Tobacco

Published on December 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 76 | Comments: 0 | Views: 1204
of 101
Download PDF   Embed   Report

This presentation illustrates addresses several tobacco-related issues such as history, pharmacology,physical and psychological effects, acute and chronic effects, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, overdose and synergism, treatment issues, societal effects and prevention issues.

Comments

Content

Tobacco
Márcio Padilha College of Southern Idaho ADDS 201 – Goffin Fall / 2009

Before the Common Era
Circa 6000 BCE: Circa 1 BCE:
• Experts believe the tobacco plant, as we know it today, begins growing in the Americas. • (Whiteman, Day, & Nash, 2007)

• Historians believe American inhabitants begin finding ways to use tobacco, including smoking, chewing and hallucinogenic enemas. • (Borio, 2001)

Circa 1 CE:

• Tobacco was "nearly everywhere" in the Americas.

• (Borio, 1997)

Early Middle Ages
Between 470-630 CE:
• The Mayas began to disperse, spreading their custom to the neighboring peoples. • Believing their gods reveal themselves in the rising smoke, tobacco smoking becomes an entheogen. • A complex system of religious and political rites is created around tobacco.
• (Hoffman, Radin, & Schoolcraft, 2007)

Early Modern Age

Columbus lands on the Bahamas and receives “certain dried leaves" from the natives, which are thrown away.

Europeans observe that such leaves are in high value among the natives.

Natives wrap leaves “in the manner of a musket formed of paper” and, after lighting one end, "drink" the smoke through the other.
• (Borio, 1993)

Early Modern Age
Rodrigo de Jerez is thought to be the first confirmed European smoker. He took the habit back to Spain. However, smoke coming from his mouth and nose frightens his neighbors.

Imprisoned by the Holy Inquisitors for 7 years. By the time he was released, smoking was a Spanish craze.
• (Weaver, 2004)

Late Modern Age
Post XVI Century:
• “All along the sea routes ... wherever they had trading posts, the Portuguese began the limited planting of tobacco. Before the end of the sixteenth century they had developed these small farms to a point where they could be assured of enough tobacco to meet their personal needs, for gifts, and for barter. By the beginning of the seventeenth century these farms had, in many places, become plantations, often under native control.” • (Brecher, 2007)

Late Modern Age

(Wikipedia, 2009)

Tobacco in Early America

(Wikipedia, 2006)

Nicotiana

Nicotiana Rustica
(Wikipedia, 2006)

Nicotiana Obtusifolia
(Wikipedia, 2006)

Nicotiana Langsdorffii
(Wikipedia, 2007)

Nicotiana

Nicotiana Alata
(Wikipedia, 2009)

Nicotiana Glauca
(Wikipedia, 2008)

Nicotiana Sylvestris
(Wikipedia, 2007)

Pharmacology
Inhaled nicotine is distributed quickly in the body through the bloodstream Can cross the blood-brain barrier On average it takes about seven seconds for the substance to reach the brain when inhaled Both a stimulant and a relaxant Activates reward pathways with intense addictive qualities Many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin.

(Xiu X, 2009)

Types of Tobacco
Aromatic fire-cured
• Cured by gentle open fire smoke

Turkish Tobacco Perique Shade Tobacco

• Sun-cured, aromatic, small-leafed variety

Brightleaf Tobacco
Burley Tobacco Cavendish Criollo Tobacco

• Most commonly known brad leaf tobacco
• Air-cured tobacco • Curing process and cutting method • One of the original Caribbean tobaccos

• Pressure-fermented. Too strong to smoke
• Cultivated in CT/MA. Puritan’s “Evil Weed” • OH-planted, aircured, milder • Native to the SW USA, Mex, parts of S Ame

White Burley
Wild Tobacco Y1

Dokham

• Iranian, mixed with leaves, bark and herb

• Cross-bred, unusually high nicotine content.
(World Health Organization, 2002)

Modes of Consumption
Passive Smoking
• Involuntary consumption of smoked tobacco • Second-hand smoke: burning end is present • Third-hand smoke: remaining smoke after the burning extinguished

Chewing/Smokeless Tobacco
• Consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or teeth and chewing

Cigars
• Tightly rolled, dried and fermented tobacco, not inhaled due to high alkalinity • The United States is the top consuming country

(World Health Organization, 2002)

Modes of Consumption
Electronic Cigarettes
• No tobacco is consumed, battery-powered device, provides doses of vaporized nicotine

Hookah
• Single or multi-stemmed, often glass-based, Operates by water filtration and indirect heat • Originally from India, Popular in the Middle East

Kretek
• Complex blend of tobacco, cloves and a flavoring “sauce” • Introduced in the 1880’s in Java to deliver medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs.

(World Health Organization, 2002)

Modes of Consumption
Pipe
• Small chamber (the bowl), thin stem (shank), mouthpiece (the bit). • Tobaccos for pipe-smoking are carefully treated and blended to achieve flavor nuances not available in other tobacco products.

Midwakh
• Small pipe of Arabian origin • Primarily found in the United Arab Emirates

Vaporizer
• No burning of the herb, materials are heated in a partial vacuum, plant active compounds boil off into a vapor • Tobacco vaporizes between 284 °F – 392 °F (140°C/200°C)

(World Health Organization, 2002)

Modes of Consumption
Bidi
• Thin, often flavored, made of tobacco, wrapped in a tendu leaf • Low cost, Popular in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and India

Hand-rolled Cigarette
• Hand-rolled cigarettes, very popular in European countries • Prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers and filters all bought separately, usually much cheaper to make

Industrialized Cigarette
• Consumed through smoking/inhaling, manufactured out of finelycut cured tobacco leaves, reconstituted tobacco and additives • Most common method of consumption

(World Health Organization, 2002)

What’s in a cigarette?

(Cornell University, 2008)

Making of a Cigarette

What’s in a cigarette?

http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=vNCIVetOmEY
(History Channel, 2007)

Acute Effects of Tobacco Usage

(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Tobacco Tolerance
Nicotine Strength

Quantity

Speed

Frequency

(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Physical Effects of Tobacco Usage

(Wikipedia, 2009)

Chronic Effects of Tobacco Usage
Cerebral Atrophy Cognitive dysfunction

Reduced cognitive abilities in adolescent smokers Reduced memory in adolescent smokers

Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease

(WHO, 2009)

Withdrawal Symptoms

Jitteriness

Dry Mouth

Irritability

Tachycardia

Insomnia

Depression

(WHO, 2009)

Overdose Symptoms
Nausea Vomiting

Palpitations Stomach Pain Stomach Cramps Seizures Weakness

Diarrhea
Headaches Difficulty Breathing Sweating

Drooling
(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Nicotine Poisoning
Five cigarettes for an adult.
One half cigar for an adult.

One cigarette for a toddler.
(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Children and Nicotine Poisoning
Many children get nicotine poisoning after eating cigarettes or cigarette butts. Children have also become poisoned by topical medicinal creams containing nicotine.
(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Synergism
Social: Demographics:
• Masculinity • Power • Social Status • Promiscuity • Developing countries and transitional economies are more likely to consume tobacco than developed countries. • Leads to a vast array of diseases primarily affecting the heart and lungs as well as different types of cancer. • Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor. • Tobacco lobby gives money to politicians to vote in favor of deregulating tobacco.

Health:
Economic: Political:

(WHO, 2003)

Synergism

United States, 1940’s
http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=gCMzjJjuxQI
(Camel, 1942)

Synergism

United States, 1960’s
http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Bvt8skgm2l8
(Winston, 1962)

Synergism

Worldwide, 1990’s
http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=jo6MXUPI22g
(Hollywood, 1991)

Unique Pocket of Resistance

(Wikipedia, 2006)

Have you seen this picture before?

(Wikipedia, 2006)

The only country where tobacco sales is illegal

BHUTAN

(Wikipedia, 2009)

Tobacco Treatment Issues
Age of Onset and Length of Addiction

Tobacco Legality

Tobacco Availability

Tobacco Low Cost

Nonhallucinogenic Properties

Physical Dependence

(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Treatment
Self Motivation

Rally support

Therapeutic Assistance

Courage and willingness to bounce back from relapse
(Center for Desease Control, 2009)

Societal Effects
Average Shortening of Lifespan in Years

MORTALITY

14.5

13.2

Males

Females
(WHO, 2008)

Societal Effects
RISK OF DYING FROM LUNG CANCER BEFORE AGE 85
Males 22.1 Females

11.9

1.1
Smoker

0.8

Non-Smoker
(WHO, 2008)

Societal Effects

LUNG CANCER

http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=muNne9qBmMk
(Australia N. A.-T., 1997)

Societal Costs

Property Damage Judicial System

Health Care

Societal Usage of Tobacco
Percentage of females smoking any tobacco product.

(WHO, 2008)

Societal Usage of Tobacco

Percentage of males smoking any tobacco product.

(WHO, 2008)

Prevention: World Health Organization

Adversities to Prevention
Trade Liberalization
International Contraband and Counterfeit

Direct Foreign Investment

Transnational Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship

Global Marketing

(WHO, 2003)

World Health Organization

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
Evidencebased.
Asserts the Paradigm Reaffirms importance shift in the right of of demand developing all people to reduction a regulatory the highest strategies as strategy to standard of well as address supply addictive health. issues. substances.
(WHO, 2003)

World Health Organization

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
Adopted by the World Health Assembly on May 21, 2003. Entered into force on 02/27/2005.

One of the most widely embraced treaties.

166 Signatories.

05/10/2004: USA became a signatory.

As of 11/18/2009, not ratified by the USA.

(WHO, 2003)

11/18/2009

World Health Organization
Article 5.3: Articles 6 & 7:
• Tax and other measures to reduce tobacco demand.

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

• Call for a limitation in the interactions between lawmakers and the tobacco industry.

Article 9 & 11:
• Large health warning (at least 30% of the packet cover, 50% or more recommended); deceptive labels ("mild", "light", etc.) are prohibited.

Article 10:
• The contents and emissions of tobacco products are to be regulated and ingredients are to be disclosed.

Article 8:
• Obligation to protect all people from exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, public transport and indoor public places.

(WHO, 2003)

World Health Organization
Article 12:
• Public awareness for the consequences of smoking.

Article 13:
• Comprehensive ban, unless the national constitution forbids it.

Article 14:
• Addiction and cessation programs.

Articles 20, 21, & 22:
• Tobacco-related research and information sharing among the parties.

Article 16:
• Restricted sales to minors.

Article 15:
• Action is required to eliminate illicit trade of tobacco products.

(WHO, 2003)

Prevention
Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970

"Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined that Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health.”

Banned cigarette advertisements on American radio and television.
(Center for Desease Control, 2000)

Prevention
Comprehensive Smoking Education Act of 1984 (PL 98–474)
SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, and May Complicate Pregnancy. SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks to Your Health. SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: Smoking by Pregnant Women May Result in Fetal Injury, Premature Birth, and Low Birth Weight. SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: Cigarette Smoke Contains Carbon Monoxide.

(Center for Desease Control, 2000)

Prevention

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

• Large Health Warning

• No Deceptive Labels

(WHO, 2003)

Prevention

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention
Victim of this Product: This product intoxicates mother and child causing premature birth and death Gangrene: Using this product clogs up arteries making blood circulation difficult.

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention
Death: Using this product causes death due to lung cancer and emphysema. Heart Attack: Using this product causes death due to cardiac diseases.

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention
Toxic Smoke: Breathing this product’s smoke causes pneumonia and bronchitis. Horror: This product causes premature skin aging.

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention
Impotence: Using this product diminishes, causes difficulties or impedes erections. Stroke: Using this product will increase the risk of stroke.

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention
Toxic Product: This product contains toxic substances which cause sickness and death. Suffering: Nicotine dependence leads to sadness, pain and death.

(Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)

Prevention
Mauritius: Smoking causes a slow and painful death.

Canada

(WHO, 2009)

Prevention
Chile: In Chile, tobacco kills 16,000 persons every year. The next can be you. Panama: Smoking causes cardiovascular diseases.

(WHO, 2009)

Prevention
Peru: Smoking causes miscarriages.

Singapore

(WHO, 2009)

Prevention
Iran: Smoking can cause permanent damage to the eyes, nerve tissues and it can make you blind after all.

Belgium

(WHO, 2009)

Prevention
Hong Kong
Thailand: Smoking and Larynx Cancer

(WHO, 2009)

Prevention
New Zealand Australia

(WHO, 2009)

Prevention

CHILE
http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=-F8X_OZgbrw

(Chile, 2009)

Prevention

BRAZIL

http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=yJJhInXnQjY
(Brasil, 2004)

Prevention

INDIA
http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Sm5UyrEqGhQ

(India, 2009)

Prevention

AUSTRALIA
http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Sm5UyrEqGhQ

(Australia, 2006)

Praxis of Prevention in the USA

Emphasis

Legislative

Punitive

Smoking Ban in the United States

(Wikipedia, 2009) c

Smoking Ban in the United States

(Wikipedia, 2009)

Prevention

• Interaction Framework limitation between Convention lawmakers and on Tobacco the tobacco Control industry
(WHO, 2003)

The 1992 Lobby Industry in US$ Thousands

$2,004,866 $1,853,741 $1,675,219 $1,484,731 $1,444,412 $1,354,547 $1,338,659

$957,261

$865,230

$803,197 $514,447

(Ferraro, 1992)

Factoid

At US$2,004,866,000; the 1992 Tobacco Industry Lobby Budget in the United States is greater than the 2008 Gross Internal Product of 14 Sovereign Nations in world.

US$ 1,880,000,000

Djibouti

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 1,749,000,000

Cape Verde

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 1,471,000,000

Liberia

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 1,261,000,000

Maldives

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 1,088,000,000

Samoa

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 848,000,000

Guinea-Bissau

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 810,000,000

Gambia

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 642,000,000

Solomon Islands

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 573,000,000

Vanuatu

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 532,000,000

Comoros

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 499,000,000

East Timor

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 175,000,000

São Tomé and Príncipe

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 137,000,000

Kiribati

(Wikipedia, 2009)

US$ 14,000,000

Tuvalu

(Wikipedia, 2009)

Prevention

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

• Public awareness for the consequences of smoking.
(WHO, 2003)

Prevention
CDC 2009 WHO 2009

Prevention

So… …which type of prevention approach do you feel to be the most efficient?

Works Cited:
  





 



Australia, N. A.-T. (Director). (1997). Lung [Motion Picture]. Australia, V. S. (Director). (2006). Mouth Cancer [Motion Picture]. Borio, G. (2001). History of Tobacco. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium: http://www.ttac.org/products/Tobacco_101/content/Resources/History_of_Tobacc o.pdf Borio, G. (1997, 04 22). The History of Tobacco (Part 1). Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from HistoryNet: http://www.historian.org/bysubject/tobacco1.htm Borio, G. (1993). Tobacco, Health and the Law. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Tobacco Timeline: http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/tobacco/history2.htm Brasil, M. d. (Director). (2004). Renata [Motion Picture]. Brecher, E. M. (2007, 12 13). Tobacco. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Schaffer Library of Drug Policy: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/studies/cu/cu23.html Camel (Director). (1942). More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette [Motion Picture].

Works Cited:





 

 



Center for Disease Control. (2009, 06 19). Smoking & Tobacco Use. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Tobacco Control Programs: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/tobacco_control_programs/index.htm Center for Disease Control. (2000, 08 09). Smoking & Tobacco Use: Highlights: Warning Labels. Retrieved 11 14, 2008, from Center for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2000/highlights/labels/index.htm Channel, H. (Director). (2007). Modern Marvels: Tobacco [Motion Picture]. Chile, M. d. (Director). (2009). Los Hijos [Motion Picture]. Cornell University. (2008). Reality Check. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Cornell University, Cooperative Extension, Wyoming County: http://counties.cce.cornell.edu/Wyoming/family/reality_check/cigarette.jpg Ferraro, T. (1992). The Tobacco Lobby. Multinational.org. Hoffman, W. J., Radin, P., & Schoolcraft, H. R. (2007). Were Native American Indians the first to invent, use, and smoke tobacco? Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Yahoo! Answers: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070730195305AAe7rXw Hollywood (Director). (1991). Break thru the Barrier [Motion Picture

Works Cited:
 

India, C. P. (Director). (2009). Impotence [Motion Picture]. Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Brazil). (2009). Health Warnings on Tobacco Products. Brasília: Ministry of Health. Norman A. Krasnegor, P. (1979, 08). Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/26.pdf Tobacco, T. M. (Director). (2007). How to Grow Tobacco [Motion Picture]. Weaver, J. (2004). Nic- the Habi. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Cigarettesmokingkills.com: http://cigarettesmokingkills.com/Timeline.html



 



Whiteman, M., Day, S., & Nash, S. (2007, 11 18). Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Indigenous Peoples Task Force: http://www.indigenouspeoplestf.org/toolkit/traditional_use/kfai_18nov2007.pdf
WHO. (2009). Mayo report on addressing the worldwide tobacco epidemic through effective, evidence-based treatment. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from WHO: http://www.who.int/tobacco/resources/publications/mayo/en/index.html



Works Cited:


WHO. (2009). Showing the truth, saving lives: the case for pictorial health warnings. Geneva: WHO. WHO. (2003). WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: WHO. WHO. (2008). WHO REPORT on the global TOBACCO epidemic. Geneva: WHO.

   

India, C. P. (Director). (2009). Impotence [Motion Picture].
Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Brazil). (2009). Health Warnings on Tobacco Products. Brasília: Ministry of Health. Wikipedia. (2007, 08 10). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from File:Nicotiana langsdorfii 20070810-1226-74.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_langsdorfii_20070810-1226-74.jpg Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). Cape Verde. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.





Works Cited:


Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). Comoros. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comoros Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). Djibouti. Retrieved 11 15, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djibouti Wikipedia. (2009, 10 11). East Timor. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor Wikipedia. (2009, 05 11). File:Bhutan (orthographic projection).svg. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bhutan_(orthographic_projection).svg Wikipedia. (2006, 02 24). File:Flag of Bhutan.svg. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Bhutan.svg Wikipedia. (2007, 11 11). File:Nicotiana sylvestris 001.JPG. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_sylvestris_001.JPG











Works Cited:


Wikipedia. (2008, 03 30). File:Nicotiana-glauca-20080330.JPG. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana-glauca-20080330.JPG Wikipedia. (2004, 10 28). File:Nicotinana alata0.jpg. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotinana_alata0.jpg Wikipedia. (2009, 10 01). File:Smokingheltheffect.gif. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Smokingheltheffect.gif







Wikipedia. (2009, 07 29). File:Spanish Empire Anachronous 0.PNG. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spanish_Empire_Anachronous_0.PNG
Wikipedia. (2006, 09 10). File:Taktshang.jpg. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taktshang.jpg



Works Cited:


Wikipedia. (2006, 03 13). File:Tobacco.JPG. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco.JPG Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Guinea Bissau. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea-Bissau Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Kiribati. Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiribati Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Liberia. Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). List of smoking bans in the United States. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_smoking_bans_in_the_United_States Wikipedia. (2009, 11 16). Maldives. Retrieved 11 16, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maldives











Works Cited:


Wikipedia. (2009, 11 11). Samoa. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samoa Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). São Tomé and Príncipe. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Tom%C3%A9_and_Pr%C3%ADncipe Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). Solomon Islands. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Islands Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). The Gambia. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambia Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). Tuvalu. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvalu Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Vanuatu. Retrieved 11 15, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu











Works Cited:


Wikipedia. (2006, 12 30). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from File:Nicotiana obtusifolia 3.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_obtusifolia_3.jpg Wikipedia. (2006, 07 13). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from File:Nicotiana Tobacco Plants 1909px.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_Tobacco_Plants_1909px.jpg Wikipedia. (2007, 03 03). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 15, 2009, from File:SAN FRAN-1.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SAN_FRAN1.jpg







Wikipedia. (2009, 07 10). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from File:6H Nicotiana alata.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:6H_Nicotiana_alata.jpg
Winston (Director). (1962). Flintstones Winston Cigarettes Commercials [Motion Picture].



Works Cited:


World Health Organization. (2002, 10 15). Types of Tobacco Use. Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from World Heath Organization: http://www.who.int/tobacco/en/atas4.pdf Xiu X, P. N. (2009, 03 26). Nicotine binding to brain receptors requires a strong cation-pi interaction. Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from pubmed.gov: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19252481



Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close