Thesis For Tourism Students

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WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Stress and Coping Mechanisms of Tourism Students of West Visayas State University

An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Business and Management West Visayas State University loilo City

n Partial Ful!lment of the "e#uirement for the $egree Bachelor of Tourism Tourism Science and Business Management

%y&& %y 'aycee "u%y '( )enterola Christopher *o% Aranda

Fe%ruary Fe% ruary +,-.

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

ntroduction of the Study

Chapter - is divided into !ve parts& /-0 Bac1ground and Theoretica Theoreticall Frame2or1 of the Study3 /+0 Statement of the Pro%lem and the 4ypotheses3 /50 Signi!cance of the Study3 /60 $e!nition of Terms3 and /70 $elimitation of the Study( Part 8ne3 Bac1ground and Theoretical Theoretical Frame2or1 of the Study3 presents the reasons for choosing the pro%lem and the theoretical frame2or1 upon 2hich the study 2as anchored( Part T2o3 Statement of the Pro%lem and the 4ypothesis3 identi!es the main and speci!c pro%lems that the research hoped to ans2er as 2ell as the hypothesis tested( Part Three3 Signi!cance Signi!cance of the Study3 cites the %ene!ts that may %e derived from the results of the investigation( Part Four3 $e!nition of Terms3 gives the conceptual and operational meanings of the important terms used in the study( study( Part Five3 Five3 $elimitation of the Study3 speci!es the scope and coverage of the study(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study 

9ducation is one of the most important aspects of human resource development( Poor school performance not only results in having a lo2 self: esteem3 %ut also causes negative %ehaviours among students( stu dents( There are many reasons for students to underperform u nderperform at school and one of these is stress( Stress has %ecome an important topic in academic circle as 2ell as in our society( society( Many scholars in the !eld of %ehavioural science have carried out e;tensive research on stress and its outcomes and concluded that the topic needed more attention /"ees and "edfern3 +,,,< 9llison3 +,,6< 8ngori and Ag olla3 +,,=< Agolla3 +,,>0( Stress in academic institutions can have %oth positive and negative conse#uences if not 2ell managed /Smith3 +,,+< T2eed T2eed et al(3 +,,6< Steven son and 4arper3 +,,.0( Academic institutions have di?erent 2or1 settings compared to non:academic and therefore one 2ould e;pect the di?erence in symptoms3 causes3 and conse#uences of stress in the t2o set up /9lfering et al( 3 +,,7< Chang and @u3 @u3 +,,0( t is important to the society that students should learn and ac#uire the necessary 1no2ledge and s1ills that 2ill in turn ma1e them contri%ute positively to the development of

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

the general economy of any nation( n ation( 4o2ever3 the intricate academic environment sometimes poses great medical pro%lems to the students lives /$anna and )rin3 ->>>< $yc13 +,,-< )ra2itch et al(3 +,,< 8ngori3 +,,=0 that tend to negate the positive gains that one 2ould e;pect after completion of University( A distur%ing trend in college student health is the reported increase in student stress nation2ide( Stressors a?ecting students can %e as academic3 !nancial3 time or health related3 and self:imposed stress /)oodman3 ->>5< @e"oy3 @e"o y3 ->==0( Academic stressors include the students perception of the e;tensive 1no2ledge %ase re#uired and the perception of an inade#uate time to develop it /Carveth3 et al( ->>.0( Students report e;periencing academic stress at predicta%le times each semester 2ith the greatest sources of academic stress resulting from ta1ing and studying for e;ams3 grade competition3 and the large amount of content to master in a small amount of time /A%ouserie3 ->>6< Archer D @amnin3 ->=7< Britton D Tesser3 ->>-< 'ohn D FraEer3 ->=.0( t is important for the university to maintain 2ell:%alanced academic environment conducive for %etter learning3 2ith the focus on the students personal needs( Students e;pectations vary 2ith respect to personality and their %ac1grounds 2hich inuences on ho2 one perceive the environment around himGher( himGher( Students at the university have di?erent e;pectations3 goals3 and values that they 2ant to ful!l at the university3 2hich is only possi%le if

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

the students e;pectations3 goals3 and values are integrated 2ith that of the university /)oodman3 ->>50 (  The future of any nation lies lies heavily on the young peop people le since they are the tomorro2s leaders< therefore3 it is important to identify the di?erent stressors and the coping mechanisms of these students( This 2ill help the university administrators to come up 2ith the %est strategies to ena%le the students to cope up 2ith these stressors 2hile pursuing their academic careers( The negative e?ect of stress on students is li1ely to pose challenge to the individual students3 their colleagues3 and the institution as a 2hole( With this concern3 the researcher is interested to identify the di?erent stressors and coping mechanisms of fello2 tourism students( Figure -( sho2s the conceptual frame2or1 of the study( $ependent Varia%le

ndependent

Varia%le

Personal $etails  )ender

Stressors

 Hear  Hear @evel Stress Coping Mechanisms Figure +( Stressors and Stress Coping Mechanisms of Tourism Students  Io( 8f Si%lings as inuence %y their personal factors( 



Annual

Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 This study aims to determine determine the stress coping mechanisms mechanisms of tourism students of West Visayas State University(

Speci!cally this study see1s to ans2er to the follo2ing #uestion& -( What are are the stress stress coping coping mechanisms mechanisms of tourism tourism students students 2hen 2hen ta1en as an entire groupJ +( What are are the dominant dominant stres stressors sors among among tourism tourism students students 2hen 2hen ta1en as an entire groupJ 5( Are the di?er di?erences ences in the the stress stress coping mechan mechanisms isms of the student students s 2hen classi!ed as an entire groupJ 6( Are there there signi!c signi!cant ant signi!can signi!cantt di?erences di?erences in the the academic academic 7(

stressors of the students 2hen classi!ed as an entire groupJ s there there signi!ca signi!cant nt relatio relationship nship %et2ee %et2een n the stress stressors ors and coping coping mechanisms of tourism students 2hen classi!ed as an entire group(

n vie2 of the pro%lems stated3 the follo2ing hypotheses 2as formulated

-(There are no signi!cant di?erences on the stress and coping mechanisms of the tourism students of West Visayas Visayas State University3 classi!ed according according to a0 gender3 %0 year level3 c0 num%er of of si%lings in the family3 family3 and d0 family income( income(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Signi!cance of the Study

 The results of this study may %e %e %ene!cial to the follo2ing& follo2ing& Curriculum Planners( The !ndings 2ill 2ill help them properly properly plan plan the

o?ering of the di?erent su%Kects that 2ill not %ecome stressors to students( stu dents( Future Researchers( "esults 2ill 2ill %e useful for them in the course of

their future studies on the same issues utiliEing other varia%les( Guidance Counselors( The results 2ill 2ill serve as %aseline %aseline data to

institute and facilitate improved services and provide supportive environment to students needing guidance( Parents( This study 2ill provide provide in:depth information information to parents that

2ill help them provide supportive home environment that 2ill %e helpful in improving academic performance of these students( School dministrators dministrators( By 1no2ing the di?erent stressors of these

students3 they 2ill %e prepared to provide a 2ell:%alanced academic environment conducive for %etter learning3 2ith the focus on the students personal needs(

Tourism Students ( The !ndings 2ill provide students proper a2areness

on the di?erent stressors stressors they are facing( This 2ill also inform inform them ho2 they could %e a%le to cope 2ith the stress(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Future researchers( This study 2ould %e %ene!cial as this 2ould serve

as a %asis for their o2n study and provide useful information that they may use(

$e!nition of Terms Terms For a reason of clarity and precision3 the follo2ing terms used in this study 2ere given their conceptual and operational meanings& Coping !echanisms" Coping has %een de!ned in psychological terms

@aEarus /->>,0  /->>,0 as constantly changing %y Susan Fol1man and "ichard @aEarus cognitive and %ehavioral e?orts to manage speci!c e;ternal andGor internal demands that are appraised as ta;ing( Coping is thus e;pending conscious e?ort to solve personal and interpersonal pro%lems3 and see1ing to master3 minimiEe or tolerate stress or stress or conict(L conict(L n this study coping mechanisms are cognitive and %ehavioral e?orts done %y BS Tourism Tourism students to manage stress in their lives as students( The coping mechanisms used are either of the follo2ing http&GGchangingminds(org33 Septem%er3 +,--0&adaptive3 attac13 avoidance /http&GGchangingminds(org %ehavioural3 conversion and defence( Stress /psychology0: is an unpleasant state of emotional and

physiological arousal that people e;perience in situations that they perceive

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

as dangerous or threatening to their 2ell:%eing( The 2ord stress means di?erent things to di?erent people( Stressors  - are circumstances that cause stress and vary in severity

and duration( n this study stressors stressors are situations situations or circumstances circumstances that cause stress among BS Tourism Tourism students and are classi!ed as interpersonal3 intrapersonal3 academic and environmental stressors( Tourism  de!ned as the practice of travelling for pleasure

/http&GG222(thefreedictionary(comGtourism 3 +,--0( n this study3 tourism is operationally de!ned as a four year degree course( Students  de!ned as one 2ho is enrolled or attends class at a school3

college or university /http&GG222(thefreedictionary(comGstudent /http&GG222(thefreedictionary(comGstudent33 +,--0( n this study3 students are operationally de!ned as the participants of the study3 studying at West Visayas State University3 College 8f Business and Management ta1ing up Bachelor of Tourism( $elimitation of the Study  This study 2ill cover students enrolled enrolled in the Bachelor Bachelor of Tourism Tourism at West Visayas Visayas State University3 loilo city this academic year +,--:+,-+(  The independent varia%les 2ill 2ill %e the di?erent di?erent sources of stress called called stressors present among students( The di?erent stressors as identi!ed 2ill %e

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

interpersonal3 intrapersonal3 academic and environmental( The dependent varia%le 2ill %e %e the coping mechanisms such as& Adaptive3 Attac13 Avoidance3 Behavioral3 Conversion3 and $efense(  The study 2ill use the survey and correlation correlation techni#ues techni#ues of the descriptive method of research( research( The primary instrument to %e used in gathering the data needed 2ill %e the #uestionnaire( #uestionnaire( The #uestionnaire 2ill 2ill have three /50 parts( Part  2ill %e #uestions for the personal characteristics of tourism students in terms of gender3 year level3 num%er of si%lings in the family3 si%ling ran13 occupation of parents3 and and family income( income( Part  2ill %e #uestions identifying the the level of stress( Part  2 2ill ill %e #uestions identifying identifying the di?erent coping mechanisms of students such as& $efense Mechanism3 Avoidance Mechanism3 Behavioral Mechanism3 Adaptive Mechanism3 Avoidance Mechanism3 Cognitive Mechanism

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

C4APT9" +

"evie2 of "elated @iterature

 This chapter deals 2ith the revie2 of literature related to the present study(( This is divided into si; parts& /-0 Conceptual @iterature3 /+0 $e!nition of  study Stress Str ess33 /50 Sourc Sources es of Stress Stress33 /60 Coping Coping Mechan Mechanism isms s of Stress Stress33 and /70 Summary(

Conceptual @iterature Stress /psychology03 is an unpleasant state of emotional and physiological arousal that people e;perience in situations that they perceive as dangerous or threatening to their 2ell:%eing( The 2ord stress  means di?erent things to di?erent people( Some people de!ne stress as events or situations that cause them to feel tension3 pressure3 or negative emotions such as an;iety and anger( anger( 8thers vie2 stress as the response to these situations( This response includes physiological changesNsuch as increased heart rate and muscle tensionNas 2ell as emotional and %ehavioral changes(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

4o2ever3 most psychologists regard stress as a process involving a personLs interpretation and response to a threatening event(  The circumstances that cause stress stress are called stressors#  Stressors vary in severity and duration( For e;ample3 the responsi%ility of caring for a sic1 parent may %e an ongoing source of maKor stress3 2hereas getting stuc1 in a trac Kam may cause mild3 short:term stress( Some events3 such as the death of a loved one3 are stressful for everyone( But in other situations3 individuals may respond di?erently to the same eventN2hat is a stressor for one person may not %e stressful for another( another( For e;ample3 a student 2ho is unprepared for a chemistry test and anticipates a %ad grade may feel stress3 2hereas a classmate 2ho studies in advance may feel con!dent of a good grade( For an event or situation to %e a stressor for a particular individual3 the person must appraise the situation as threatening and lac1 the coping resources to deal 2ith it e?ectively(

Students e;perience stress due to the physical3 mental3 social and emotional demands placed on them on a daily %asis( While others are under a constant state of stress3 students can face particularly dicult daily episodes of stress in relation to the uni#ue environment en vironment of the school setting( Students 2ho have a %asic 1no2ledge of stress and e?ective stress coping

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

mechanisms 2ill ultimately %e %etter suited to handle the demands of the academic environment(

Coping 2ith stress means using thoughts and actions to deal 2ith stressful situations and lo2er our stress levels( Many people have a characteristic 2ay of coping 2ith stress %ased on their personality( personality( People 2ho cope 2ell 2ith stress tend to %elieve they can personally inuence 2hat happens h appens to them( They usually ma1e more positive statements a%out themselves3 resist frustration3 remain optimistic3 and persevere even under e;tremely adverse circumstances( Most importantly3 they choose the appropriate strategies to cope 2ith the stressors they confront( Conversely3 people 2ho cope poorly 2ith stress tend to have some2hat opposite personality characteristics3 such as lo2er self:esteem and a pessimistic outloo1 on life(

 Then stress coping mechanisms of BS Tourism students are inuenced %y the di?erent stressors( These stressors may li1e2ise %e inuenced %y their personal characteristics(

Stress

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 There are several theoretical theoretical positions positions devised for e;amining e;amining and understanding stress and stress:related disorders( Brantley and Thomason /->>70 categoriEed them into three groups& response theories3 stimulus theories3 and interaction /or transaction0 theories(

According to Selye /->7.03 the OstressL response of the organism represented a common set of generaliEed physiological responses that 2ere e;perienced %y all organisms e;posed to a variety of environmental challenges li1e temperature change or e;posure to noise( From his perspective3 the stress response 2as nonspeci!c< that is3 the type of stressor e;perienced did not a?ect the pattern of response( n other 2ords3 a 2ide variety of stressors elicited an identical or general stress response( 4e termed this nonspeci!c response the )eneral Adaptation Syndrome3 2hich consisted of three stages& Alarm "eaction3 "esistance3 and 9;haustion(

Selye reasoned that the !rst stage3 Alarm "eaction3 involved the classic O!ght:ightL response descri%ed a%ove( As a result3 the %odyLs physiological system dropped %elo2 optimal functioning( As the %ody attempted to compensate for the physiological reactions o%served in the

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Alarm "eaction "eaction stage3 the organism entered the "esistance stage( Physiological compensatory systems %egan 2or1ing at pea1 capacity to resist the challenges the entire system 2as confronting3 and according to Selye3 actually raised the %odyLs resistance to stress a%ove homeostatic levels(

4o2ever3 %ecause this response consumed so much energy3 a %ody could not sustain it forever( forever( 8nce energy had %een depleted3 the organism entered the stage of 9;haustion( n this stage3 resistance to environmental stressors %ro1e do2n and the %ody %ecame suscepti%le to tissue damage and perhaps even death( n SelyeLs terminology3 the Alarm "eaction Stage 2as compara%le to the acute stress response descri%ed a%ove and the 9;haustion Stage 2as compara%le to a chronic stress response(

"esearchers /Vermunt and Steensman3 +,,7< Topper3 +,,< Ussery3 +,,< Malach:Pines and 'einan3 +,,0 have de!ned stress as the perception perception of discrepancy %et2een environmental demands /stressors0 and individual capacities to ful!l these demands( While researcher /Camp%ell3 +,,.0 de!nes stress as the adverse reaction people have to e;cessive pressure or other types of demands placed on them( Stress occurs 2hen an individual is confronted %y a situation that they perceive as over2helming and cannot cope up 2ith(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Sources of Stress

Interpersonal

Stress is often the %y:product of conicts amongst peers3 family or colleagues( Such types of conicts are referred to as interpersonal conicts(  These types of conicts ta1e ta1e a2ay the cohesiveness that 2ould %e other2ise seen in a group situation and thus3 cause stress amongst the mem%ers of the group(

 This type of a conict conict is seen in almost every setting3 %e it home3 2or1 or even a place as casual as a leisure clu% or cafeteria 4o2ever3 the e;tent to 2hich the stress is felt depends upon the role played %y each participant(  Thus3 this conict can %e invo1ed invo1ed on one 2ay or t2o 2ay lines(

For e;ample3 person A may feel a sense of conict 2ith person B3 %ut person B may not even %e a2are of it( n another situation3 %oth A and B may feel the conict(  Thus3 stress may %e felt depending depending upon ho2 active active a person is in the state of conict( Usually3 the person 2ho holds grudges feels a lot of stress and so does the person against 2hom the grudges are held(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 The e;tent of this feeling feeling of stress also depends depends upon ho2 involved a person really is( 4o2ever3 if a conict is one:2ay3 it might result in a state of stress for the person against 2hom a conict is felt(

Such type of stress 2ould then %e called as perceived stress( t is imperative that the cause of conict %e removed in order to do a2ay 2ith interpersonal conict( The immediate conse#uence 2ould %e that the levels of stress 2ould reduce manifold(  The resolution of such a conict conict starts 2ith the step ca called lled originate( t rrefers efers to a process in 2hich each person ma1es a mention of the other persons pro%lem %ehavior( %ehavior( 4o2ever3 2hat one person may perceive as a pro%lem 2ill not %e a cause for 2orry for another one /*ones3 +,,>0(

 The !ndings on the inuence of gender on on students reported levels o off stress is inconsistent 2ith that of Misra and Mc'ean /+,,,0 and T Taylor aylor and 82usu:Banahene /+,,0(

Misra and Mc1ean found that although 2omen are a%le to manage their time more e?ectively than men3 they e;press high stress and an;iety in academic environment than males( Taylor Taylor and 82usuBanahene further gave some plausi%le reasons to e;plain these di?erences as& 2omen are more concerned a%out their living and sleeping environment< they are often

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

saddled 2ith domestic activities in their halls of residence3 for e;ample coo1ing and 2ashing< and they often attend to family and marital demands at home( 4o2ever3 among the part:time female students3 these reasons do not largely apply to them %ecause most of them do not stay on campus( "ather3 %oth male and female students on the part:time programme are faced 2ith similar stressors on the programme3 for e;ample3 changes in sleep and eating ha%it3 having to com%ine Ko%3 schooling and family life3 and having to 2orry a%out their academic performance and the !nancial demands that the programme places on them( A comparison of the mean score for the stress level reported %y the students sho2s that although female students reported a higher level of stress than male students3 this di?erence 2as s(org G+,-,,50 statistically insigni!cant /http&GGperiodicals(fa# /http&GGperiodicals(fa#s(org

Intrapersonal

Stress among part:time /2or1ing0 students has3 in recent times3 caught the attention of educational researchers( Studies have found that college students holding Ko%s e;perience more stress than those 2ithout a Ko%( The purpose of this study 2as3 therefore3 to identify the sources and levels of stress among part:time students among part:time %usiness students in a )hanaian university( university( A total of 5,, part:time %usiness students 2ere selected for this study( study( The Student Stress Survey Scale and the th e 8verload Assessment  Test  Test 2ere adopted and adapted as the main main instrument for the study( study( t 2as

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

found that Qchange in sleeping ha%itsQ3 Qchange in eating ha%itQ and Qcom%ining Ko% and schoolingQ 2ere the three most common sources of stress reported %y the students( Again3 the students are reported that they perceived the part:time programme to %e stressful( The researchers recommend3 among others3 that part:time /2or1ing0 students should reduce their social commitments and engagements in other areas of life in order to concentrate more on their Ko%s and schooling (http://periodicals.faqs .org / http://periodicals.faqs.org

201003). 201003 ).

Academic Stress

Academic stress among students have long %een researched on3 and researchers have identi!ed stressors as too many assignments3 competition 2ith other students3 failures3 lac1 of poc1et money /Fair%rother /Fair%rother and Warn3 +,,503 poor relationships 2ith other students or lecturers3 family or pro%lems at home( nstitutional /university0 level stressors are overcro2ded lecture

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

halls3 /8ngori3 +,,< A2ino and Ag olla3 +,,=03 semester system3 and inade#uate resources to perform academic 2or1(

9r1utlu and Chafra /+,,.0 for instance opines that3 2hen these events ta1e place3 an individual %ecomes disorganised3 disoriented and therefore less a%le to cope up3 thus resulting in stress related health pro%lems( The pressure to perform 2ell in the e;amination or test and time allocated ma1es academic environment very stressful /9r1utlu and Chafra3 +,,.< Polychronopoulou Polychr onopoulou and $ivaris3 +,,7< Misra and Mc 'ean3 +,,,0( This is li1ely to a?ect the social relations %oth 2ithin the University and outside /F /Fair%rother air%rother and Warn3 +,,60 since there is conict 2ith the social aspect of oneLs life( This not the only a?ect the social relations 2ithin or outside the University3 %ut this goes to a?ect the individual persons life in terms of commitment to achieving

the goals(

'no2ing the causes of students stress 2ill ma1e the University administrator 1no2 ho2 to monitor and control the stress factors that th at are responsi%le for the students stress( scholars /8rnelas and 'leiner3 +,,5<  *aramillo et al( 3 +,,6< +,,6< Verment Verment and Steesma3 +,,7< +,,7< 8ngori3 +,,< Topper3 +,,< 8ngori and Agolla3 +,,=< Agolla3 +,,>0 for instance identi!ed the symptoms and the causes of stress in 2or1 environments as sitting for a long period of time3 poor 2or1 performance3 poor interpersonal relationship3 inade#uate or lac1 of resources3 inade#uate time to perform particular

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

assignments3 poor 2or1ing conditions3 overcro2ded 2or1 stations3 e;cessive paper2or13 and many others( Whereas these factors have %een found to %e responsi%le for stress3 it is 2orth noting that in order to minimise the stress among students3 the University administrators must develop appropriate strategies that 2ill ena%le them to detect in advance the symptoms and causes of the stress( "esearchers "esear chers /Malach:Pines and 'einan3 +,,< 8ngori3 +,,< 8ngori and Agolla3 +,,=< Agolla3 +,,>0 have long identi!ed stress symptoms as lac1 of energy3 ta1ing over the counter medication3 high %lood pressure3 feeling depresssed3 increase in appetite3 trou%le concentrating3 restlessness3 tensions and an;iety among others( An individual e;periencing one of these factors is li1ely to %e a victim of stress( Although this may also depend on ho2 the individual appraises the situation3 and ho2 resilient is the person( While the negative e?ects of stress on an individual may vary considera%ly from one student %ased on their previous encounter 2ith situations and the resilient of the individual student( n n their !ndings /*aramillo et a al( l( 3 +,,7< Stevenson and 4arper3 +,,.0 point out that3 the perception perception of the individual determines 2hether or not the stressor has h as a detrimental e?ect< that is 2hether it causes physical or psychological symptoms of stress in the individual( 9arlier study %y Siegrist /->>=0 also indicated a close lin1 %et2een high amounts of occupational stress and ill health( This means that deterioration in health of the individual is li1ely to a?ect the individual

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

performance( n a higher learning learning institution institution such as as University /Smith et al(3 +,,,0 2here the demand placed on students is %ased on deadlines and pressure for e;celling in tests or e;amination3 students are li1ely to %e the victims of stress( 8ur argument is that3 students stu dents stress has not gained much attention since most scholars 2ere preoccupied 2ith the conventional 2or1 related stress as opposed to academic students stress( nstitutions 2orld2ide have not ta1en serious steps to !nd out the health of students3 this could %e attri%uted to the fact that students 2ho stay at the university is %ased on short period3 and therefore their stress have little direct impact on the activities or operations operations of the institution( Another reason 2hy little have have %een done on students stress could %e %e due to the fact that students students presence in the institution have no direct relationship to the #uality of education they get( We argue that3 unless the university put appropriate measures that ta1e care of 2ell %eing of the students3 the students health may compromise the #uality of education they are supposed to get /$aniels and 4arris3 +,,,< Smith et al( 3 +,,,< Finlayson3 +,,50(

Environmental Stress  The outcome associated 2ith 2ith stress such as suicide3 vio violence3 lence3 and drug

a%use among others have %een 2itnessed in the institution often3 and are 2orth paying attention to( Stress poses a great threat to #uality of life for

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

students /$anna and )rin3 ->>>< $yc13 +,,-0( Students interact amongst themselves as 2ell as 2ith their lecturers3 therefore therefore unduly stressed and unhappy students 2ill reect this in the process of the engagement that may result in conict /8ngori3 +,,< A2ino and Ag olla3 +,,=0 (

t has %een found that one traditional manifestation of increased stress among college stress is a corresponding drop in grade:point average /Schroeder3 +,,+0( Cochran /+,,-0 also identi!ed some of the e?ects of stress among students 2ith Ko%s as depression3 suicide3 su%stance a%use and eating disorders( Snelgar /->>,0 summariEed the literature on e?ects on stress %y stating that stress has %een related to physical and mental3 health3 coronary heart disease3 a%senteeism and the value of 2or1(

Coping !echanisms of Stress

Adaptive Mechanisms( People cope 2ith diculties in various 2ays3

2here many of them negative and uncomforta%le as one try to repel or hide from uncomforta%le feelings( Sometimes people manage to act in more positive and helpful 2ays( Some of these mechanisms are /http&GGchangingminds(org3 http&GGchangingminds(org3 Septem%er3 +,--0& •

CompartmentaliEation&& separating conicting thoughts into separated CompartmentaliEation compartments(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

  Compensation Compensation&& 8ver:doing one thing to compensate for another



2ea1ness(



$isplacement& $isplacement& shifting of intended action to a safer target(



dealiEation&& playing up the good points and ignoring limitations of dealiEation things desired(



denti!cation&& copying others to ta1e on their characteristics( denti!cation



ntellectualiEation ntellectualiEation&& avoiding emotion %y focusing on facts and logic(



Performing rituals& rituals& )etting time to thin1(



Post:traumatic gro2th gro2th&& Using the energy of trauma for good(



Su%limation& Su%limation& Channel psychic energy into accepta%le activities(





Su%stitution& Su%stitution& "eplacing %ad things 2ith good things( Undoing& actions that psychologically undo 2rongdoings for the Undoing& 2rongdoer(

 These are some of the more more positive mechanisms mechanisms or methods that can %e used positively( positively( n practice3 a num%er of other coping methods 2or1 2ell enough 2ithout doing any harm(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Attack Mechanisms. We cope 2ith diculties in various 2ays( Some

are more positive than others( Perhaps the 2orst 1ind is 2here 2e may attac1 others( Argua%ly3 all attac1s on others are forms of coping 2ith our o2n internal trou%les( •

out&& not coping : giving in to the pressure to mis%ehave( Acting out



$isplacement&& shifting of intended action to a safer target( $isplacement



Fight:or:Flight reaction reaction&& "eacting %y attac1ing(



Passive aggression aggression&& avoiding refusal %y passive avoidance(



ProKection&& seeing your o2n un2anted feelings in other people( ProKection



Formation& avoiding something %y ta1ing a polar opposite "eaction Formation& position(



 T  TrivialiEing rivialiEing&& Ma1ing small 2hat is really something %ig(

Avoidance Mechanisms. Whilst avoidance and denial is a relatively

harmless method that can %e useful in the short term3 it can still result in signi!cant internal damage and may end up coming out in other 2ays /http&GGchangingminds(org3 http&GGchangingminds(org3 Septem%er3 +,--0&( •

Acting out& out& not coping : giving in to the pressure to mis%ehave(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

  Avoidance Avoidance&& mentally or physically avoiding something that causes



distress( •

$enial& $enial& refusing to ac1no2ledge that an event has occurred(



$isplacement& shifting of intended action to a safer target( $isplacement&



Fantasy&& escaping reality into a 2orld of possi%ility( Fantasy



dealiEation& playing up the good points and ignoring limitations of dealiEation& things desired(



ntellectualiEation ntellectualiEation&& avoiding emotion %y focusing on facts and logic(



Passive aggression aggression&& avoiding refusal %y passive avoidance(



Performing rituals& rituals& Patterns that delay(



ProKection ProKection&& seeing your o2n un2anted feelings in other people(



"ationaliEation& %ehavior( "ationaliEation& creating logical reasons for %ad %ehavior(



Formation& avoiding something %y ta1ing a polar opposite "eaction Formation& position(



"egression& "egression & returning to a child state to avoid pro%lems(



"epression & su%consciously hiding uncomforta%le thoughts( "epression&



Sym%oliEation& turning un2anted thoughts into metaphoric sym%ols( Sym%oliEation&



 TrivialiEing rivialiEing&& Ma1ing small 2hat is really something %ig(  T

n some 2ays3 most forms of coping include denial as the person avoids the real issue(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Behavioral Mechanisms. 4ere are various mechanisms that change

ho2 2e %ehave( •

Acting out out&& not coping : giving in to the pressure to mis%ehave(



inhi%ition&& lo2ering sights to 2hat seems more achieva%le( Aim inhi%ition



Altruism& 4elping others to help self( Altruism&



Attac1& Attac1& trying to %eat do2n that 2hich is threatening you(



Avoidance Avoidance&& mentally or physically avoiding something that causes distress(



Compensation& ma1ing up for a 2ea1ness in one area %y gain strength Compensation& in another(



$isplacement& $isplacement& shifting of intended action to a safer target(



denti!cation&& copying others to ta1e on their characteristics( denti!cation



Formation& avoiding something %y ta1ing a polar opposite "eaction Formation&



position( "egression & returning to a child state to avoid pro%lems( "egression&



Undoing& Undoing& actions that psychologically undo 2rongdoings for the 2rongdoer(

Cognitive Mechanisms. 4ere are various mental mechanisms that

help us cope( •

inhi%ition& lo2ering sights to 2hat seems more achieva%le( Aim inhi%ition&

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

  Altruism Altruism&& 4elping others to help self(





Avoidance& mentally or physically avoiding something that causes Avoidance& distress(



CompartmentaliEation& CompartmentaliEation& separating conicting thoughts into separated compartments(



Conversion& su%conscious conversion of stress into physical Conversion& symptoms(



$enial $enial&& refusing to ac1no2ledge that an event has occurred(



$isplacement& shifting of intended action to a safer target( $isplacement&



$issociation&& separating oneself from parts of your life( $issociation



Fantasy Fantasy&& escaping reality into a 2orld of possi%ility(



dealiEation& playing up the good points and ignoring limitations of dealiEation& things desired(



denti!cation&& copying others to ta1e on their characteristics( denti!cation



ntellectualiEation&& avoiding emotion %y focusing on facts and logic( ntellectualiEation



ntroKection ntroKection&& Bringing things from the outer 2orld into the inner 2orld(



aggression& avoiding refusal %y passive avoidance( Passive aggression&



ProKection&& seeing your o2n un2anted feelings in other people( ProKection



"ationaliEation& creating logical reasons for %ad %ehavior( "ationaliEation& %ehavior(



"eaction Formation& Formation& avoiding something %y ta1ing a polar opposite position(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

  "egression "egression&& returning to a child state to avoid pro%lems(





"epression & su%consciously hiding uncomforta%le thoughts( "epression&



SomatiEation& SomatiEation& psychological pro%lems turned into physical symptoms(



Suppression Suppression&& consciously holding %ac1 un2anted urges(



Sym%oliEation& turning un2anted thoughts into metaphoric sym%ols( Sym%oliEation&



 TrivialiEing rivialiEing&& Ma1ing small 2hat is really something %ig(  T

Conversion Mechanisms. 8ne family of coping mechanisms acts to

transform the diculty in some 2ay( •

inhi%ition& lo2ering sights to 2hat seems more achieva%le( Aim inhi%ition&



Altruism& Altruism& 4elping others to help self(



Conversion& su%conscious conversion of stress into physical Conversion& symptoms(





$isplacement $isplacement&& shifting of intended action to a safer target( dealiEation&& playing up the good points and ignoring limitations of dealiEation things desired(



Post:traumatic gro2th gro2th&& Using the energy of trauma for good(



"eaction Formation& Formation& avoiding something %y ta1ing a polar opposite position(



SomatiEation& SomatiEation& psychological pro%lems turned into physical symptoms(



Su%limation Su%limation&& channeling psychic energy into accepta%le activities(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

  Su%stitution Su%stitution&& "eplacing one thing 2ith another( another(







Sym%oliEation& turning un2anted thoughts into metaphoric sym%ols( Sym%oliEation&  TrivialiEing rivialiEing&& Ma1ing small 2hat is really something %ig  T

Defense Mechanism. $efense mechanisms are automatic

psychological processes that protect an individual from an;iety and the a2areness of internal or e;ternal threats or stressors( People are often una2are of these processes as they operate /although others may %e painfully a2are of them0( $efense mechanisms can %e classi!ed into groups or levels that indicate ho2 they a?ect an individuals functioning( Sigmund Freud descri%es 9go uses a range of mechanisms to Freud descri%es ho2 the 9go uses handle the conict %et2een the d3 the 9go and the Super ego ego(( 4is daughter Anna introduced the principle of inner mechanisms that defend the ego in her ->5. %oo1 The 9go and the Mechanisms of $efense(

Anxiet and tension. Freud noted that a maKor drive for most people

is the reduction in tension tension33 and that a maKor cause of tension 2as an;iety( an;iety( 4e identi!ed three di?erent types of an;iety(

!ealit Anxiet.  This is the most %asic form form of an;iety and is

typically %ased on fears of real and possi%le events3 such as %eing %itten %y a dog or falling from a ladder(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 The most common 2ay of reducing reducing tension from "eality "eality An;iety is ta1ing oneself a2ay from the situation3 running a2ay from the dog or simply refusing to go up the ladder(

"eurotic Anxiet .  This is a form of an;iety 2hich comes fr from om an

unconscious fear that the %asic impulses of the $ /the primitive part of our personality0 2ill ta1e control control of the person3 leading to eventual punishment /this is thus a form of Moral An;iety0(

Moral Anxiet. This form of an;iety comes comes from the Superego Superego in the

form of a fear of violating values and moral codes3 and appears as feelings of  guilt or  or shame( shame( guilt When an;iety occurs3 the mind !rst responds %y an increase in pro%lem:solving thin1ing3 see1ing rational 2ays of escaping the situation( f this is not fruitful /and may%e any2ay03 a range of defense mechanisms may %e triggered( These are tactics 2hich the 9go develops to help deal 2ith the d and the Super 9go(All $efense Mechanisms share t2o common properties & •

 They often appear appear unconsciously( unconsciously(



 They tend to distort3 transform3 transform3 or other2ise falsify falsify reality( reality(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

n distorting reality3 there is a change in perception 2hich allo2s for a lessening of an;iety3 2ith a corresponding reduction in felt tension( Anna Freuds $efense Mechanisms include& •

$enial $enial&& claimingG%elieving that 2hat is true to %e actually false(



$isplacement& su %stitute target( $isplacement& redirecting emotions to a su%stitute



ntellectualiEation ntellectualiEation&& ta1ing an o%Kective vie2point(



ProKection&& attri%uting uncomforta%le feelings to others( ProKection



"ationaliEation& creating false %ut credi%le Kusti!cations( "ationaliEation& Kusti!cations(



"eaction Formation& fear(( Formation& overacting in the opposite 2ay to the fear



"egression & going %ac1 to acting as a child( "egression&



"epression& "epression & pushing uncomforta%le thoughts into the su%conscious(



Su%limation Su%limation&& redirecting 2rong urges into socially accepta%le actions(

Summary 

Students e;perience stress due to the physical3 mental3 social and emotional demands placed on them on a daily %asis( While 2e all are under a constant state of stress3 students can face particularly dicult daily episodes of stress in relation to the uni#ue environment en vironment of the school setting( Students 2ho have a %asic 1no2ledge of stress and e?ective stress coping mechanisms 2ill ultimately %e %etter suited to handle the demands of the academic environment(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 There are di?erent di?erent sources of stress stress challenging students in a university 2hich includes& interpersonal3 intrapersonal3 academic and environmental stress( stress( These sources may may have %een a?ecting a?ecting students in various levels( As a student there are are several 2ays to cope 2ith 2ith the internal and e;ternal stresses that are a part of the school setting(These mechanisms includes& adaptive3 attac13 avoidance3 %ehaviour3 conversion and defense(  Their mechanisms strategies may di?er di?er depending on their personal characteristics(

C4APT9" 5

"esearch "esear ch $esign and Methodology

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Chapter 5 consists of three /50 parts& /-0 Purpose of the Study and "esearch $esign3 /+0 Method3 and /50 $ata Analysis Procedure(

Purpose of the Study and Research $esign

 The purpose of this study is to !nd !nd out the di?erent str stressors essors and the stress coping mechanisms among BS Tourism students at West Visayas State University3 loilo City this academic year +,--:+,-+(

 The study 2ill utiliEe the survey and correlation correlation techni#ues of the descriptive research research method( This design does does not only focus focus on the description of the phenomenon %ut also see1s to !nd out the relationship %et2een and among the varia%les varia%les /Sevilla et al3 al3 ->>+0( According According to Ardales /+,,=03 descriptive research research is designed to study 2hat is3 and !nds out 2hat prevail in the present conditions or relationships3 held opinions and %eliefs3 processes and e?ects3 e?ects3 and developing trends( trends( t also see1s to determine determine relationships %et2een varia%les3 e;plores causes of phenomena3 tests hypotheses and develops develops generaliEations( generaliEations( 8n the other hand correlation correlation research according to $avid /+,,+03 attempts to e;plain the possi%le factors related to a pro%lem 2hich have %een o%served in a descriptive descripti ve study( study( t investigates relationships %et2een factors or varia%les assumed to e;plain or contri%ute to the e;istence e;istence of a pro%lem pro%lem or a certain condition( The

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

researcher %elieves that this design 2ill %e appropriate for the proposed study %ecause it 2ill see1 to determine relationships among varia%les(

Method The Participants Participants

 The participants of this study are the tourism students of W West est Visayas State University3 College of Business and Management3 loilo( The SlovinLs formula is used to determine the sample siEe( The researcher 2ill used the con!dence level of >7 percent /giving a margin error of ,(,70( The population siEe is -=, and the margin error is ,(,7 2hich is translated into formula( After determining determining the sample siEe3 the systematic strati!ed random sampling techni#ue 2ill %e utiliEed to determine the actual research participants( A list of census of students 2ill %e o%tained from the organiEation Tourism Student Society of West Visayas State University3 College of Business and Management( From From the sampling frame3 a starting point is chosen at random and thereafter at regular intervals(  The participants of the study study 2ill %e the tourism students of West Visayas State University3 College of Business and Management(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 The participants of the study are classi!ed according according to year year level -st to 6th  year3 gender3 socioeconomic status( The categories of varia%les are as follo2s& As to year level3 participants are grouped as -st year3 +nd year3 5rd year and 6th year(( As to gender3 male or female( As to socioeconomic status3 2hether 2ith year lo2 income / %elo2 P-.=6-03 moderate income /P-.=6-:P+.=6-0 and high income /P+.=6+0 and a%ove /Iational Statistical Coordination Board3 +,,>0(  Ta%le  Ta%le - sho2s the data(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 Ta%le  Ta%le $istribution $istributio n of Participant 

Category

f

R

A( 9ntire )roup



-,,

B( Hear Hear @evel -st year +nd year 5rd year 6th year C( Se; Male Female $( Socioeconomic Status

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

@o2 ncome /%elo2 P-.=6-0 Moderate ncome /P-.=6-:P+.=6-0 4igh ncome /P+.=6+ and a%ove0 $ata Gathering %nstruments

 The data for this study 2ill 2ill %e gathered using a researcher:made researcher:made #uestionnaire( t is composed three parts( Part 8ne3 Personal $ata3 gathers information a%out the respondent3 such as year level and section3 num%er of si%lings3 gender and monthly family income( Part T2o3 Stress Test uestionnaire3 is composed of !fteen /-70 items regarding the participantLs level of stress( The participants 2ill %e as1ed to chec1 the num%er from one to !ve in !ve responses& Iever3 Seldom3 Sometimes3 8ften and Al2ays to descri%e their stress level( Then the total num%er of their ans2er 2ill %e summed up and 2ill %e divided to the nu num%er m%er of test items to get the mean and to determine their stress level(  The mean scores 2ill %e %e o%tained and 2ill 2ill %e interpreted in the follo2ing manner& "esponse

Score

Super Stress

-+

 S  Sttress

56

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Unstressed

67

Part Three3 Stress Management #uestionnaire3 this test is composed of di?erent stress management in thirty /5,0 items( The participants 2ill %e as1ed to chec1 the most accurate num%er that e;press their feelings in each item(  Then their ans2er 2ill %e summed up and 2ill %e divided divided to the num%er of test items(  The mean scores 2ill %e o%tained and 2ill 2ill %e interpreted interpreted in the follo2ing manner& "esponse

Score

  7

Completely True

  6

 

Mostly True

  5

Partly True

+

"arely True

  -

Iot True

 The research instrument 2ill 2ill %e su%mitted to face face and content validity validity to a panel of evaluators composed of a research e;pert3 a statistician3 a grammarian and a professional specialiEing in such !eld( The comments and

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

suggestions of the validators 2ill %e incorporated in the !nal 9nglish version3 2hich 2ill %e translated into local dialect for %etter comprehension of the #uestions %y the participants( A relia%ility test 2ill %e done using a test  retest method( This involves the same test t2ice to the same group of individuals after a certain time has elapsed( A test or any measuring device is relia%le if it consistently yields the same or nearly the same score an individual ta1ing the test several times( f the coecient is signi!cant3 the instrument is relia%le /$avid3 +,,70( The instrument 2ill %e administered %et2een a one 2ee1 span among si; /.0 /7R of the sample siEe0 students 2ith the characteristics similar to that of the target population %ut not included as the participants of the study study(( The Cron%ach Alpha 2ill %e computed to determine the relia%ility of the instrument(

!ethod

Permission to conduct the study 2ill %e secured from the oce of the $ean of the College of Business and Managementof West Visayas Visayas State University( nformed consent 2ill %e secured from the participants and only those 2ho gave their consent 2ill %e ta1en as participants( The participants 2ill %e then given at least thirty /5,0

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

minutes to ans2er the #uestionnaire( The directio direction n of !lling up of the personal data sheet 2ill %e e;plained thoroughly %y the researcher( researcher(  The researcher 2ill 2ill personally distri%ute the the #uestionnaire to the participants( Upon the retrieval of the accomplished #uestionnaires3 the data 2ill %e tallied3 computer:processed computer:processed and interpreted(

$ata nalysis Procedure

 The data that 2ill %e %e gathered for this this study 2ill %e su%Kec su%Kected ted to the follo2ing descriptive and inferential statistical treatments using Statistical Pac1age for Social Sciences /SPSS0 Soft2are&

!ean( The mean 2ill %e used3 %asing on the corresponding value

e#uivalent to the ans2ers3 to ascertain the th e level of perceptions to2ard international on:the:Ko% training program Standard de&iation(To determine the dispersion of means( !anna ' (hitney ) Test  This  This 2ill %e used to !nd !n d out the signi!cant

di?erences %et2een varia%les year level and section3 year level3 gender3 monthly family income(

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

'nus1al  Wallis Test( This 2ill %e used to ascertain signi!cant di?erences %et2een varia%le /socioeconomic status0 and perceptions to2ard international on:the:Ko% training program( Spearmen (ho( T To o determine the signi!cant relationship among the

studentsL level of perception perception

A%ousiere3 ->>6 Agolla3 +,,>

Agolla and A2ino3 +,,= Brantley and Thomson3 ->>7 $ivinagracia3 Ma( $onna B( et( al( /+,,+0( Stress and Stress Coping Mechanisms Bachelor of Secondary 9ducation( Unpu%lished Thesis3 University of Iegros 8ccidental  "ecoletos  Bacolod City( Sevilla3 et al3 ->>+  Topper3  Topper3 +,,  T2eed3  T2eed3 et al3 +,,6

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

Ussery3 +,,

Please encircle the num%er corresponding to your responses( 4o2 often do you do the follo2ingJ

Almost

nfre

Some

Fr Fre e

Iever

#uently times #uently

Almost Al2ays -(  can recogniEe an;iety and 1eep   it from from interf interferi ering ng 2ith 2ith my daily daily 7

-

+

5

6

+

5

6

  activities( +(  rela ela; my mind ind and and %ody %ody 2i 2itthout hout 7   using drugs(

-

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

5(  res esp pect ect my o2n o2n accomp compli lish shme ment nt(( 7

-

+

5

6

6(  get eno enough ugh sa sati tisf sfyi ying ng slee sleep( p( 7

-

+

5

6

+

5

6

+

5

6

7(  enKoy my life( 7

-

.(  fall fall aslee sleep p in +, minu minute tes s or les ess( s( 7

-

( l sleep soundly at night( 7

-

+

5

6

=(  ta1e enough time to eat( 7

-

+

5

6

-

+

5

6

-

+

5

6

>(  am in control and not feeling hyp hy per 2ith mind mind and %ody goi going 7   too fast( -,(  can ma1 -,( ma1e dec decisio isions ns 2itho ithout ut 7  

diculty(

Please e;press freely ho2 you cope stress %y truthfully ans2ering the items( 9ncircle the num%er that most accurately reects your feelings( Use this 1ey 7

Completely True

6

Mostly True

5

Partly True

+

"arely True

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

-

Iot True

A( -(  did something3 2hich  did not not

-

+

5

6

7   thin1 2ould 2or13 %ut at least  2as doing something( +(  try to get the person

-

+

5

6

7

  responsi%le to change change his or   her mind( 5(  e;press anger to the person/s0

-

+

5

6

7   2ho caused the pro%lem( 6(  let my feeling out someho2(

-

7(  stood my ground and fought for

+ -

5 +

6 5

7 6

7   2hat  2anted( .(  too1 a %ig chance and did

-

+

5

6

7

  something very ris1y B( -(  2ent 2ent al alon ong g 2i 2ith th fait faith h so some meti time mes s 7

-

+

 Kust have %ad luc1s(

5

6

 

WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

 +(  2ent 2ent on as if noth nothin ing g had had

-

+

5

6

7

happened( 5(  lo loo1 o1ed ed fo forr the the si silv lver er li lini ning ng33 so to spea spea1< 1< 7

-

+

5

6

tried to loo1 on the %right side of

things( 6(  tried to forget the 2hole thing(

-

+

5

6

+

5

6

7 7(  did not let it get me< refused 7

-

to thin1 a%out it too much(

.(  made light on the situations 7

-

+

5

6

refused to get serious a%out it(

C( -(  trie tried d to 1eep eep my feel feelin ing g to 7 +(  1ept others from 1no2ing ho2 7 5(  tried to 1eep my feelings 7

-

+

5

6

+

5

6

5

6

myself( -

%ad things 2ere( -

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WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

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follo2 my !rst hunch( (  tried not to %urn my %ridges3 %ridges3 %ut leave things open some2hat( $( -(  accepted sympathy and

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WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

9( -(  hoped a mirac racle 2ould happen(

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WEST VISAY VISAYAS AS STAT STATE E UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AN AND D MANAGEMENT Iloilo City

6(  changed something 7

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