daLabase of
capaclLy
bulldlng and
awareness
lnlLlaLlves
2013-
2014
MolC, MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, L-
CovernmenL
ulrecLoraLe, ÞÞÞs
number of
prlmary
schools
340
34
1 equlpped
prlmary school
per sub-
locaLlon per
year
33

2013-
2017
MolC, CounLy
CovernmenL, Þubllc
ÞrlvaLe
ÞarLnershlps
number of
secondary
schools
1430
36
1 equlpped
secondary
school per
ward per year
37

2013-
2017
MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, CounLy
CovernmenL, Þubllc
ÞrlvaLe
ÞarLnershlps
number of
cenLres
37 pasha
cenLres, 10
knLS
cenLres
780 cenLres
38
2013-
2017
MolC, MlnlsLry of
LducaLlon, L-
governmenL
ulrecLoraLe



4. Þo||cy, Lega| and kegu|atory Lnv|ronment


Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
!"#$%&
!"#$%&'"( '*
!!"#$%#&$


!"#$%&'( *+(
!"#$%&'()$*
!"#$%& #( )*+
!"#$%&


!" $%%&'()*
!"#$%&
!"#$%&'"( !'"
!"#$%!$&%



!"##$%& ()*+,-
!"# %&'
!"#$%!&#'(
!""#$%%$"
!"#$%!$&%
!""#$" !!!!
!!"#$#%& (#)*
!"#$"%& &(
!"!#$% '"(
!"#$% #!' (")
!"#$%&'()*
!"#$ &'(
!"##$%&
!"#$%& ($##
!"#$!% '!
!"#$%"& ()
!""#$%%
!""#$" &'
!!"#$%#&$
!" $% &%'(-
!"#$"#%
!"#$%!$&%
!"#$%&
!"#$%&'"(
!"#$

MolC! !"#"$%&"'$
!" !"#$#%&'
!"#$%& (") *+(),
!"# !"#

34
2° of prlmary schools have access Lo compuLers as reporLed ln Lhe MlnlsLry of LducaLlon Laskforce
reporL (Cok, 2012)
33
AvallablllLy of supporLlng lnfrasLrucLure
36
21° secondary schools have access Lo compuLers as reporLed by a MlnlsLry of LducaLlon workshop
parLlclpanL
37
AvallablllLy of supporLlng lnfrasLrucLure
38
Lach consLlLuency wlll endeavour Lo creaLe Lwo cenLres accesslble Lo lLs consLlLuenLs for e-CovernmenL
servlces
45
!"#$%$&' !"## %&
!"#"$%&"!
!"#$% $'(
!"#$%&'(!)
!"#$%&'"( '*
!!"#$%#&$
!"#$"%&'
!"#$!$%$!&"'( '"*
!"#$! &'$(")*'+
!"# %"&'()
!"#$%"%&'('!)&
!" $%%&!"#$
!"#$! $&'
!"#$%&'(!)
!"#$%&'"( !'"
!"#$%!$&%
!" $%&'(&)*
!"#$%&'(!)
!"#$%&'"( '*
!"#$%!$&%'
!"# %&''(")
!"#$%!&'$() $%
!"#
!"#$%&'()*
Approve a
legal and
regulaLory
framework
for
broadband
!"#$



!"#$ MolC!
!"#"$%&"'$ )*
!"#$#%&' )#&*+,
!"# %&!#'(
!"#$%&
!"#$%&'$&()*
!""#$ #&'() *+,-.&
!"#$%&"' )*+%&%,#-
!"# !""

S. I|nanc|ng and Investments

Sub-Issue Cutcome kÞI 8ase||ne 1arget ¥ear kespons|b|||ty
I|nanc|ng of
IC1 Þro[ects
!"#$%&'%(
!"#$%&'$"&%
!" $%& '()
!"#$%&
° of CovL.
fundlng dlrecLed
Lowards lC1s
0.3° of
naLlonal
8udgeL
!"
!"#
!""#$
39

2013-
2017

MlnlsLry of llnance,
MolC
! #$ %#&'()
!"#$% '()*+),
!"#$%&$! &()*#!+
!"#$
!"#$ !"
!"# %&&'(
2013-
2017

CounLy
CovernmenLs
40

! #$ %&' ()*+,
!" $%!&'$&"'
!"#$%&'(%
!"#$ !"#
!"# %&&'(
2013-
2017

MolC,
lCCk
!"# "%
!!"#$%&#!%
!!"#$% !!"#!"$
!"# %&' ()&%&*)%+
!"#$%&
none 2per ?ear

2013-
2017
lCCk, MolC
! #$%&'()' *+
!"#$%&' )*+
!"#$%&'$"&%
338 ksh/
uSu 0.48
41

10°
per annum
2013-
2017
SLaLe uepL. ln
charge of 1rade
(lÞC), lCCk
Use of IC1s |n
I|nanc|a|
Sector
Wldespread
uLlllzaLlon of
lC1s ln Lhe
dellvery of
llnanclal
Servlces
° of auLomaLed
CovL. flnanclal
LransacLlons
30° of
CovL
flnanclal
LransacLlon
s
60°

2013-
2017

MlnlsLry of llnance,
CounLy CovL.s
no. of e-
LransacLlon
relaLed
leglslaLlon
42

CurrenLly
one
43

1 per year

2013-
2017

MolC,
ALLorney Ceneral,
ÞarllamenL
LsLabllsh a 10° done 100° 2017 kenya 8ankers

39
South Africa, Brazil, and Malaysia govt. spend on ICT is respectively at 1.1%, 1.9% , 5.5% of their
National Budgets, IDC Reports
40
County Government Act (GoK, 2012)
41
CCK Quarterly Report, 2012
42
India, Mauritius and South Africa have independent legislation on Cybercrime, e-Transaction and Data
Protection.
43
Kenya Communications Amendment, Act 2009
46
naLlonal
ÞaymenL
CaLeway
AssoclaLlon,
C8k
° of
Mlls/SACCCS
Sharlng llnanclal
SysLems
44

none 3° per
annum
2013-
2017


Assc. of
Mlcrollnance
lnsLlLuLlons
(AMll)
Saccos 8egulaLory
AuLhorlLy
(SAS8A),
MlnlsLry of Co-
operaLlve
uevelopmenL and
MarkeLlng



4.2 LS1IMA1LD CCS1 CI IMÞLLMLN1A1ICN

1able 11 presenLs Lhe budgeLary requlremenLs for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe n8S.

1ab|e 11: Summary of Lst|mated Cost of Imp|ement|ng the N8S

Items USD kSn
1. Infrastructure (L1L, I11x and 8ackbone) 2,170,200, 000 184,464,600,000
2. Capac|ty 8u||d|ng and Awareness
• 10¼ of Infrastructure costs
217,000,000 18,000,000,000
3. Content App||cat|ons and Innovat|ons
• 20¼ of Infrastructure costs
434,000,000 36,892,900,000
4. Cont|ngency
• 10¼ of Infrastructure costs
217,000,000 18,464,600,000

Grand 1ota| 3,038,200,000 2S7,822,100,000
Lxchange kate (USD]kLS) 83

44
Assumption is that MFIs/SACCOS would be willing to share Software Infrastructure.










47

4.3 INS1I1U1ICNAL IkAMLWCkk

|.) N8S D|rectorate

LsLabllsh a focal overslghL funcLlon LhaL ls afflllaLed Lo Lhe lC1 ulrecLoraLe responslble
for dellvery of Lhe vlslon 2030 pro[ecLs wlLhln Lhe MlnlsLry of lnformaLlon and
CommunlcaLlon. 1he ulrecLoraLe shall be responslble for overseelng and co-ordlnaLlng
Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe n8S and reporLlng Lo Lhe vlslon 2030 uellvery SecreLarlaL.
1hls ls Lhe prevalllng arrangemenL wlLh all vlslon 2030 pro[ecLs. 1he raLlonale for Lhls
lnsLlLuLlonal sLrucLure ls LhaL lL glves focus ln co-ordlnaLlon, monlLorlng and evaluaLlon
ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of n8S. 1he lnsLlLuLlonal framework also allows for Lhe much-
needed dlrecL llalson wlLh Lhe vlslon 2030 uellvery SecreLarlaL for purposes of
harmonlsaLlon wlLh Lhe overall vlslon 2030 ob[ecLlves.


||.) Inst|tut|on to manage pub||c |nfrastructure

LsLabllsh a new lnsLlLuLlon or reform an exlsLlng one Lo carry Lhe mandaLe of managlng
publlc lC1 lnfrasLrucLure such as nCl8l and L1L.
1he beneflLs of Lhls lnsLlLuLlonal arrangemenL lnclude:
! Þro[ecL ownershlp and managemenL
! SLrucLured co-ordlnaLlon
! lnvesLmenL raLlonallsaLlon
! Þrovldlng a one-sLop shop for fuLure lnvesLmenL ln publlc lC1 lnfrasLrucLure

|||.) Cther reforms for new |nst|tut|ona| structure to work

AddlLlonal reforms LhaL have been ldenLlfled wlLhln Lhe LducaLlon secLor and LhaL
are of sLraLeglc lmporLance ln dellverlng Lhe sLraLegy lnclude:
! Make lC1 mandaLory from prlmary level, and
! Lnsure sLandardlsaLlon of lC1 currlculum and dellvery personnel (l.e. Lralners),
parLlcularly aL LerLlary level (prlvaLe unlverslLles, publlc unlverslLles and oLher
LerLlary lnsLlLuLlons) ln order Lo meeL lndusLry requlremenLs.

4.4 kISkS AND MI1IGA1ICN S1kA1LGILS

lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls sLraLegy may be affecLed by varlous rlsks. ln order Lo successfully
lmplemenL Lhe sLraLegy, Lhese rlsks musL be managed. 1able 12 shows Lhe rlsks,
assessmenL of Lhelr serlousness and mlLlgaLlon sLraLegles.



48
1ab|e 12: k|sks and M|t|gat|on Strateg|es

k|sk 1ype Deta||s k|sk
Assess-
ment
M|t|gat|on strateg|es
lnsufflclenL fundlng
of broadband
CommlLmenL from
CovernmenL
ÞollLlcal goodwlll
CompeLlng CovernmenL
prlorlLles
Lack of prlvaLe secLor
lnvesLmenL
Plgh • ÞromoLe CovernmenL buy-ln
• lnLegraLe broadband
sLraLegy lnLo Þerformance
ConLracLlng process
• ÞollLlcal advocacy/lobby
groups
Þoor lmplemenL-
aLlon of broadband
sLraLegy
CapaclLy challenges
Þro[ecL managemenL and
plannlng
ÞrocuremenL delays
Plgh • 8ecrulL compeLenL personnel
• AdopL lnLernaLlonal Þro[ecL
ManagemenL meLhodologles
• Adhere Lo procuremenL
regulaLlons
Lack of supporLlve
pollcy and legal
framework
uelays ln enacLlng leglslaLlon
uelays ln operaLlonallzlng
enacLed leglslaLlon
Plgh • Advocacy and lobbylng
• CovernmenL agencles Lo
operaLlonallze leglslaLlon
SpecLrum avallablllLy Lack of specLrum Lo deploy lasL
mlle soluLlons
Medlum • LxpedlLe Lhe mlgraLlon from
analogue Lo dlglLal
broadcasLlng Lo free up Lhe
dlglLal dlvldend by fundlng
dlglLal broadcasLlng
lnfrasLrucLure and subsldlslng
Lhe purchase of SeL 1op 8oxes
• LxpedlLe frequency re-farmlng
exerclse Lo opLlmlse Lhe
uLlllsaLlon of Lhe already
allocaLed specLrum for
deploymenL of moblle
broadband
Plgh cosL of
lmplemenLaLlon
CosL of lnfrasLrucLure
uupllcaLlon of lnfrasLrucLure
Lack of coordlnaLlon of clvll
works Lo lC1 works
use of ouLdaLed Lechnologles

Medlum • ÞromoLe shared
lnfrasLrucLure
• Þrovlde Lax lncenLlves
• use of AlLernaLlve
1echnologles
• AppolnL coordlnaLlng agency
Slow upLake of
8roadband servlces
Lack of relevanL conLenL
AffordablllLy of broadband
devlces and servlces
Low awareness
Low lC1 llLeracy
Medlum • lmplemenLaLlon of conLenL
sLraLegles lncludlng
developmenL of relevanL
conLenL
• Þrovlde Lax lncenLlves
/subsldles
• ÞromoLe compeLlLlon
• lmplemenL capaclLy bulldlng
sLraLegles
Servlce avallablllLy MalnLenance of lnfrasLrucLure
vandallsm
Medlum • Lnforce SLA
• CperaLlonallze leglslaLlon
49

4.S MCNI1CkING AND LVALUA1ICN

lnsLlLuLlng monlLorlng and evaluaLlon mechanlsms wlLhln Lhe overall sLraLegy wlll
enhance Lhe success of lmplemenLlng Lhe n8S sLraLegy. MonlLorlng and evaluaLlon ls
envlsaged Lo lmprove success of broadband servlces ln kenya by ensurlng susLalnable
change ls achleved ln Lhe dellvery of Lhls n8S sLraLegy.

underplnnlng Lhe monlLorlng and evaluaLlon approach wlll be Lhe use of 8esulLs 8ased
ManagemenL (88M) as has been adopLed ln Lhe publlc secLor Lo achleve key
performance lndlcaLors glven ln 1able 10, resulLlng ln lmproved efflclency and
effecLlveness ln publlc servlce managemenL.

1he key elemenLs of 88M are:
a) Þerformance LargeL seLLlng - Lhe process of seLLlng performance LargeLs for
mlnlsLry deparLmenLs, groups or lndlvlduals ln carrylng ouL speclflc work
asslgnmenLs.
b) Þerformance plannlng - Lhe process of esLabllshlng a shared undersLandlng of
whaL ls Lo be achleved and how lL ls Lo be achleved and managlng resources Lo
ensure successful lmplemenLaLlon.
c) Þerformance monlLorlng and reporLlng.
d) Þerformance appralsal - Lhe process of evaluaLlng organlzaLlon, group or
lndlvldual performance agalnsL predeLermlned LargeLs.

1herefore Lhe CovernmenL-lnsLlLuLed performance managemenL conLracLs approach ls
recommended as a managemenL Lool for ensurlng accounLablllLy for resulLs and
measurlng Lhe exLenL Lo whlch LargeLed resulLs are achleved.

1able 13 ouLllnes Lhe proposed approach Lo monlLorlng and evaluaLlon of Lhe
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe naLlonal broadband sLraLegy, allgned Lo Lhe lnsLlLuLlonal
sLrucLures dlscussed ln secLlon 4.3.

1ab|e 13: Mon|tor|ng and Lva|uat|on Cpt|ons


Mon|tor|ng and Lva|uat|on Components


Inst|tut|ona| Structure
>#:%(-?%,-$(@6(-, #+19$(1-'2+ 7$# ABC %*#$11 %22
1+*,$#1 %(& 2+.+21 $7 D$.+#(5+(,
n8S ulrecLoraLe and vlslon 2030 SecreLarlaL
E$3 3-22 ,0+ ,%#:+,1 '+ (+:$,-%,+& 3-,0 ,0+
.%#-$61 $#:%(-?%,-$(1 #+19$(1-'2+ -( .%#-$61
1+*,$#1 %(& 2+.+21 $7 D$.+#(5+(,
MolC and relevanL MlnlsLrles
E$3 3-22 ,0+ #+%2-?%,-$( $7 ,0+1+ ,%#:+,1 '+
5$(-,$#+&
Annual Þerformance ConLracLs and vlslon 2030
SecreLarlaL
50

S. CCNCLUSICN

8roadband Servlces accesslble Lo all everywhere wlll allow people Lo communlcaLe and
LransacL anywhere, anyLlme ln boLh rural and urban areas of kenya. 1hls wlll ln Lurn spur
soclal and economlc growLh. 8roadband ls Lherefore cruclal for kenya lf we are Lo
progress lnLo a knowledge-based socleLy. lL ls a key caLalysL ln achlevlng vlslon 2030.

lasL-changlng Lechnologles may rapldly see deflnlLlons deflned by speed become
obsoleLe by waves of Lechnologlcal advancemenL, lL ls for Lhls reason LhaL Lhls sLraLegy
proposes regular assessmenL lf lL ls Lo remaln relevanL wlLh Lhe changlng Llmes.

1here ls Lherefore need Lo revlew and evaluaLe Lhe sLraLegy ln a relaLlvely shorL perlod
of Llme. 1hls wlll provlde scope for posslble ad[usLmenLs Lo Lhe sLraLegy as Lechnology
and Lhe markeL may dlcLaLe. lL wlll also provlde for a measure of achlevemenLs for Lhe
overall goals seL ouL ln Lhls sLraLegy.

51

6. ANNLkLS

Annex 1: lnLernaLlonal benchmarks on broadband deflnlLlons
Annex 2: LlsL of abbrevlaLlons
Annex 3: ueflnlLlon of Lerms
Annex 4: Speclflc consLlLuLlonal asplraLlons for lC1s under Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs




52

6.1 IN1LkNA1ICNAL 8LNCnMAkkS CN 8kCAD8AND DLIINI1ICNS

! SouLh korea - almlng for 1 CblL/s by 2012
! AusLralla - almlng for 100 MblL/s (93° by 2018)
! llnland - almlng for 100 MblL/s (medlum Lerm)
! Cermany - almlng for 30 MblL/s (2014, Lhen 100 MblL/s)
! lLaly - 20 Mbs
! ll[l - mlnlmum download speed of 236 kbs

53
6.2 LIS1 CI A88kLVIA1ICNS

A1M - AuLomaLed 1eller Machlne
8ÞC - 8uslness Þrocess CuLsourclng
C8C - CommunlLy-based CrganlsaLlon
CCk - CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon of kenya
CuL - Commlsslon for unlverslLy LducaLlon
CÞL - CusLomer Þremlses LqulpmenL
uÞÞ - ueparLmenL of Þubllc ÞrosecuLlons
L8C - Lnergy 8egulaLory Commlsslon
CuC - CovernmenL uaLa CenLre
Cok - CovernmenL of kenya
CÞCn - ClgablL Þasslve CpLlcal neLwork
P8 - Puman 8esource
lCCk - lndependenL CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon of kenya
lC1 - lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlon 1echnology
lÞ/MÞLS - lnLerneL ÞroLocol/MulLl ÞroLocol Label SwlLchlng
lÞ8 - lnLellecLual ÞroperLy 8lghLs
l1LS - l1 Lnabled Servlces
kLnL1 - kenya LducaLlon neLwork
kLnlA - kenya naLlonal lnnovaLlon Agency
k8C - kenya 8roadcasLlng CorporaLlon
klCA - kenya lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlon AcL
klC18 - kenya lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlon 1echnology
8oard
klL - kenya lnsLlLuLe of LducaLlon
L1L - Long 1erm LvoluLlon
Mll - Mlcroflnance lnsLlLuLlon
MCL - MlnlsLry of LducaLlon
MolC - MlnlsLry of lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlon
MCu - Memorandum of undersLandlng
M1Þ - Medlum 1erm Þlan
n8S - naLlonal 8roadband SLraLegy
nCl8l - naLlonal CpLlcal llbre 8ackbone lnfrasLrucLure
nSL - nalrobl SLock Lxchange
C&M - CperaLlons and MalnLenance
ÞÞÞ - Þubllc ÞrlvaLe ÞarLnershlps
ÞWus - Þersons wlLh ulsablllLy
8&u - 8esearch and uevelopmenL
8llu - 8adlo-lrequency ldenLlflcaLlon
CoS - CuallLy of Servlce
SACCC - Savlngs and CredlL Co-operaLlve
SLA - Servlce Level AgreemenL
SMLs - Small and Medlum LnLerprlses
54
S1L - Sclence, 1echnology and Lnglneerlng
SWC1 - SLrengLhs, Weaknesses, CpporLunlLles and 1hreaLs
1LAMS - 1he LasL Afrlcan Marlne SysLem
11C - 1eacher 1ralnlng College
1v - 1elevlslon
1vL1 - 1echnlcal and vocaLlonal LducaLlonal 1ralnlng
1x - 1ransmlsslon
uSAlu - unlLed SLaLes Agency for lnLernaLlonal uevelopmenL
uSl - unlversal Servlce lund
Wlll - Wlreless lldellLy
55
6.3 DLIINI1ICN CI 1LkMS

8roadband: 8roadband can be deflned as a hlgh-capaclLy (able Lo carry a loL of daLa per
second, raLher Lhan Lhe parLlcular speed of Lhe daLa), always-on lnLerneL connecLlvlLy
servlce. 8roadband ls a Lerm used Lo descrlbe a wlde range of Lechnologles LhaL allow
hlgh-speed bandwldLh daLa Lransmlsslon or access Lo Lhe lnLerneL and oLher elecLronlc
servlces. lL represenLs Lhe nexL phase ln Lhe evoluLlon of Lhe lnLerneL.

8roadband 1echno|og|es: 1here ls a wlde range of Lechnologles LhaL can be used Lo
provlde broadband access. 1hese lnclude flbre opLlc cable, cable, ulglLal Subscrlber Llne
(uSL), llbre-1o 1he Pome (l11P), saLelllLe, moblle (3C, W-CuMA, L1L, 4C, eLc.), and
flxed wlreless (lncludlng ºWl-ll" and ºWl-Max"), and 8roadband over Þower Llnes (8ÞL).
Lach Lechnology has lLs own beneflLs, cosLs and llmlLs ln Lerms of deploymenL,
bandwldLh, rellablllLy, cosLs and coverage.

Commun|ty Access Þo|nts: CommunlLy Access ÞolnLs (CAÞs) are publlc and communlLy
bulldlngs where compuLers, scanners and prlnLers have been lnsLalled for local people
Lo use.

D|g|ta| Content (eContent): Local conLenL whlch ls dlssemlnaLed and accessed uslng
dlglLal means.

D|g|ta| D|v|dend: 1he specLrum LhaL wlll become avallable when Lelevlslon broadcasLers
swlLch from analogue Lo dlglLal only plaLforms.

D|g|ta| L|teracy: 1he use of dlglLal Lechnology, communlcaLlon Lools and neLworks Lo
access, evaluaLe and creaLe lnformaLlon ln order Lo effecLlvely parLlclpaLe ln a
knowledge socleLy.

Internet of 1h|ngs: A neLwork lnfrasLrucLure llnklng physlcal and vlrLual ob[ecLs Lhrough
Lhe explolLaLlon of daLa capLure and communlcaLlon capablllLles.

I11x: A generlc Lerm for any broadband neLwork archlLecLure uslng opLlcal flbre for lasL-
mlle LelecommunlcaLlons.

IÞ 1e|ephony: lnLerneL ÞroLocol Lelephony allows users Lo place and recelve phone calls
for free or aL very low Larlffs vla a phone and an adapLer connecLed dlrecLly Lo Lhelr
broadband connecLlon wlLh no need for a sLandard Lelephone llne or even a compuLer.
Last M||e: 1he flnal leg of a LelecommunlcaLlons neLwork LhaL connecLs Lo/reaches Lhe
cusLomer. 1he access neLwork LhaL enables flnal connecLlon by Lhe end users.

56
Loca| Content: 1he expresslon of Lhe locally-owned and adapLed knowledge of a
communlLy, where a communlLy ls deflned by lLs locaLlon, culLure, language, or lnLeresL.

Cpen Access Network: An Cpen Access neLwork (CAn) ls a neLwork archlLecLure LhaL
allows any sulLably auLhorlzed operaLor or servlce provlder Lo access passlve or acLlve
connecLlvlLy from deslgnaLed ÞolnLs of Þresence (ÞoÞ) Lo dellver servlces Lo end users.

kura| Area: ls a large and lsolaLed area of an open counLry (ln reference Lo open flelds
and noL foresLs), ofLen wlLh low populaLlon denslLy.

Spectrum ke-farm|ng: 1he clearlng and reasslgnlng by governmenL of frequencles from
low-value (by economlc and/or soclal crlLerla) servlces Lo appllcaLlons/servlces wlLh
hlgher value Lo yleld greaLer economlc or soclal beneflL such as re-uslng exlsLlng 2C and
3C specLrum for L1L.

Urban Area: ls an area wlLh an lncreased denslLy of human-creaLed sLrucLures and
hlgher populaLlon denslLy ln comparlson Lo Lhe areas surroundlng lL. 1hls deflnlLlon
lncludes clLles, munlclpallLles, Lown counclls and urban counclls.

V|deo over 8roadband: vldeo on demand vla broadband allows for a vldeo sLream Lo a
compuLer enabllng users Lo waLch hlgh deflnlLlon Lelevlslon (Pu1v) programmes dlrecLly
vla Lhelr flbre lnLerneL connecLlons.
57
6.4 SÞLCIIIC CCNS1I1U1ICNAL ASÞIkA1ICNS ICk IC1s UNDLk 1nL 8ILL CI kIGn1S

• lmplemenLaLlon of rlghLs and fundamenLal freedoms under Art|c|e 21 (3) |n
the 8||| of k|ghts. All SLaLe organs and all publlc offlcers have tbe Joty to
oJJtess tbe oeeJs of voloetoble qtoops wltblo soclety. F0+ (++&1 -(*26&+
%**+11 ,$ GHF<

• Art|c|e 27 (1) on equa||ty and freedom from dlscrlmlnaLlon provldes LhaL:
ºLvery person ls equal before Lhe law and has Lhe rlghL Lo equal proLecLlon
and equal beneflL of Lhe law." F0+ '+(+7-,1 $7 ,0+ 2%3 -(*26&+ '+(+7-,1
%#-1-(: $6, $7 GHF #+:62%,-$(<

• Art|c|e 31 on pr|vacy provldes LhaL: ºLvery person has Lhe rlghL Lo prlvacy,
whlch lncludes Lhe rlghL noL Lo have- (c) lofotmotloo telotloq to tbelt fomlly
ot ptlvote offolts oooecessotlly tepolteJ ot teveoleJ, ot (J) tbe ptlvocy of tbelt
commoolcotloos loftloqeJ.´ F0+1+ 9#$.-&+ *$(1,-,6,-$(%2 2-5-,%,-$(1 -( ,0+
61+ $7 -(7$#5%,-$( %(& *$556(-*%,-$(1<

• Art|c|e 33 (1) on the freedom of express|on prov|des that: ºLvery person has
Lhe rlghL Lo freedom of expresslon, whlch lncludes- (o) fteeJom to seek,
tecelve ot lmpott lofotmotloo ot lJeos, (b) fteeJom of ottlstlc cteotlvlty, ooJ
(c) ocoJemlc fteeJom ooJ fteeJom of scleotlflc teseotcb´. F0-1 -1 61+762 -(
#+:62%,-(: GHF1 +19+*-%22/ -( ,+#51 $7 *$(,+(,<

• Art|c|e 34 (1) on freedom of the med|a prov|des that: lreedom and
lndependence of elecLronlc, prlnL and all oLher Lypes of medla ls guaranLeed.
F0+ 9#$.-1-$( 2%/1 % *$(1,-,6,-$(%2 7$6(&%,-$( 7$# #+:62%,-(: '$,0
-(7#%1,#6*,6#+ +19+*-%22/ ,0+ 7#+I6+(*/ 19+*,#65 %(& *$(,+(, -( #+2%,-$( ,$
'#$%&*%1,-(: %(& 9#$9$1+1 :$.+#(%(*+ 9#-(*-92+1 7$# #+:62%,-(: ,0+ GHF1
+19+*-%22/ #+:62%,$#/ -(&+9+(&+(*+<

• Art|c|e 3S (1) on access to |nformat|on provldes LhaL ºLvery clLlzen has Lhe
rlghL of access Lo- (o) lofotmotloo belJ by tbe 5tote, ooJ (b) lofotmotloo
belJ by oootbet petsoo ooJ tepolteJ fot tbe exetclse ot ptotectloo of ooy
tlqbt ot fooJomeotol fteeJom..(3) 1he SLaLe shall publlsh and publlclse any
lmporLanL lnformaLlon affecLlng Lhe naLlon."

• Art|c|e 46 (1) on Consumers r|ghts applles Lo goods and servlces offered by
publlc enLlLles or prlvaLe persons. 1he rlghL applles Lo all goods and servlces
lncludlng lC1-relaLed ones.

• Art|c|e S4 (1) states that: "A person wlLh ooy Jlsoblllty ls enLlLled-- (c) Lo
reasonable access Lo all places, publlc LransporL and lofotmotloo, (d) Lo use
58
Slgn language, 8rallle or oLher approprlaLe means of commoolcotloo, and (e)
Lo occess motetlols ooJ Jevlces Lo overcome consLralnLs arlslng from Lhe
person's dlsablllLy." 1h|s prov|s|on prescr|bes access to IC1s by ÞWDs.

• Art|c|e S6 on m|nor|t|es and marg|na||sed groups provldes LhaL: º1he SLaLe
shall puL ln place afflrmaLlve acLlon programmes deslgned Lo ensure LhaL
mlnorlLles and marglnallsed groups- (e) bove teosoooble occess to wotet,
beoltb setvlces ooJ loftosttoctote.´ Infrastructure |nc|udes IC1 re|ated
|nfrastructure.

ConsLlLuLlonal asplraLlons for lC1s on Covernance prlnclples and sLrucLures have
focused on Lhe followlng:

• Art|c|e 10 on nat|ona| va|ues and pr|nc|p|es of governance blndlng Lhe SLaLe
and all persons when enacLlng, lnLerpreLlng and lmplemenLlng Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon, any law and publlc pollcy. values and prlnclples relevanL Lo lC1
governance lnclude sharlng and devoluLlon of power, equlLy, human rlghLs,
publlc parLlclpaLlon and susLalnable developmenL among oLhers.

• Art|c|e 11 (2) on cu|ture provldlng LhaL: º1he SLaLe shall- (c) ptomote tbe
lotellectool ptopetty tlqbts of tbe people of keoyo.´ lnLellecLual properLy
promoLlon and proLecLlon ls key Lo lC1 governance especlally Lhrough
enhanclng lnnovaLlon ln lC1s.

• Iourth Schedu|e on d|str|but|on of funct|ons between the Nat|ona|
Government and the County Governments, Sect|on 18 (|), ([) and (k) glves
naLlonal CovernmenL Lhe funcLlon of posLal servlces, LelecommunlcaLlons,
and radlo and Lelevlslon broadcasLlng. Powever ln order Lo adhere Lo
devoluLlon requlremenLs, cooperaLlon/lnLer-governmenLal relaLlonshlp
beLween Lhe naLlonal and CounLy CovernmenLs ls necessary and ls
addressed by Lhe uevoluLlon Laws.



59
7. kLILkLNCLS

CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon of kenya, 2012. Ooottetly 5ectot 5totlstlcs kepott. 4tb
Ooottet 2011/2012. [onllne] Avallable aL:
hLLp://www.cck.go.ke/resc/downloads/SLC1C8_S1A1lS1lCS_8LÞC81_C4_11-12.pdf
[Accessed 10 november 2012]

CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon of kenya, 2011. Ooottetly 5ectot 5totlstlcs kepott. 2
oJ

Ooottet Octobet-uecembet 2011/2012 [onllne] Avallable aL:
<hLLp://www.cck.go.ke/resc/downloads/SLC1C8_S1A1lS1lCS_8LÞC81_C2_2011-
12.pdf> [Accessed 10 CcLober 2012].

lrancls, Þ. and ClLhagul, n., 2003. ¥ootb lo keoyo. lotce fot cbooqe ot lost Ceoetotloo?
[onllne] Avallable aL: <lnfo.worldbank.org/eLools/docs/llbrary/160787/773_lrancls.ppL>
[Accessed 10 CcLober 2011].

Compers, Þ. A., kovner, A., Lerner, !., & ScharfsLeln, u. S., 2006. 5klll vs. lock lo
íottepteoeotsblp ooJ veotote copltol. ívlJeoce ftom 5etlol íottepteoeots. [onllne]
Avallable aL: <hLLp://ssrn.com/absLracL=933932> [Accessed 20 CcLober2012].

CovernmenL of kenya, 2012. 1osk lotce oo tbe ke-Allqomeot of tbe íJocotloo 5ectot to
tbe coostltotloo of keoyo 2010. [onllne] Avallable aL:
hLLp://www.vlslon2030.go.ke/cms/vds/1ask_lorce_llnal_8eporL_leb_20123.pdf
[Accessed 13 uecember 2012].

CovernmenL of kenya, 2012. coooty Covetomeot Act. CovernmenL ÞrlnLer, nalrobl.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2012. Lconomlc Survey 8eporL.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2010. 1be coostltotloo of keoyo. CovernmenL ÞrlnLer, nalrobl.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2009. keoyo lofotmotloo ooJ commoolcotloo Act (cap 411 A).

CovernemenL of kenya, 2009. 1he kenya CommunlcaLlons (AmendmenL) AcL.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2008. lltst MeJlom 1etm lloo, 2008 - 2012. CovernmenL ÞrlnLer,
nalrobl.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2007.vlsloo 20J0. A Clobolly competltlve ooJ ltospetoos keoyo.
CovernmenL ÞrlnLer, nalrobl.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2006. naLlonal lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlon 1echnology (lC1)
Þollcy.

60
CovernmenL of kenya, 2001. 1elecommunlcaLlons and ÞosLal SecLor SLaLemenL,
uecember 2001.

CovernmenL of kenya, 2001. 1elecommunlcaLlons Þollcy

CovernmenL of kenya, 1997. 1elecommunlcaLlons Þollcy

CovernmenL of kenya, 1998. kenya CommunlcaLlon AcL

kenya lC1 8oard, 2011. Mooltotloq ooJ ívolootloo 5otvey kesolts. [onllne] Avallable aL:
<hLLps://opendaLa.go.ke/download/3[44-wqzL/appllcaLlon/zlp> [Accessed
20 CcLober 2012].

Mulcahy eL. al., 2012. we nove Met tbe íoemy.ooJ ne ls us. lessoos ftom 1weoty
¥eots of tbe kooffmoo loooJotloo's lovestmeots lo veotote copltol looJs ooJ tbe
1tlompb of nope Ovet íxpetleoce. [onllne] Avallable aL:
<hLLp://ssrn.com/absLracL=2033238> [Accessed 20 CcLober 2012].

unlCLl, 2003. SLaLlsLlcs. [onllne] Avallable aL:
<hLLp://www.unlcef.org/lnfobycounLry/kenya_sLaLlsLlcs.hLml>
[Accessed 18 uecember 2012].




Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close