TQM in Sports Ind

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TQM in Sports Goods Production Industry



International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences
© 2012 Available online at www.irjabs.com
ISSN 2251-838X / Vole, 3 (9):1880-1884
Science Explorer Publications

Evaluating total quality management (TQM) in the production sector of
country sport industry
Ali Moharer1*, Majid Azadmanesh2, Abdolhamed Darijani3, Naeimeh abdolrezaeyi4, Mahdi
1- Department of Physical Education, Bam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bam, Iran
2- Reigan's Secretary of Physical Education city
3- Department of Physical Education, Kahnoj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kahnoj, Iran
4- Department of Physical Education, Bam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bam, Iran
5- Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
*Corresponding Author Email: [email protected]
Quality is never a place but rather the result of a conscious effort is. Total quality
management issues over the past two decades lot of attention in various industries,
including sporting goods industry has attracted. Exercise is one of today's
manufacturing industry is very dynamic sports industry is .There's a vacuum in this area
of research, this study attempts have been made using data collected from
manufacturers sporting throughout Iran, is trying to fill this gap. Due to the nature of this
research study and application of the descriptive method of research is analytical.
Population of this study consists of all firms Iran's manufacturing sporting goods (220=
N) respectively. Information obtained from the Ministry of Industry. Data collected from
questionnaires for total quality management Shahbazipor 2008 were used. The award
criteria were based on the all quality, and the Malcolm Baldrige (MBNQA) is. The
reliability coefficient was calculated using Cranach's alpha ( = .86), respectively. For
data analysis the technique the descriptive and inferential statistics and software SPSS
20 was used to organize, summarize and classify grades raw descriptive statistics were
used in the statistical inference for the purposes of research and to one sample t-test
and Kalmograf Smirnof test for normality of the data and the Friedman test the number
of factors were used. For comparison, the seven factors in terms of quality management
education director, history of the company, employees and the establishment of an
independent t test was used. The findings are: A t test results showed that the
leadership, policy and strategy, customer focus, information analysis, human resource
focus, process management and business results in (P <0.05) There are significant
differences. T test results indicate a significant difference between in the field of
education, history the company, founded in the year and the number of employees.
Login to the company's quality management and its impact on the two main athlete and
race, suggests that quality management is a basic principle for the sports industry,
sports industry is manufacturing. Although the operating results of business and focus
on the customer first and second place in this study comprised a total quality
management, but these factors have a lower middle position of the international
standards are necessary more activities and work in this area confirm that the transition.
Some of the systems in companies such as training, reward and punishment and well
paid work, while others, such as performance measurement system, employment, quality
and Lack of appropriate conditions. The next step in the total quality management
philosophy and theoretical framework in sports Production Company examined and
finally we reached the conclusion that the strategies and policies have failed the most
desirable situation.
Keywords: Total Quality
Manufacturing Industry.








Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 3 (9), 1880-1884, 2012

Management methods determine how to achieve the goals and implement theories in practical field.
Each method is designed implement theories in practical field. Each method is designed and created to
achieve the goals and fulfill special values, with the most efficiency toward these related objectives.The kind
of organizational management has experienced deep revolutions for last decades thatit,necessary for our
managers to be familiar with them to find that what the success secret of advanced countries is (Galagan,
1992). Between 1987 and 1990, a new kind of management known as "Total quality Management" was
accepted as an effective method to improve competition capability of an organization in america (Assad,
2001).TQM was neither a magiccure, nor a thing than can be immediately treated. It was something wider.
TQM is a new method that old methods and structures of management were targeted by it, and tries to
reconstruct them and can meet itsgoals through Long-Termcommitments and objective unity. The objectives
that take much time to be achieved (Koch, 2000). Quality is never an accident, but it's consequence of an
informative effort. The quality is the will toproduce a better product or services. TQM is a process that is
aimed to genera standard to continually arise the quality, and optimized use of limited facilities. This
movement was at first started in economy sector, and then covered other parts of society. The most
important objective of this process was to gain customer'ssatisfaction and impure products and services.this
this concept is a wide concern in management, a life style and an important strategy to supreme
access.Therefore, the philosophy of TQM focuses on a stable, coherent and systematic procedure in
organization. The phenomena such as production in global level, effective accountability, offering good
services tocustomerand resources and resources management rely on information.Producers in global class
apply information as a strategic tool to remain at the best level. The production strategy in global level is to
offer competitive crops with high quality.Suitable price and giving high services to customers. Development
of TQM concepts result in changingorganizational evaluation processes from Quality control to quality
guarantee. Development of TQM concepts reflects different and variable applications that are started in
production sectors of factories and extend into wide parts of other organizational activities (Jafari, 2003). The
main characteristics of TQM philosophy in the mentioned definitions include: Continuous searching for
methods of improving quality, involving all employees, management leadership, participation
culture,customer orienting, the main idea of TQM, creating the field to improve productivity (Galagan, 1992).
The improving concept in TQM is that each person in organization should search for methods of improving
quality in procedures and crops (Bowles, 1985). For last two decades, the category of TQM has gained
much attention in production industry. Total quality management has been one of the most famous and
durable developed concepts and philosophies of management at the end of last century that had excellent
effects on the history of modern jobs. A review on the different studies about TQM in organizations shows
that the companies applying the principles of TQM in their activities have exploited.It's advantages in
different fields, (Mehraban, 2004) that among them we can imply the industry of sport equipments
production. Today, this industry is one of the most dynamic sectors of sport industry. The athletes require
sport wares and equipment throughout their athletic life. The producers of sport gears are considered as one
of the suppliers of this need that reflects the need and interests of different customers of sport industry. What
is important in companies is the quality of interaction among employees, Customers and managers, on
which TQM is based.whatever the quality of physical crops is related to good itself, in the case of service, it
depends on the method of interaction or mutual relation between thecustomer and seller during offering
services. Although many studies have been performed about consistency of TQM principles with production
industry particularly, sport production industry, there is a serious gap in the field of descriptive studies about
consistency of TQM with production industry (sport industry) and with regard to the importance of industry of
sport gearsproduction in the country and presence of a research gap in this field, in this research it is tried to
resolve this gap (interruption) by using date collected from producers and manufacturers of sport gears
throughout Iran. This paper studies the uniformity of activities of manager of total quality in the industry of
sport gears production and tests the effectiveness rate of TQM in offering crops and services of high quality.
With regard the nature of thisresearch, the present study is of applied type and is a descriptive one.
Statistical group of this research were among the manufacturers of sport gears in Iran (N=220), According to
Morgan's table.140 companies should have been selected as the obtained information in this study were
collected by questionnaire and studying par elated books and papers and also scientific resources available
in internet network. Dynamism coefficient of questionnaire was also calculated by statistics was used to
summarize and classify the raw scores and describe sample sizes,percents and calculating dispersion
significances, and standard deviation. T1 test was used with regard to research objectives and studying the
mean difference among seven vital factors of TQM. "kalmograph smirnoph" test was used toanalyze the

Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 3 (9), 1880-1884, 2012

natural state of data, and "freedman" test was used to compare the mean scores of studied factors.to collect
data, the questionnaire of TQM in industry sector(Samson, 1999). This questionnaire included three parts:
The first part of it included 15 comprehensive questions about participation and second part included main
questions of research that was consisted of 42 questions related to vital factors of TQM that six standards of
TQM are based on six standards of MBNQA these standards includes: leadership, strategy and policy, focus
on customer, information analysis, focus on human resources and process of management. Many of quality
evaluators have accepted MBNQA standards who introduce them as the fundamental principles of TQM
(Cho, 2005). Also the standards of MBNQA can be used to evaluate TQM in the sector of sport gears
production. This insurgent tool was at first presented by samson and trazoski (1999), in which five grade
scale of likerts used to evaluate. Each of TQM principles are measured by four to six research elements
which their dynamic and narration is verified. Third part of Questionnaire includes 5 questions about effect of
TQM on the results of business. If given company has used the mentioned strategies in organization, the
level of use should be marked as very high, high, medium, low, and very low. In this Questionnaire a set of
seven key factors of success are considered.
The studies about level of education of Companies managers indicated that among them, 140
managers are top managers, 39 managers are diploma, 26 managers are, 67 managers are B.A and 8
managers are M.A that the findings (in percent) are presented in figure 1.

The graduation of top manager in percent.Figure1
Also the findings show that among 220 sport Production Company, 44 companies produced only
sport crops, and rest of them produced other crops while focusing on sport gears production (figure 2).

Figure 2. Services to manufacturing companies exercise
The results of T1 test showed that there is a meaningful difference (P<0.05) among Leadership
factors, strategy and policy, focus on customer, information analysis, focus on human resources,
management process and the results of business.

Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 3 (9), 1880-1884, 2012

Table 1. Check out these vendimensions of a samplet-test with the oretical mean
Test value= 3



meaning fulness
Tow amplitudes






Focus on customer
Analysis of information
Management process
Business results
Strategy and policy







Information obtained about vital factors of success TQM in the companies producing sport gears
showed that among seven studied vital factors, the factor of business results (6.09) had the best conditions
and the factors of policy and strategy (1.99) had the worst conditions
(Table 2).


Table 2. Mean of scores and meaning fullness of Freedman test
Vital factors of success in TQM Scores mean
Test meaning fulness
Business results
Total number
Focus on customer
Focus on human resources
Management process
Analysis of information
fullness value
Strategy and policy

The findings from independent T1 test regarding the level of top manager's educations showed that
the educations had a positive effect on implementing top management in Company. It means that.the more
is level of manager's educations; the higher is the level of TQM. The findings from independent T test
regarding history and background of Company and number of personnel showed that the higher is history of
Company and number of personnel, the higher is the level of TQM. Finally, its results showed that the less is
number of produced crops and the more is focus on a product, the more pleasant is TQM. Mentioned studies
show the weakness of TQM in the sector of sport gear production in Iran that requires more effort and work.
Discussion and Conclusion
In Contemporary world, the organizations face with serious challenges and ability to fast change in
order tostrategically arise the organization is vital (Green, 2002). There are different plans to set TQM in
organizations, which are similar in principles and methods.The most important point to differentiate modern
management plans is special attention to human. The organizations can be placed in progress path by
arising knowledge, skill and satisfaction of employees. By studying the conditions of the organizations that
won the prizes of global quality shus has ISO, Baldric, etc, Zaire found that the start point to gain success
and achieve the pleasant and high quality yield in organization is development of leadership view in
organization (Davies, 2004). At stodgily studies in 1948, it was recognized that the role of leadership in
organization is among the main factors in successful function of people and organization (Karia, 2000). In
fact, the leadership follows the inner satisfaction and interest among employees. With regard to background
of studies performed on TQM, it was indicated that the factor of leadership is considered as the fundamental
principles of this strategy and as the findings show, leadership is Iran's industry of sport gears production is
of high weakness and this doubles the requirement to rein force leadership in this industry. Focus on
customer in plans of TQM has a special place. The most important strength of TQM in companies producing
sport gear is definition of roles based on process of management and attention to common responsibility.
Butits main weakness is that TQM doesn't sufficiently rely on leadership philosophy. With the TQM studied in
Iran's companies producing sport gears, the most important weakness is lack of plan inleadership, strategy
and policy stability. The available references show that there is a relation between TQM and employees,

Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 3 (9), 1880-1884, 2012

commitment (
). TQM helps organization to achieve strategic objectives and meet
employees andcustomer's requirements and makes organization powerful to face with processing challenges
Lindberg, 2005) the companies applying TQM have a better efficiency inleadership, strategic
planning attention to market and customer, information and analysis, attention to human resources, process
management and work results (Mosadegh, 2005). In analysis about TQM success and it's principles in health
discipline of IsfahanCounty, the process and focus on material resources and producers had less effect. The
human resources, structural and strategic problems were the most important barriers and limitations to
successfully implement TQM that were in agreement with this study. Manufacturing the equipments and
gears required byathletes is considered as a process in every country's sport and the athlete satisfaction is
product of this process. This process has two main members (athlete and match). Having standard and high
quality equipments that meeting this need is among the duties of sport gear producers. Entrance of TQM in
companies and its effect on both mentioned members shows that TQM is a fundamental principle in sport
industry, particularlythe industry of producing sport gears. TQM is a group strategy that should by
implemented by asset of employees of a company for TQM to be successful, the participation on top
management should be considered as a priority Although the factor of focus on customer has the second
place of TQM in this study, this factor is medium in the terms of global standards.Some systems available in
companies such as training, reward, punish and payment ones have good activity where as other systems
such as efficiency evaluation, employment, and quality and haven't suitable conditions. In next step,
accepting philosophy of TQM and it, theory framework in companies producing sport gears were studied
through MBNQA principles which are the fundamental principles of TQM, and finally it was concluded that
strategy factor has the worst policy.
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