The Newburgh Path Research

Published on June 2016 | Categories: Types, School Work | Downloads: 18 | Comments: 0 | Views: 192
of x
Download PDF   Embed   Report

The prison system of the United States is locking up more people than any other nation on earth. New York State spends $60,000 per year on each inmate it houses. In the Hudson Valley, the city of Newburgh is a community in distress: a high rate of unemployment, poverty and high-school dropouts mar its image. Social services are seen as placing their unwanted clients there and offering little support for the rest of the city, effectively abandoning it. In response, we propose to reallocate certain resources from the prison system into Newburgh and other cities facing similar circumstances in the region, such as Middletown and Poughkeepsie. The Newburgh Path allows offenders of non-violent crime with sentences of three years or less to be diverted from traditional imprisonment and instead be housed under various levels of observation and engagement within Newburgh. Through a series of steps, candidates in the program are reintegrated into society incrementally through job training, adult education and other initiatives. The infrastructure used to facilitate this process is shared with and available to the public in the form of vocational workspace, recreation and meeting space. Such efforts, if successful, could help eradicate this region’s problem with cyclical incarceration by shifting the focus from addressing its symptoms to addressing its causes.

Comments

Content

THE NE WB U R G H PATH
BACKGROUND

GR OU P 07
B RA DY RO SS
NIEMB RO A NA IS
VO RO N NA NS
YE Z H A NG

1. ABSTRACT

05

2. NEWBURGH

09

3. THE HUDSON VALLEY REGION

23

4. NATIONAL FACTS

45

5. PHILOSOPHY

59

6. TYPOLOGIES

73

1.

A B STR ACT

5

The prison system of the United States has an extremely detrimental effect in its
relationship with cities like Newburgh, New York. Many years of institutionalized
incarceration have worked to keep entire portions of the population behind bars
for most of their lives. Public spending on prisoners has reached an all-time high,
with $30,000 per prisoner per year being the national average, and $60,000
per year for New York State inmates. Considered on it’s own, the population of
U.S. prisons would exceed most major cities. The only statistic more staggering
than these is that nearly two-thirds of all inmates are repeat offenders, and that
simply being in prison once increases one’s likelihood of being re-admitted to
prison again in the future.
Once released, former inmates have an exceedingly difficult time being hired for
legitimate jobs because of their records. Since the grouping of inmates together
in prisons strengthens criminal networks, opportunities for recently-released
inmates to support themselves and their families through profitable crime are
readily available. Furthermore, the widespread privatization of prisons across the
country has evolved into a set of circumstances where prisons are more profitable for their proprietors if more prisoners are being housed inside, thus forming
an economic base where police and law enforcement are encouraged to send
people to prison and keep them there.
Newburgh is a city caught in the grasp of this vicious cycle. 3,000 people, nearly
ten percent of its population, are arrested every year. Violent crime is common.
Gangs run rampant through the streets. Rumors exist that ex-cons and social
service clients are “dumped” in Newburgh by Orange County officials. This city’s
outsize role in cyclic incarceration can be seen as nearly unnecessary in light of
the fact that almost one third of all inmates in New York are serving sentences
of 3 years or less for nonviolent crime. This portion of the prison population,
if diverted from penitentiaries and kept in rehabilitation programs within active
society, has a much greater chance of breaking this cycle. If successful, such a
condition would take thousands of would-be criminals off the streets and funnel
their energies into employment, industry and other productive endeavors, saving
state governments millions of dollars in the process.
The time to act is now. The place to start is Newburgh.

7

2.

NE W B U R G H

9

POVERTY LEVEL

LIVING UNDER POVERTY
Less than 10%
10% - 35%
More than 35%

28

%

OF THE POPULATION IS LIVING UNDER
POVERTY LEVEL.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

11

UNDER 25

POPULATION UNDER 25 YEARS
25% - 30%
30% - 40%
40% - 50%

46

%

OF THE POPULATION IS UNDER 25.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

13

RENTER OCCUPIED

RENT OCCUPIED HOUSING
35% - 60%
60% - 85%

70

%

OF THE HOUSING STOCK IS RENTER OCCUPIED.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

15

EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS VS YOUTH RELATED CRIME
Orange County Community Health Assesment

49

%

OF THE POPULATION HAS LESS THAN A HIGH
SCHOOL DIPLOMA.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

TIME CONFLICT
PEAK

PARENT’S
JOB
SCHEDULE
US Department of Commerce

PART-TIME

8 PM

12 AM

8 PM

12 AM

12HRS
SHIFT

4 PM

12 PM

8 AM

4 AM

REGULAR
SHIFT

PEAK

AFTER SCHOOL
ACTIVITIES

12 PM

8 AM

4 AM

CLASS TIME

4 PM

STUDENT’S
SCHEDULE
Newburgh Free Academy

U.S.

PEAK

PARENT’S
ABSENCE
Reference Sources: NIDA: InfoFacts

HEROIN

12 AM

8 PM

COCAINE
4 PM

12 PM

8 AM

4 AM

CRACK

17

BORDERS

SEGREGATION PATTERN

MORE THAN 50% AFRICAN AMERICAN

GANGS’ TERRITORIES IN NEWBURGH

CRIPS

Los Angeles - 1969

Mostly African American
30,000 - 35,000

Drug trafficking, robbery, extortion, murder,
burglary, theft

ENN

SEGREGATION PATTERN
MORE THAN 50% HISPANIC LATINO

BLOODS

Los Angeles - 1972
1988

Primarily African American
15,000 - 20,000

Murder, drug trafficking, robbery, extortion

ALLIES

9W

NEMIES

BROADWAY
LATIN KINGS
Chicago - 1940
Mostly Hispanic
20,000 - 35,000

Racketeering, battery, arms trafficking, drug
trafficking, extortion, identity document forgery,
robbery, and murder

19

HOT SPOTS
Area in Newburgh with a high likelihood for violent crime correlate with concentrations
of commercial gathering spaces, often in the form of bodegas, delis or restaurants. This
map shows the location of all the “hot spot” intersections in Newburgh – those with
two or more commercial gathering spaces in close proximity to each other. These areas
present the most effective locations for intervention.

10

%

OF NEWBURGH’S POPULATION IS ARRESTED
EVERY YEAR.
SOURCE: NEWBURGH POLICE

RED BLOB MAP

21

3.

THE HU D SO N VA L L E Y

23

$30,000/YEAR

AVERAGE COST OF AN INMATE IN U.S.

VS

$60,000

/YEAR

COST OF INMATE IN NEW YORK STATE

Source: New York State Department of Corrections

25

MEDIUM SECURITY
Inmates convicted of less serious crimes (often non-violent, drug or theft-related incidents) are typically housed in medium security facilities. Orange County hosts six such
institutions.

HUDSON VALLEY MEDIUM SECURITY JAILS

SULLIVAN HUB

New York state departement of corrections

WOODBOURNE

GREEN HAVEN HUB

ULSTER

WALLKILL

FISHKILL
OTISVILLE

HU

DS

ON

VA
L

LE

YR

TACONIC

EG

ION

CO
R

RE

CT

ION

AL

FA
CIL

ITIE

SZ
ON

E

OTISVILLE
ORANGE COUNTY

711

ULSTER
ULSTER COUNTY

840

WOODBOURNE
SULLIVAN COUNTY

981

WALLKILL
ULSTER COUNTY

608

FISHKILL
DUTCHESS COUNTY

1800

TACONIC
WESTCHESTER COUNTY

502

27

TIME UNDER CUSTODY
Source :New York State Department of Corrections

ANNUAL AVERAGE

NATIONAL

VS

$60

kINMATE COST

240

180 - 240

NEW YORK STATE

12
6,6 %- 18 M

HAN

MO

NTH
16,2 %S

24
18 %
8

30%

MONTHS%
7,9

36
10 - 4
,7 % 8
2
48 - 7%
12,8

0
12

0
- 18

S
NTH

MO

24 - 36 M
ONTHS
12,3 %

HS %
NT ,9
O
9
M

MO

NT
H

S

THS
MON

72 - 1
20 M
ONTH
S
15 %

RE T

E
LIF %
0,5

MO

ANNUAL AVERAGE

ON
TH
S

< 12 MONTHS
0,3%

$30

k INMATE COST

30
OF

%

INMATES

ARE UNDER CUSTODY FOR

LESS THAN 3 YEARS

30

%

OF INMATES ARE UNDER CUSTODY FOR LESS
THAN 3 YEARS.
=
4,000 INMATES IN THE HUDSON VALLEY REGION
=

$243,000,000/YEAR
Source: New York State Department of Corrections

29

MAXIMUM SECURITY
Prisoners who are deemed the most serious threats to public safety are confined in
Orange County’s maximum security penitentiaries. Long sentences, solitary confinement and in-house violence are common. These facilities are often seen as breeding
grounds for gangs which flourish outside prison walls.

HUDSON VALLEY MAXIMUM SECURITY JAILS

SULLIVAN HUB

New York state departement of corrections

GREEN HAVEN HUB

SULLIVAN

EASTERN
SHAWAGUNK

GREEN HAVEN
DOWNSTATE

HU

DS

ON

VA
L

LE

YR

BEDFORD HILLS

EG

ION

CO
R

RE

CT

ION

AL

FA
CIL

SING SING
ITIE

SZ
ON

E

SULLIVAN
SULLIVAN COUNTY

820

EASTERN
ULSTER COUNTY

429

SHAWAGUNK
ULSTER COUNTY

575

DOWNSTATE
DUTCHESS COUNTY

900

GREEN
HAVEN
DUTCHESS COUNTY

2530

SING
SING
WESTCHESTER COUNTY

2000

BEDFORD
HILLS
WESTCHESTER COUNTY

800

31

Justice Re-investement New Orleans - Spatial design lab
6 000

400

5 000

300

4 000

200

3 000

CRIME RATE

INCARCERATION RATE

(PER 100,000 RESIDENTS)

RECIDIVISM PATTERN

(PER 100,000 RESIDENTS)

500

Once released,
former inmates have an exceedingly difficult time being hired
for
2 000
100
legitimate jobs because of their records. Since the grouping of inmates together in
prisons strengthens criminal networks, opportunities for recently-released1 000inmates to
1931
1970
2005
support themselves
and their families through
profitable crime are readily
available,
contributing to a majority of recidivist inmates.

65

1991

%I N M A T E S

OF THE NEW YORK STATE’S

ARE REPEAT OFFENDERS

REPEAT OFFENDERS PATTERN

FREEDOM

LACK OF REHABILITATION OPPORTUNITIES

UNDER CUSTODY

YEARS

CRIME SCHOOL

CRIME CATEGORY BY INMATE STATUS

Justice Re-investement New Orleans - Spatial design lab

VIOLENT FELONY

14%

PROPERTY OFFENSES

64%
12%
%

DRUG OFFENSES

26

%

OF

INMATES

ARE UNDER CUSTODY FOR

65

%

OF NEW YORK STATE’S INMATES ARE
REPEAT OFFENDERS
SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF JUSTICE

RECIDIVISM RATE BY STATE
60%+
50% - 60%
40% - 50%
30% - 40%
20% - 30%
NA

REW center of the states - 2011

33

4.

NATI O NA L FACT S

35

INTERNATIONAL INCARCERATION RATE
per 100,000 people
500+
300-399
200-299
100-199
50-99
0-49
International center for prison studies

THE

UNITED

STATES

HAS

5%

OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION, BUT

25%

OF THE WORLD’S PRISONERS.

37

INTERNATIONAL INCARCERATION RATE
per 100,000 People

Source : International center for prison studies

WORLWIDE INCARCERATION RATE
per 100,000 people
ICELAND
JAPAN
DENMARK
FINLAND
NORWAY
SWEDEN
SWITZERLAND
IRELAND
GERMANY
ITALY
BELGIUM
FRANCE
SOUTH KOREA
AUSTRIA
NETHERLANDS
PORTUGAL
GREECE
CANADA
AUSTRALIA
SLAUVAKIA
HUNGARY
ICELAND
ENGLAND
LUXEMBOURG
TURKEY
SPAIN
NEW ZELAND
CZECH REPUBLIC
MEXICO
USA
100

200

300

International center for prison studies

400

500

600

700

800

OP 15 HDI

TOP 15 HDI

The Human Development Index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Source: United Nations

nited nations

1. NORWAY

2. AUSTRALIA

3. USA

4. NETHERLANDS

5. GERMANY

6. NEW ZELAND

7. IRELAND

8. SWEDEN

9. SWITZERLAND

10. JAPAN

11. CANADA

12. KOREA

13. ICELAND

14. DENMARK

15. ISRAEL

39

7 MILLION

PEOPLE ARE IN THE U.S. CARCERAL SYSTEM.
THIS INCLUDES PROBATION, PAROLE, JAIL AND PRISON.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

41

8.4 MILLION

PEOPLE LIVE IN NEW YORK CITY.
6.8 MILLION LIVE IN BRONX, QUEENS, BROOKLYN AND STATEN ISLAND.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

43

2.3 MILLION

INMATES ARE LOCKED UP IN U.S PRISONS.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

45

THE PRISON POPULATION IS THE

4

TH

LARGEST “CITY” IN THE COUNTRY.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

01. New York :
02. Los Angeles :
03. Chicago:
04. U.S. Prisons :
05. Houston :

8,405,000
3,884,000
2,718,000
2,319,000
2,195,000

47

67

%

OF INMATES THAT ARE RELEASED FROM PRISON
ARE RE-INCARCERATED WITHIN 3 YEARS.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

49

INCARCERATION EXPLOSION
Source :Justice Re-investment New Orleans - Spatial Design Lab

The introduction of strict drug laws brought about an increase in the incarceration rate
and a new type of prisoner. Although this was a contributing factor, there are other factors, including many states replacing the death penalty with “life without parole”, keeping more inmates in prison, and recidivism, where newly-released prisoners return to
prison within a short time after their release due to a re-offense or a new crime.

500%

INCREASE IN PRISON POPULATION SINCE THE

500

6 000

400

5 000

300

4 000

200

3 000

100

2 000

1970

1971
PRESIDENT NIXON DECLARES,
WAR ON DRUGS

1 000

2005

1991

2014

CRIME RATE
(PER 100,000 RESIDENTS)

INCARCERATION RATE
(PER 100,000 RESIDENTS)

DECLARATION OF THE “WAR ON DRUGS”

CARCERAL CONTROL
by type

Source :U.S. Bureau of Justice

In 2010, the majority of people under carceral control were those on probation. Probation is a court-ordered sanction that allows a person to remain in the community under
the supervision of a probation officer. probation can also require counseling, drug/alcohol restrictions, weapons restrictions and offender reporting to their probation officer. If
the person does not follow the rules of the probation, they could go back to court and be
sent to a jail or a prison .

5,000,000

4,000,000
Probation

3,000,000

2,000,000
Prison
1,000,000

Parole

2010

2004

1996

1990

1980

Jail

51

INCARCERATION RATE
by crime type

Source :U.S. Bureau of Justice

Due to the “War on Drugs”, drug related offenses are the major crime type leading to
prison sentences in 2000. As a result, a majority of the prisoners can be considered
non-violent, non-serious, non sexual-offenders.

90%
Drugs
80%

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%

Robbery
Sexual Assault

Burglary
Murder
Assault

2000

1998

1996

1994

1992

1990

1988

1986

1984

10%

1982

Incarceration rate

70%

92

%

OF INMATES ARE IN FOR NON-VIOLENT OFFENSES.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice

53

TIPPING POINT

Frenchtown, Tallahassee, FL
Source :Justice Mapping Center and Information Design Lab, Columbia, 2006

One would normally think as you incarcerate more people, crime would go down. It
sounds logical, and it is what actually occurs in most places.
This is what happened in Frenchtown. At first, the crime rate dropped as incaceration
increased, but there was a tipping point in 1997 where crime increased as incaceration
increased, reversing the general logic of the incarceration system.
Due to the large number of residents behind bars, families are broken, resentment is
directed towards the criminal justice system, and ultimately, the prisoners come back
usually worse-off when they entered the system.

20

CRIME RATE PER 1,000

10

0

0.1

0.5

1

1.5

2.0

INCARCERATION RATE PER 1,000

-10

-20
1997, TIPPING POINT

1971

55

57

5.

P H I L O SO P H Y

59

“PRISONS ARE ALL ABOUT TAKING PEOPLE’S FREEDOM. THAT IS THE REAL PUNISHMENT. BUT THEY
SHOULD ALSO HELP CRIMINALS CHANGE THEIR
BEHAVIOR AND LEARN TO RESPECT OTHER PEOPLE
AND THE LAW”
Source: Amnesty International

61

FIVE ESSENTIALS IN A CORRECTIONAL AGENCY

1

3

2
STAFF

WARDEN
COM OFFICER

ADMIN
ASSOC. WARDEN

4

5

SECURITY

PRIMARY AIM

TOWERS
GATES

PATROLS

TREATMENT
ULTIMATE AIM

STAFF

BARRACKS

INMATES

SHOPS

63

INMATE FLOW CHART

INTAKE ASSESSMENTS
MEDICAL/MENTAL
HEALTH
SCREENING

RISK/NEED
ASSESSMENT

EDUCATIONAL

CLASSIFICATION
SPECIALIZED
UNITS

MEDIUM

MINIMUM

PRE RELEASE

COUNTY STEP
DOWN

ELECTRONIC
MONITORING

PERSONALIZED PROGRAM PLAN
ACADEMIC &
VOCATIONAL

PRISON
INDUSTRIES

COGNITIVE/
BEHAVIORAL

SEX OFFENDER
TREATMENT

SUBSTANCE
ABUSE

FAITH-BASED
& VOLUNTEER

DISCHARGE PLANNING
REENTRY AND EMPLOYMENT
READINESS WORKSHOP

HOUSING

MEDICAL

INSTITUTIONAL
RELEASE COMMITTEE

MENTAL HEALTH

PROBATION
PAROLE
COORDINATION

REENTRY PRESENTATIONS

EMPLOYMENT

VICTIM AND
PUBLIC SAFETY
NOTIFICATIONS

SUBSTANCE
ABUSE
TREATMENT

RELEASE/EXPIRATION OF SENTENCE
REGIONAL REENTRY
CENTER

RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT
PROGRAMS

COMMUNITY INTEGRATION

65

JUSTIFICATION

STRATEGY

FOCUS OF
PERSPECTIVE

IMAGE OF
OFFENDERS

RETRIBUTION

DETERRENCE

IN

Moral offenders

Prevention of
further crime

Ris
Co
pr

None : Offenders
simply deserve to
be punished

Make punishment
more certain, swift
and severe

Of
off
pr

Earned their
punishment

Actual and
Ac
potential offenders

Free agents whose
humanity we affirm
by holding them
acountable

Rational beings
who engage in
cost/benefit
calculations

No
bu
co

NCAPACITATION

REHABILITATION

REINTEGRATION

sk control
ommunity
rotection

Offenders have
correctable
deficiencies

Offenders have
correctable
deficiencies

ffenders cannot
fend while in
rison

Treatment to
reduce offenders’
inclnation to
re-offend

Programming to
make for suces-sful reentry into
society

ctual offenders

Needs of offenders Needs of offenders

ot to be trusted
ut to be
onstrained

Good people who
have gone astray
will respond to
treatment

Ordinary folk who
require and will
respond to
help

67

RE-ENTRY PROCESS
“But they all come back”
Jeremy Travis

In his book, Jeremy Travis states that a successful re-entry process is not related to the
creation of beatiful community centers or rehabilitation centers. Using a conjunction
between “building” and “place”, the idea is to strenghten the social networks of the
former inmates. Family implication is a key element for a successful re-entry process.
Most of the inmates upon release are left alone in their new freedom; this can be
overwhelming and intimidating.
Providing the inmate a sense of belonging and acceptance in the community and in the
family is an essential step in the reentry process.

work opportunities

personal expectations

1. prepare
reentry
recognize milestones

healthcare

community roles
family ties

5. promote
successful
reentry

INMATE
REENTRY

prisons and private organizations

2. building
bridges

4. strenghten
support
circle

3. seize the
moment of
release
self

criminal justice agencies

correctional agencies and the community
family
exit orientation
welcome team

welcome home

community

mentors

69

71

6.

TY P O L O G I E S

73

PRISON TYPOLOGY

COURTYARD

RADIAL

BOYS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL
LANCASTER, OH, 1857

NEW JERSEY STATE PRISON
TRENTON, NJ, 1798

ORIGINAL AUBURN
AUBURN, NY, 1829

LOST WORLD
TERRES HAUTES, 1940

EASTERN
PHILADELPHIA, PA, 1871

STANDAR AUBURN
AUBURN, NY, 1935

PANOPTI

ALLEGHENY CO
PITTSBURGH

SUPER MAX
FREMONT, C

ICON

TELEPHONE POLE

OUNTY JAIL
H, PA, 1883

MICHIGAN STATE PRISON
JACKSON, MI, 1924

NORFOLK COMMUNITY
NORFOLK, MA, 1927

NORTH EASTERN PENITENTIARY
LEWISBURG, PA, 1932

THOMSON CORRECTIONAL
THOMSON, IL, 2001

X PRISON
CA, 1994

CORRECTIONAL TRAINING FACILITY
SOLEDAD, CA, 1990

HYBRID/CAMPUS

FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL FACILITY
PHOENIX, AZ, 1985

75

WALNUT STREET JAIL
1790, Philadelphia
Jeremy Travi

Mission:
Rehabilitate prisoners, or restore them to crime-free lives.
System:
- Minor offenders worked in shops, making shoes, clothes, nails.
- Female offenders spun cotton, did laundry and mended clothes.
-Solitary offenders were kept in confinement and given the bible.
1798, opened a school which taught basic instruction in reading, writing and math.

77

EASTERN STATE PENITENTIARY
1829, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

System:
- Inamtes were housed in separate cells with small private exercise yards.
- Cells had water, plumbing, heating and room for equipment.
- Inmates were not allowed to leave their cells at all during their sentence.
- New prisoners were given a number and had a black cloth draped over their head as
they were walked to their cell.

79

CHICAGO’S METROPOLITAN CENTER
1975, Chicago, Illinois

System:
- Blending in urban context.
- Large public space at its base where people can gather.
- Windows allowed prisoners to look outside their cells.
- Inmates for short sentences only.

81

HALDEN PRISON
2010, Halden, Norway

System:
- made up of several unique building designs that form a prison village within a forested
area
- Several prisoners share a kitchen and living room, where they prepare their own evening meals
- There are indoor basketball courts, climbing walls, a cooking lab and a recording studio
where inmates can learn new talents.
- There are also two guest homes where families can be hosted overnight.

“... EVERY INMATE IN NORWAY WILL BE RELEASED,
AND SOMEDAY HE WILL BE SOMEBODY’S NEIGHBOR”
Source:Norwegian Prison Officer

83

SECURITY THRESHOLDS
From “public” to “private” space

Source :environmental psychology of prisons and jail, Richard Wener, 2012

STATE PRISON

SECURE HOUSING UNIT

INMATE
CELL
Cell Design / Control
Housing unit / Control room
Cluster / Cell block Control room
Wing security
SHU Central Security - Building/Interior
SHU Perimeter Security - Electric fences
Site Perimeter Security - Guards Tower
Buffer zone - No man’s land
SIte security
Geographic location

85

87

Bibliography

- Ahn-Redding, Heather. “The Million Dollar Inmate”:The Financial and Social Burden of
Nonviolent offenders. Lanham, MD: Lexington/Rowman & Littlefield Pub., 2007.

- Edge, Laura B. Locked Up. A History of the U.S. Prison System. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing
Group Inc, 2002.

- Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage, 1995.

- Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and Construction. Washington: Bureau of Prisons,
1949.

- Steven, Levitt, and Stephen, Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden
Side of Everything. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

- Townsend, John. A Painful History of Crime, Prisons and Prisoners. Chicago: Raintree, 2006.

- Travis, Jeremy. But They All Come Back: Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, 2005.

- Wener, Richard. The Environmental Psychology of Prisons and Jails: Creating Humane Spaces
in Secure Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012.

G SA P P
MSA U D
NEWBU RGH / FA LL 2014

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close