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SUMMER TRAINING
PROJECT REPORT
ON

RAILS AND UNIVERSAL BEAM MILL
Project Head

Mr. S.S.MISHRA

Prepared By:
Sanjeev Yadav
Ravi Chandra
Charansingh Nayak

PREFACE
Industrial exposure is the most crucial part of the technical studies
in which a student is able to synchronize his technical knowledge
with practical knowledge gained in any of the organization in which
he gets his training from. I was allotted a project titled, “Methods
involved in the process of Production of Rails and Universal Beams,
in “JINDAL STEEL AND POWER LIMITED”.
I hope that the word of my project communicates the actual
experience gained with subtlety and precision, which is
unapproachable, by any other means. From the medium of this
project report, I would like to thank each and every honorable
employee of JINDAL STEEL AND POWER LIMITED, who has helped
me to gain all the knowledge in the respective production shop,
where production process was involved.

INDEX

 About JSPL
 RUBM Introduction
 Layout Description
 Various Stages in Rolling Mill
 Production Planning and Control
 Process Route for Rail Production
 Walking Beam Reheating Furnace
 Primary Descaler
 BD Mill
 BD Hot Saw
 Parts of BD Hot Saw
 KV1 Stand
 Tandem Mill

 Finishing Hot Saws
 Cooling Bank
 Horizontal and Vertical Straighteners
 Cold Saws
 Inspection and Piling Beds
 Strapping Machine
 NDT Unit
 Stamping Machine
 Wirth Press
 Long Rail Welding Plant
 Conclusion

ABOUT JSPL
Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL) is one of India’s primary and integrated
steel producers with a significant presence in sectors like mining, power
generation and infrastructure.
With an annual turnover of over US $3.6 billion, JSPL is the part of the US $18
billion diversified O.P.Jindal group and is consistently tapping new
opportunities by increasing production capacity, diversifying investment and
leveraging its core capabilities to venture into new businesses. The company
has committed investments exceeding US $30 billion in the future and has
several business initiatives running simultaneously across continents.
From the widest flat products to a whole range of long products, JSPL today
supports a product portfolio that caters to varied needs in steel market. The
company also has the distinction of producing the world’s longest 121m rails
and introducing large size parallel flange beams in India.

RUBM INTRODUCTION
RUBM has a rolling mill whose products such as beams, columns, rails of
different sizes and sections are produced using Hot Rolling Process. Hot rolling
is a process that occurs above the recrystalisation temperature of the material.
The starting material is usually large pieces of metal, like semi finished casting
products, such as blooms and beam blanks.
The overall process of rolling begins with passing of blooms from charging bed
to reheating furnace where temperature above recrystalisation temperature is
achieved (1250-1270*C).The process is continued by passing the material
through first and second roughing mills, Tandem mill which consists of three
mills: Universal Roughing ,Universal Finishing and Universal Edging Mills. The
Tandem mill was purchased from SMS Meer, Germany and installed and
commissioned in November 2006, in which its patent X-H technology is
adopted for rolling of beams and columns. The products are then cooled to
ambient temperature in the Cooling Beds.
Defects are rectified in several stages. Deformation takes place due to nonuniform cooling which is rectified in horizontal and vertical straightening
machines. The final product length is cut at the cold saws. Following which
Piling and Binding, Banning and Stamping machines gives out the final product.
For Rail Testing the quality and requirement of product is evaluated in NDT
(Non-Destructive Testing) constituting Laser Flatness Unit, Eddy Current
Testing Unit and Ultrasonic Testing Unit in the Rail Finishing Area.

PRODUCTS AT RUBM
a. World longest 120m finished length rails, and Flash butt welded rail
panels up to 480m length.
b. Hot Rolled Parallel Flange Universal Beams & columns in medium and
heavy sizes.
Besides, JSPL also produces the following
a. Indian Channel Sections in size 250,300 and 400m.
b. Indian Crane Rails in size CR 80 and CR 100
c. Cathode bars
PARALLEL FLANGE BEAMS AND COLUMNS
Parallel flange beams (H-Beams) & Columns are being produced by
JSPL for the 1st time in country with Universal Rolling Method to
facilitate ease and speed of steel.
PRALLEL FLANGE BEAM SECTIONS : 200mm x 100mm to 700mm
x300mm
COLUMNS SECTIONS : 150mm x 150mm to 350mm x 350mm

LAYOUT DESCRIPTION
This part contains the working of RUBM Plant i.e it would tell us about the
essential parts that are required for the manufacturing of rail and beams and
what are the processes involved in it. The major processes involved in the
production of rails are as follows :
1. Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace
2. Primary De-scaler
3. BD Mill
4. BD Hot Saw
5. KV1 Stand
6. Tandem Reversing Mill
7. Hot Saws
8. Cooling Bank
9. Horizontal and Vertical Roller Straighteners
10. Cold Saws
11. Inspection & Pilling
12. Strapping Machine
13. Loading Bed

VARIOUS STAGES IN ROLLING MILL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Bloom Charging Bed
Walking Beam Type Furnace
Primary De-scaler
Break Down Mill with Tilting and Shifting Device
Break Down Saw
KV1 Stand if required
Reversing Tandem Stand Group with complete stand charging system,
rolling stock centralising and guide equipment as well as grip type tilters
8. UF Stand single pass non reversing
9. Hot Saw
10.Hot Stamping Machine
11.Walking Beam Cooling Bed
12.Horizontal Roller Straightener
13.Heavy Beam Transfer Bed
14.Benning Press
15.Proposed Ink Marking Machine
16.Collection T2 Bed
17.Cold Saw (movable and fixed)
18.Length Guage Carrier
19.Inspection Bed
20.Piling Bed (Heavy and Medium Section)
21.Piling Compacter and Binding Machine
22.Loading Bed for medium section
23.Piling Compacter and Bonding Machine for heavy section
24.Loading Bed for heavy section
25.Online Profile Guage

Production Planning and Control (PPC)
It is a department which plans the production and also determines the type of
raw material to be used for the manufacturing of rails or structures. According
to this department, the manufacturing process is divided into two groups i.e
1. Rails Manufacturing and
2. Structure Manufacturing :- It contains the manufacturing of beams,
columns and channels.
1. Rail Manufacturing :- In this section, the rails are manufactured as
per specified IRS (Indian Railway Specification) IRS-T12-2009
1. Grade :- It consists of Gr 880 which is specified as per IRS
2. Constituents used for Gr 880 :a. C = 0.60 - 0.80%
b. Mn = 0.80 – 1.30%
c. S = 0.015%
d. P = 0.020%
e. Si = 0.20 – 0.25%
f. Al = 0.010 – 0.020%
2. Structure Manufactuting :- The structures are produced generally in
grades IS 2006 & high tensile are mentioned below. They are called
as structures because they provide supports to different structures
for creating a building or a plant and they have many other
purposes. Structures are as follows :1. Beams
3. Channels
2. Columns
4. Crane Rails

Walking Beam Reheating Furnace
In RUBM, Reheating Furnace is a walking beam type furnace which is used to
heat the raw materials or stocks so that they can be hot rolled into beams,
rails, columns, channels as per the requirements. Raw material in form of
blooms/ beam blanks are received in storage tables. From these storage tables
the raw materials are moved to the adjacent roller tables through which they
are conveyed to the furnace loading table. Long blooms are single charged but
short blooms can be single or dual charged. Hot blooms are loaded on to the
furnace loading table. The furnace loading table is a walking beam device
which is used to transfer blooms to furnace walking beam inside the main
furnace. This furnace walking beam consists of fixed and movable skids which
are water cooled & are fitted with rider bars to support the blooms. Walking
beam system moves normally the moving blooms through furnace while they
are being heated.
For heating blooms inside the furnace, Furnace Oil, PG gas & Blast Furnace gas
are used as fuel. Different zones of furnace are heated by cross firing burners
& longitudinal firing burners. Heavy furnace oil (HFO) is consumed fir initial
firing and during subsequent heating, HFO along with blast furnace gas and
producer gas are used in varying proportion to maintain temperature up to
required level. Air for combustion is preheated up to 500 – 550*C and the mix
gases ( BF & PG gas ) are preheated to 200 – 280*C by passing them through
recuperators located in the waste gas flue. Hot blooms are removed from
furnace walking beam by a bloom extractor. The bloom extractor is used to
discharge the heated blooms & keep on the discharge side roller tables.
This furnace has a capacity of 120 mt/hr. and its dimensions are in length –
32.5m, width – 10.8m. The length of the bloom used is around 9.2m or less
because as length increases there are chances of getting stuck. There are total
of 40 burners in the furnace. This furnace can carry up to 64 blooms at a time
during continuous rolling.

This furnace is divided into three basic zones known as heating zones and the
heating zones are named :1. Preheating Zone
2. Heating Zone
3. Soaking Zone
1. Preheating Zone :This section is at charging bed of furnace from where with the help of
skids the materiel is placed inside the furnace. There are 4 movable skids
and 6 fixed skids placed on the charging bed which helps the movement
of the rolled structures. This heating zone contains a total of 14 burners.
The burners are placed on the upper and lower ends of furnace .These
are heavy type of burners which are used for initial starting of burning.
The temperature maintained in zone around 1100*C during continuous
rolling.
2. Heating Zone :This section is at centre of furnace which has 4 sections. They are
divided based on the direction i.e East and West and other two sections
are Upper and Lower end. This zone contains around 11 burners and
they are equally distributed among each section. The temperature
maintained in this furnace is around 1280*C during continuous rolling.
3. Soaking Zone :This zone contains around 14 burners in which 4-4 burners are equally
distributed in east and west and 3-3 burners in other ends. This zone
maintain temperature around 1260*C during continuous rolling.
The gas HFO used for the furnace has a composition as
Carbon – 84%, Hydrogen – 11%, Sulphur – 3-4%, Ash – 1-2%
The Producer gas has a composition as
Carbon – 50-55%, Carbon Monoxide – 18-26%, Hydrogen – 11-13%, Methane –
2-3%, Ash – 2-3%, Carbon Dioxide – 6-7%

Primary Descaler
In Hot Rolling Mill, at the time of heating material the hot metal reacts with
the combustion air and as a result ferrous and ferric oxides are generated and
gets deposited on the outer surface of the material as scale. Before entering
the mill it becomes necessary to remove this scale as if the scale is allowed to
remain with the material it results as an infusion material which adversely
affects the material quality. For removal of scale, high pressure water is used.
This pressure is generated by high pressure reciprocating pump. The
approximate pressure applied is about 238 bar. The pressure is generated with
the help of 2-3 pumps.
Number of pumps is decided on the requirement of the water flow. Under
roller table, scale pit is required which is approximately 12m deep from ground
level. To flush away this scale, 7-8 bar water pressure is used where the flow is
very high. Whole scale is collected in a separate pit and from that pit, scale is
loaded in the vehicle with help of a grab bucket crane. The measurements of
the valve are as follows :Spray Valve Size :- 125mm to 150mm and it consists of a parabolic valve cone
which guaranties a uniform and shock free opening for water.

BD Mill
This is the first roughing mill which is basically a two high mill consisting of top
roll and bottom roll driven by 2 no’s DC motors in tandem via the pinion stand
and the top & bottom spindles. The gaps between rolls are adjusted through
the screw down mechanisms. Different rolls with different profile of grooves
are used as the top & bottom rolls for various sections rolled in the mill stand.
Bloom after being de-scaled in the primary de-scaling system is fed into mill.
Entry and Exit manipulators are provided in the mill for shifting, positioning on
the desired pass line & guiding the blooms being rolled. The manipulators have
side guards fixed on rams which have rack and pinion arrangement to move on
rails. Ram movement are supported by rolls fixed on the sides. The bloom after
entering the BD mill is passed through the gap between top roll & bottom roll
where it is worked with the help of screw down mechanism and the hydraulic
system & it is brought to specific shape.
There are 2 motors in BD mill and one pinion stand. The rating of motor is 4200
kW each. The mill is semi automatic and reduction is decided as per the pass
schedule or on basis of material shape required. The technical details of the BD
stand are as follows :Roll Stand

- 900 tons rolling force

Mill Motor

- 11760 HP and 75 / 150 rpm

Roll Diameter

- max. 1070mm and min. 940mm nominal

Barrel length of roll

- 2500mm

Top and Bottom roll lift

- 875mm & 280mm respectively

BD Hot Saw
After providing shape in the BD stand, the blooms/beam blanks acquires a
shape of a tongue like structure at the front and tail end of the blooms. This
structure has to be shaped off so that it can be fed to successive mill stand for
smooth rolling. This is done through BD Saw. BD saw consists of a heavy rigid
saw bed on which saw slide / carriage carrying circular saw blade is fixed.
Forward and reverse movement of the saw slide takes place with the help of
hydraulic cylinder. The circular saw blade is attached to the output shaft of the
gearbox coupled with motor fixed on saw slide. The blade rotates at a very
high speed (peripheral speed is 127 m/sec) which chops off the tongue like
structure present at the front and tail ends of the blooms. While cutting the
hot material the blade tips are heated and require continuous cooling which is
done by high pressure water jet.
It is capable of cutting the material at high temperature around 800*C 1000*C. It takes 20-30 sec. for a single cut.
Cutting speed is adjustable by the hydraulics and the blades are made of
special steel which is unbreakable i.e material of blade is unbreakable.

Parts of BD Hot Saw
1. The Saw Bed
The saw bed is a hollow body of fabricated construction made from steel
plates which is very long to ensure proper guiding action to the saw slide.
The guide ways are provided in form of dovetail lined with bronze plates in
which the necessary lubricating grooves are machined. These grooves are
fed with necessary amount of grease from associated grease distributors.
2. The Saw Slide
The saw slide is like a welded steel plate structure and accommodates the
gear unit for the saw drive and the saw blade shaft. The saw blade is driven
from motor via a type Flender coupling to a shaft arranged in ball bearings
at the end of which a Klingelnberg bevel gear drive is mounted to provide
angular transmission upon the saw blade shaft.
The saw blade shaft is provided with amply dimensioned double row roller
bearings at the saw blade end to accommodate the radial pressure exerted
by saw blade where the axial thrust is received by two relatively braced
angular contact ball bearings at the other end of the saw blade shaft.
Technical details of BD saw are follows :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Saw blade dia - 2050mm
No. of teeth – 400
Saw Slide Advanced Speed – 50-300mm/sec
Material Temp. – min. 700*C
Motor Speed – 1485 rpm
Saw Slide Working Stroke – 1920 mm

KV1 Stand
It is used in case of rail and heavy beam rolling. The stand is having the
capability to tilt the material as per the required rolled pass design. It is similar
to BD mill but reduction capacity is less.

Roll Stand

- 650 tons rolling force

Mill Motor

- 0.5800 kW and 75 / 190 rpm

Roll Drive

- Pinion gear unit

Roll Diameter

- max. 950mm and min. 830mm nominal

Barrel length of roll - 2000mm
Top roll lift

- 300mm

TANDEM MILL
This mill is supply by SMS MEER GERMANY.This mill is called as CCS (Compact
Cartridge Stand) mill. This is the first mill installed in india.It consists of a 3-mill
stands.Universal rougher is the first mill in the tandem mill .This stand has top
and bottom horizontal rolls and two vertical rolls.the gaps between the rolls
are adjusted by the automatic gauge control hydraulic cylinders.firstly the
output material from the BD mill which is called Final Beam Blank (FBB) passes
through this mill and it gives the shape of X with the help of vertical rollers.
Further, the material passes through universal edger which has the only top
and bottom horizontal rolls working on the edge of the material to give the
desired shape. Lastly, the material passes through universal finisher, which has
top and bottom rolls and two vertical rolls simillar to the universal rougher.
These rolls bring the shape of the material from the shape of X to H to give out
the final finished product.
This stand is capable to roll within 2-3 mm tolerance.The speed of the rollers is
1.5 to 7m/sec.Due to continuous rolling the physical quality of materials look
very good. This mil also has a fume extractor system for the purpose of
maintaining a good environment.

Technical details
Universal rougher:
Main drive motor – 10,000kN
V-roll separating force - 6,000kN
Roll drive – Pinion stand
Roll diameter Horizontal roll – max. 1400 mm/min, 1300 mm for V-450
Two high – max. 1250mm/min
Horizontal barrel length of roll – 2000mm (Two High)
Vertical roll – Diameter size- 980mm and minimum-880mm
V- barrel length -340 and 450mm

Universal Edger:
V-roll separating force- 2500kN
Roll drive – pinion stand
Roll diameter horizontal roll – max. 1000mm and 720mm
Barrel length of roll – 1200mm
Roll neck diameter – 300mm
Rolling speed - 0-10m/s

Universal finisher:
Main drive motor – 10,000kN
V-roll separating force -6,000kN
Roll drive – Pinion stand
Roll diameter horizontal roll – max. 1400mm/min, 1300mm/min for V-450
Two high – max. 1250mm/min
Horizontal barrel length of roll – 2000mm(Two High)
Vertical roll diameter size – 980mm and minimum - 880mm
V-barrel length – 340 and 450mm

Finishing Hot Saws
After completion of rolling in the tandem mill the rolled product has to be cut
to desired length as per the customers’ requirement. This sizing is done with
the help of finishing hot saws, viz. north and south hot saws. These saws are
similar in construction to the BD Saw. Length measurement is done with the
help of stoppers provided on the exit side of both these saws.

Cooling Bank
The finished rolled products with desired lenth obtained as the output from
hot saw is kept to cool down in cooling bed.For ensuring faster cooling of
higher sections air coolers have been provided below the bed.
Material is received from the hot saws by entry roller table. Then with th ehelp
of beam turn-up devices materials is placed on the cooling bed in right
orientation( webs of beam in vertical position) so that it can be moved on the
bed by walking beam devices across the the banks in steps,it gets cooled.
This cooling bed is divided into three parts A,B,C. Each portion is capable to
handle 40 meters length of the rolled material.All the three bed are further
divided into 3 parts A1,A2,A3,B1,B2,B3,C1,C2 and C3.
In this case each portion is able to take care of 13 meter length of the final
product.
Forced air draft fans underneath the cooling bed were introduced by installing
forced air fan.This reduce the process delay to almost 3hrs/day during rooling
of heavy sections and there by increase in production and cost saving is
achieved.

Horizontal and Vertical Straightening Machines
In the cooling bed, the finished products get bent during the process of cooling
and need to be straightened before dispatched before dispatched to
customers. This is done by straightening machines. There are two straightening
machines installed in the finishing area. The new straightening machine is
supplied by M/s SMS Meer Germany employing the state-of-the-art
technology. It is in front of vertical straightener and has replaced existing
horizontal straightener. Beams and column up to 1000mm sizes can be
straightened in this new straightening machine.
A new rail manipulator and lift able roller table with entry guide are installed in
order to adjust rolled stock to pass line of straightening machines. For wide
range of products and rails, it is required to elevate vertical straightener by
100mm

Specification of Horizontal Roller Straightening Machine is as
follows:1. Model of Machine – 1350-1800rpm
2. Number of work roll axles
a. Above pass line and motor driven – 4
b. Below pass line and motor driven – 5
3. Straightening speed - 0.2 - 2.1 m/s
4. Horizontal adjustment of idler work rolls – 450mm
5. Horizontal adjustment of driven work rolls – 225-675 mm
6. Vertical adjustment of idler work rolls – 350mm

Specification of Vertical Roller Straightening Machine is as follows:1.Model of Machine – 1350-1800rpm
2.Number of work roll axle
a)Driven on one side – 4
b)Idler on opposite side – 5
3.Straightening speed - 0.2 - 2.1 m/s
4.Transverse adjustment of idler work rolls – 225mm
5.Vertical adjustment of driven work rolls – 50 mm
6.Vertical adjustment of idler work rolls – 50mm

COLD SAWS
End faces of hot sawn structural products are not smooth. For making the ends
smooth, cold saw is used which cuts off the ends to a fine and smooth surface.
There are two saws, viz. fixed cold saw and movable cold saw. Cold saw blades
are used as the cutting tools in these saws.

The technical specifications for cold saw are as follows :
1. Saw blade nominal speed – 1500m/min
2. Maximum advance speed – 300mm/s
3. Maximum pullback speed – 450 mm/s

4. Saw blade diameter – 1800 and 1650mm
5. Gear ratio – 1

Inspection and Piling
Defects are rectified in several stages. Deformation takes place due to nonuniform cooling,which is rectified in horizontal and vertical straightening
machines. The final product length is cut at the cold saws. Following which
piling and binding,banning and stamping machines gives out the final
product.For structural steel,rolled products are inspected for quality and then
dispatched in bundle form or in loose form.

Strapping Machine
The fully automatic Signode strapping machine M410N-114-BRP is designed
suitably to apply the steel strap on-line on is fabricated with heavy duty
structural steel plates and machined suitably to mount he strap guide support
frames and pneumatic cylinder.The working components for the head are
easily accesible for maintenance and the replacement of wear and tear parts.
Strapping head feeds the strap through the chute provided around the
bundle,grips the leading end,pulls the extra length of the strap,provides the
tension and seals the joint in that position.

The technical specifications are as follows:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Height of machine – 3810mm
Width of machine – 1500mm
Length of machine – 10,000mm
Strap feed and take-up speed – 1.5-2 m/s
Strap tension – 20,000 N max.
Main power – 415V,3 phase,50 Hz
Input voltage – 24 V DC
Air pressure – 5.5 bar min.

Non Destructive Testing Unit
1. The challenge for rail manufacturers to provide consistency in
long,straight and flat rails, combined with dimensional accuracy and
steel integrity to deliver detect-free rails with decades-long service life.
2. This increasing requirement for products with fewer surface defects
derives from a variety of different reasons such as: safety in
use,operational reliability,extension of life cycle,travel comfort,track
geometry,increased speed,increased axial loads and increased railway
traffic.
3. For the above mentioned reasons and for the many requirement of
product quality control,the rails produced in JSPL, are analysed in an
integrated “system” of non-destructive testing and inspection.

NDT and Inspection – Details
 Supplied and commisioned in 2003 by M/s Knoee Technik
GmbH,Austria.
 System consists five main units.
a) Brushing unit
b) Flatness measuring gauge
c) Eddy current tester
d) Ultrasonic tester
e) Paint marker

Brushing unit:
 The main function of brushing machine is to descale the rail.
 The rails are online de-scaled by 4 pot brushes.The running surface,base
and head of the rails are treated by an electrically driven pot brush.
 The movement of the brush towards the rails surface is performed
pneumatically,the speed and pressure are continuously adjustable.

Flatness Measurement Gauge:
 An optoelectronic,fully automated system for contactless measurement
of rails’ flatness in real time.
 Measurement is performed by the use of five measurement heads.
 Acquisition of the measurement data is started by a light barrier and
triggered by two incremental encoders.
 The measurement heads consists of a laser diode,which generates a
light-section on the rail head.
 This section is monitored by a camera (part of the head),which passes
the read information to the evaluation unit.
 Each of the five measurement head delivers data for head shape and
position of the rail.
 From the data,the relevant measurement points are calculated which
guarantees correct measurement results even for lateral movements of
the rails.
 A unique mathematical algorithm computes the true horizontal and
vertical longitudinal shape of the rail surface out from the measurement
data and gives guarantee of a correct calculation of the rail surface up to
the ends.

Eddy Current Testing:
 This method is based upon the magnetic permeability of steel.
 It allows the continous and automatic control of the head and of the feet
of the rail at a speed of 1m/sec.
 All the probes transmit information concerning the number of detected
defects,their distance from the ends and their position within the
section.
 Base of the rails to be tested is inspected by a four-channel rotating
probe system,and the lower edges with two LMD segment coils.The base
of the rail is also tested by two flatcoils for transverse defects.
 The distance between the probes and the surface as well as the testtrack of the rail passing is kept constant by using adjustable guiding
rollers which are installed besides the probes.

 Rail head is tested by four rotating probes (two for side head and two for
top head) to detect longitudinal defects and by 2 LMD coils to detect
transverse flaws.
 The frame structure will be designed to take-up also two probes moving
devices for segment coils for testing the upper edge of the base of the
rail.
Calibration: Carried out with a sample rail (12 metres long) in which defect
of known position and dimensions are artificially produced.
Flaw Sensitivity and noise level: 3:1 for automatic testing.

Testing Electronics:
 Eddy current test equipment CIRCOGRAPH DS for testing of
longitudinal orientated flaws on the outer surface of rails base.
 CIRCOSCAN H rotating head,stationary (4x5.0 mm probes; dia.
250mm)
 Two LMD – flat coils,for the base of rail 60kg/m
 Two rail-edge coils, for base (corner),special design for rail type 60.

Ultrasonic Testing:
 Ultrasonic examination is carried out in a continuous and automatic
mode soon after the Eddy current test.
 System is equipped with 18+1 probe arrangement of the “squirter” type
(with water jet) without direct contact with the rail that allow to check
the whole section of the rail for its entire length.
Test technique:
 Test employs the pulse reflection method with TR probes which are
coupled to the test piece by means of a water gap.
 For testing the head of the rail two probes are positioned from each
side. Moreover, the rail head is tested by three probes beaming from
the tread of the rail.
 The rail web is tested by six TR probes located in two housings.
 The rail base is tested by two angle beam probes from underneath
and by a TR probe beaming in the cente axis of the rail,as well as by
two angle beam probes from the top of the base of the rail.

Test Electronics:
The NSP-VIS is specially for ultrasonic purposes design integrated multiprocessor system.The salient features are:
 State-of-the-art development.
 Digital Depth Amplitude Compensation
 Fully digitized-data processing provides adjustment of all test
parameters.
 Test parameters can be stored as sets according to different test
specification and rail sizes and can be recalled again.
 Self check and monitoring to ensure a high reliability and to ensure
reliable test results.
Calibration:
 Head: 4x2mm FBH. One side drilled hole, 2mm dia.
 Test flaw for rail web: 6x2mm FBH. Test flaws lie in the middle of the
receiver crystal of the probe.
 Stamp Recognisation: It requires a reflector corresponding to a vertical
groove min. 0.75 depth, 2mm width and 25mm height.
 Base with noramal beaming probes: 1 x side drilled hole,2mm dia
 Base with angle beam probe: Notch of 2mm depth, 3mm width and
10mm length. Teat flaw is located in the transfer radius between web
and base of the rail in a position of 45.
Evaluation Method:
 According to type,the rails are tested with a pre-adjusted threshold
determining the flaw size.
 Separate evaluation thresholds are assigned to the probes for head
testing,web testing and base testing.
 Following each test pulse the US hardware transmits a signal to the
evaluation computer if the pre-selected flaw threshold is exceeded or
remained below.
 These results are statistically checked before they are accepted as usual
indications.
 Flaws which are larger than the preselected limit are marked true to
location separately for the rail head,base and web areas.

 A coupling failure is acoustically signalled by a horn.

Paint Marking Unit:
 The detected defects are highlighted on the rail by means of an
automatic paint spray.
 Consists of 4-spraygun installed at the end of testing line.
 Each kind of defect (straightness,surface defect,interior defects etc.) is
marked in different colours.
 One colour is frozen to mark the rail as teted on end.
 Ultrasonically detected defects only are marked in axial direction in their
position.

Central Processing System
 All results of the installed testing systems are transmitted to a central
processing unit ( CPS).
 CPS allows control and evaluation of data for quality assurance,product
liability and for increasing production.
 Data output via screen-windows allows to combine and to visualise the
generated results in many different ways.
 Trend and analysis windows support the evaluation of realtime and
historical data. The selected real time and historical product and process
values as wellas the results of data analysis can be shown in trend
curves.
 The user defines the required select,sort and analysis criteria as well as
the relevant data areas ( date,measurement data,values etc.).
 The selected data and the resultant outputs from the analysis functions
are ported to predefined tabular formats.

Experience with the system:
 Operational safety requires rail testing and monitoring during operation.
 System is being successfully used for couple of years for rail inspection in
JSPL. Several serious defects,which could endanger operational fluency
and safety, have been detected using this system and repaired or
removed.
 Accurate recordings of indication positions,their finding and reevaluating by hand flaw detectors with contact probes and following
repairs are much faster and reliable,which contributes to provision of
operational fluency and safety on the track.

Stamping Machine
All the rails are designated/identified as per the Indian and International
standards employing the stamping machine. Stamping characters are used in
this machine which makes an impression on the moving hot plate.

Wirth press
This is basically a hydraulic press used to straighten the bent portions of rails.

Long Rail Welding Plant
The long rail welding machine along with associated equipments have been
installed considering the requirement of Indian Railways where 2-4 number of
120m long rails can be flash butt welded to produce 240-280m rails. The
welding plant procured from M/s. Railtech SCHLATTER,France comprises of
state-of-the-art automatic brushing. Automatic welding machine(with built in
stripping unit). Post straightening and Finish grinding followed by on-line
ultrasonic testing of welded joints.

USE OF PLC
With the change of time industrial process also changed from fully manual to
PLC based process. PLC stands for Programmable Logic Controller. PLC meets
the following requirements:
 Simple programming.
 Program changes without system intervention and there is no internal
rewiring.
 Simple,low cost maintenance.
 Smaller,cheaper and more reliable than corresponding relay control
systems.
Every machine or system has a controller. Dependent on the technology type
used, controllers can be separated into hydraulic,pneumatic,electronic and
electrical controllers. Often,a mixture of different technologies are
applied.Moreover, differentiation is created between hard wired
programmable and PLCs. The initial is utilised principally in cases, where any
reprogramming by the user is out of the query and the task size guarantees the
development of a special controller.
The hardware of the PLC does not differ significantly from that of a lot of
computers. What makes the PLCs special is the software. The executive
software is the program that the PLC manufacturer provides internal to PLC,
which executes the programs. The executive software determines what
functions are available to the user program,how the program is solved, how
the input and output is serviced and what the PLC does during power up and
down and fault conditions.
In earlier days,the instruments which are used in process industries are based
on mechanical movements of parts and creating problems such as leakages,
fluctuation and strength.
Now a days, modern instruments having different programming softwares and
other techniques. Over here we use the high level language of program
software to maintain certain temperature specifications for the purpose of the
brazing. This program software gives following features:

1. Easy for installation.
2. Easy to do operation.
3. Easy for checking and troubleshooting.
4. Exact, accurate values of output within fractions.
Now a day, modern instruments like programmable temperature indicator,
PLCs pneumatic control valves are being used extensively in process
industries. The modern instrument does not require regular maintenance.
Though initial investment on modern instruments is very high, it is always
justified, because of the following reasons:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Improves the quality of product.
Increases the production rate.
Reduces the breakdown and maintenance costs.
Improves working conditions and accuracy.
Occupies less space.

CONCLUSION:
 Process innovations and product development initiative at JSPL are
focused unwaveringly on delivering the high performance rails.
 Latest process technology, research and development, combined with
the unrivalled metallurgical knowledge, computer modeling, computer
oriented heating and cooling and novel roll- pass design to produce
exceptional quality rails.
 The advanced non destructive testing and inspection and finishing
systems that complete the JSPL rail manufacturing process ensure that
all rail products meet the high standards required for all rail applications
– from high-speed and heavy-haul networks to urban and industrial
railways.

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