Training Report

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TRAINING REPORT
OF
ONE MONTH INDUSTRIAL TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN
AT
“Bharat Heavy Electrical Li!ite" #BHEL$, Har"%ar&
IN
“ME'HANI'AL DEPARTMENT&
ON
“PRO(E'T)*ORK ASSIGNED&
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE
OF
BA'HELOR OF TE'HNOLOG+
IN
ELE'TRI'AL BRAN'H
U,"er the G-i"a,ce ./0 S-1!itte" By0
Na!e0 Mr P2S2 (a,3a,4i Na!e0 Niti, K-!ar
Dei4,ati.,0 E,4i,eer 5
r"
year #EE$
De3art!e,t0 T-r1. 4e,erat.r #BLO'K 6$ GBPE' Pa-ri
1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“S-ch Tha,7 I Give
A .,e ,ear "eath t. th.e %ih hi! live28
999Sha7e3eare999
It gives me immense pleasure to present my Project Report before you. I
thankfully acknowledge the staff of BHEL, Hari"%ar for giving me so much co-
operation and taught lots of new things to me. hich I am sure will help me in my war
future.

! special thanks to "r. P.#. $anpangi %&ngineer' to support me during my
Industrial (raining. I also thanks to "r. #. )aldar for providing me theoretical material
about *)&+ .
“All i %ell that e," %ell8
Rah-l K-!ar
Electrical #5
r"
+EAR$
GBPE' Pa-ri

,
INDEX

P!-& N.
1. #!/&(0 !1( 2
,. 1."P!N0 PR./I+& 3
.4&R4I& (. *)&+ 5
+.1!(I.N ./ *)&+ )!RI6!R 11
78!+I(0 1.N/.R"!(I.N 19
IN(R&RN!(I.N!+ .P&R!(I.N# 1:
*8#IN&## !1(I4I(I&# ,;
1+!##I/I1!(I.N ./ PR.681(# ,3
)&&P P+!N(< )!RI6!R ,:
2. 6&#1RIP(I.N ./ 9 *+.1=# 2,
>. *+.1= 2 2?
(8R*IN& *+!6&# >9
*!+!N1IN- (8NN&+ 3,
3. PR.$&1( .N #(&!" (8R*IN& 39
IN(R.681(I.N 39
(0P&# 3:
"!(&RI!+ #&+&1(I.N 5,
PRIN1IP+& ./ .P&R!(I.N 5,
&//I1I&N10 55
6I//&R&N( P!R(# ./ (8R*IN& 5:
5. -.4&RNIN- #0#(&" ?,
?. -.4&RNIN- #0#(&" ./ (8R*IN& ?3
9. #(&!" (8R*IN& -.4&RNIN- ?9
:. !PP+I1!(I.N@8#&# ./ #(&!" (8R*IN&# 9;
1;. 1//P P+!N( 9,
11. &N-IN&&RIN- 1!P!*I+I(I&# 9>
1,. "!N8/!1(8RIN- 6I4I#I.N# 95
12. 1!#& #(860 ./ /IA(8R& 99
1>. 1!#& #(860 ./ (&"P+!(& 11;
13. *I*+I.-R!P)0 115

2
SAFETY
# - #cience for #elf B #ociety
! - !rt of !ction for !ccidence !voidance
/ - /oolproof with failsafe devices
& - &ngineering control to system
( - (raining B (eaching to all
0 - 0ardstick to save humanity
/actor Impending the #afetyC
• Personal /actors D III health< !ge< Physical disability
• Physiological /actors D ork environmental factors @ problems< Rest pause cycle.
• Psychological /actors D orries< depression< aggression.
• #ociological /actors D
%a' #afety literature in regional language< tendency for bargaining for unsafe
B unhealthy working conditions.
%b' +ack of interest in the job@employment.
• $ob 1limate B its 6efects on attitude D $ob training< Incomplete@untrained<
#upervisory personal< poor working conditions< political interference.
Unsafe Act
• !buse of safety devises.
• 8nsafe working procedure.
• "oving near running part of the machines.
• )orseplay< 8se of drug< Euarrelling.
• +ack of personal protective eEuipment.
• +ack of attention.
Unsafe Conditions
>
• InadeEuate machine guarding.
• 6efective tools
• 8nsafe design@construction of the work place.
• Improper illumination.
• &Fcess Noise
• Poor housing keeping
• &Fcess heat in work place
Safety is the responsibility of every one
.ne has not only to provide #afe B *est product but also create a climate where
the safe operation can be possible.
(he safety means< not only to prevent the accident but also
• 1ontrol of occupational health
• (o make machine or eEuipment or situation totally safe.
• (aking in mind for safe operation activities for man< machine< material B
money.
3


Company Profile
5
BE!
AN OVERVIEW:
In 1:35 India took a major step towards the establishment of its heavy
engineering industry when Bharat Heavy Electrical Lt"2, %*)&+' setup at *hopal. It
progressed rapidly and three more factories went into production in 1:53. (he main aim
of establishing *)&+ was to meet the growing power reEuirement of the country. *)&+
appeared on the power map of India in 1:5: when the first unit supplied by it was
commissioned at the *asin *ridge (hermal Power #tation in (amilnadu. ithin a
decade< *)&+ had commissioned the 1;;
th
unit at #antaldih< est *engal.
*)&+ has taken India from a near total dependence on imports to complete self-
reliance in this vital area of power plant eEuipment. *)&+ has supplied :?G of the
power generating eEuipment that was commissioned in India during 1:?:-9;. *)&+ has
already supplied generating eEuipment to various utilities produce annuallyH eEuipment
capable of generating 5;;;". (his will grow further to enable *)&+ to meet all of
IndiaIs projected power eEuipment reEuirements< as well as siJeable portion of eFport
targets.
Probably the most significant aspect of *)&+Is growth has been its
diversification. (he constant reorientation of the organiJation to meet the varied needs in
time with time a philosophy that has led to the development of a total capability D from
concept to commissioning not only in the field of energy but also in industry and
transportation. In the world power scene< *)&+ ranks among the top ten manufacturers
of power plant eEuipment and in terms of the spectrum of products and services offered<
it is right on top.
*)&+Is technological eFcellence and turnkey capabilities have won it world wide
recognition. .ver >; countries in the world over have placed orders with *)&+ covering
individual eEuipment to complete power stations on a turnkey basis. In 1:?9-?: eFport
earnings reached Rs.1,, crores< the highest for any year.

*)&+ has its headEuarters at New 6elhi. Its operations are spread over 11
manufacturing plants and number of engineering and service divisions located across the
country. (he service divisions include a network of regional branch offices throughout
India.
?
Bharat Heavy Electrical Li!ite" #BHEL$ is the largest engineering enterprise of its
kind in India and is one of the major power plant eEuipment manufacturers in the world.
*)&+Is manufacturing facilities are comparable with the best in the world with modern
design< engineering< material preparation< fabrication< welding< heat treatment< handling<
testing and shipping facilities. *)&+ offers customers worldwide a wide range of
products and services that conform to the highest international Euality standards and
specifications with the added advantages of shorter delivery periods and competitive
prices. *)&+ has supplied boilers and auFiliaries accounting for nearly ?;G of the total
installed thermal power generation capacity in India. *)&+ utility boilers account for
over 53G of the total installed thermal power generation capacity in India. (hermal
power stations eEuipped with *)&+ boilers have been regularly winning the -overnment
of IndiaIs awards for performance eFcellence. *)&+ has successfully eFecuted boiler
projects in "alaysia and the "iddle &ast and continues to secure repeat orders from
overseas customers for servicing and renovation of boilers.
(he story starts in 1:35 when India took a major step towards the genesis of heavy
electrical eEuipment industry in India< the first plant was established at *hopal< and the
endeavor progressed with establishment of several more plants at different places in India
and is now collectively known as *)&+. It has been earning continuously since 1:?1-?,
with a well recogniJed track record of performance. (he turnover of the company in
,;;>-;3 is at the level of 1;225> millions and profits are :32> millions.
*)&+ caters to the core sectors of Indian economy< mainly to Power -eneration B
(ransmission< Industry< (ransportation< (elecommunication< Renewable energy< 6efense
etc. It manufactures over 19; products under 2; major product groups. (he wide network
of *)&+ consists of 1> manufacturing units< > power sector regional centers< over 1;;
project sites< 9 service centers and 1> regional offices. (he network enables the company
to be closer to its customers and provide them with suitable products< systems and
services efficiently and at competitive rates.
In 1:35< at *hopal< )&P is established and the production started in 1:5;. !fter three
years in 1:52 the govt. of India established three more plants at )yderabad< (iruchi and
)aridwar. )ydrabadIs )P&P started production in 1:53 and in the same year (iruchyIs
)P*P also went into productionH the latest was the )aridwar of these three 1:52 borned
plants and started in 1:5?. In 1:?> 1//P at )aridwar was established as an additional
unit which started production in 1:?5. $hansiIs (P began production in 1:?5. !t (iruchy
one more plant was established in 1:?5 which went into production in 1:?:. ! company
was established in 1:?5 as R&"1. at Ranipet merged itself with *)&+ as *!P in 1:9;.
In 1:?? I#-< *anglore was established. R&"1.< *anglore< an establishment of 1:52
merged with *)&+ in 1:9; as &6N. In the same year a setup of 1:2, merged with
*)&+ and became the part of *anglore division as &P6. In 1:92 at -oindwal I4P was
established and started production in 1:9>. $agdishpurI IP and 4aranasiIs )&RP started
9
their journeys in 1:9>. Rudrapur got recognition in 1:9>.-urgaonIs !##1P is also a part
of *)&+.
(his year the 3;
th
anniversary of *)&+ has been completed. .n this prestigious eve< the
company has spent Rs. 1?< >1<,3; on buying 1?;;; kg sweets< which has been
distributed among all the employees concerned with *)&+. !lso< the company has gifted
gold coins of ,3 grams each< worth Rs. ,3;;; approFimately< to all its employees on this
special occasion.
!imed at preparing to meet the countryIs power capacity addition targets toward the
agenda of providing power to all by ,;1,< *)&+ is investing more then Rs. 15;; crores
for holistic moderniJation and capacity eFpansion of its facilities. (he focus of the
initiative is an addition of facilities for various products in its manufacturing units and for
construction tools and eEuipment for erection and commissioning services at customer
project sites.
In the 5
th
plan itself< a production capacity of 5;;; " has been established by *)&+<
which was more than adeEuate for IndiaIs power capacity addition programmed.
In the 1;
th
plan %,;;, D ,;;?'< nearly 2><;;; " of fresh generated capacity is eFpected
to be added in the country< of which *)&+Is contributed would be about 1:<3;; "<
well within its present production capacity. (he capacity of 1;;;; " is intended to
meet the present indications of the likely power capacity addition target of the 11
th
plan
,;;? D ,;1, of over 5,;;; ".
:

"A#I$US FACT$#IES $F BE! AND
TEI#
%AIN &#$DUCTS
FA'TORIES
 BHOPAL Heavy Electrical E:-i3!e,t Pla,t
 BANGLORE '.,tr.l E:-i3!e,t Divii.,,
Electr.9P.rcelai, Divii.,
 HARD*AR Heavy Electrical E:-i3!e,t Pla,t,
'e,tral F.-,"ry F.r4e Pla,t
 GOIND*AL I,"-trial ;alve Pla,t
 (AGDISHPUR Hi4h Te,i., 'era!ic
I,-lati., Pla,t

 (HANSI Tra,/.r!er Pla,t

 H+DERABAD Heavy P.%er E:-i3!e,t Pla,t
 TIRU'HIRAPALLI Hi4h Pre-re B.iler Pla,t
 RANIPET B.iler A-<iliarie Pr.=ect
(he ,;;@1,; set of *)&+ forms the backbone of the thermal generating capacity in the
country. It has started manufacturing 3;; " sets. 1onsidering the fact that the first ,;;
" set was taken up for manufacture only in 1:?,< the progress achieved by *)&+ is
spectacular. (he just set was tested in 1:?2 and commissioned in 1:??. (ill the end of
"arch 1:92< *)&+ manufactured power eEuipment totaling about ,,;;;".
1;
(he table containing names of different units of the company with their respective cities<
years of commissioning and commencement of production is relevant<
Na!e ./ the
-,it Na!e ./ the city +ear Eht1"2
+ear I
P"t,2)!er4er
)&P *).P!+ 1:35 1:53
)P&P )06&R!*!6 1:52 1:53
)P*P (IR81)0 1:52 1:53
)&&P )!RI6!R 1:52 1:53
1//P )!RI6!R 1:?> 1:?5
(P $)!N#I 1:?5
##(P (IR81)0 1:?5 1:?:
*!P R!NIP&( 1:?5 1:9;
I#- *!N-+.R& 1:??
&6N *!N-+.R& 1:52 1:9;
&P6 *!N-+.R& 1:2, 1:9;
I4P -.IN6!+ 1:92 1:9>
IP $!-6I#)P8R 1:9>
)&RP 4!R!N!#I 1:9>
11
R86R!P8R 1:9>
!##1P -8R-!.N
!$CATI$N
L.cati.,0 9 #ituated in the foot hills of #hivalik range in )aridwar. (he main
!dministrative building is at a distance of about 9 km from )aridwar.
A""re0 9 *harat )eavy &lectrical +imited
Ranipur< )aridwar
PIN ,>:>;2
Area0 9 *)&+ )aridwar consists of two manufacturing units< namely )eavy
&lectrical &Euipment Plant %)&&P' and 1entral /oundry /orge Plant
%1//P'< having area

)&&PC 9>3 sE. km
1//PC 1; sE. km
(he )&&P< 1//P plant B P1RI are located at Ranipur near the )oly -anges 1ity
)!R6!R on the one side B the picturesEue #hivalik foothills on the other side of it.
It is about ,;; =ms. to the north of New 6elhi.
! paradise for nature-lovers< )aridwar presents kaleidoscope of Indian culture and
civiliJation. )aridwar also termed as K-ateway to -odsK is known as "ayapuri< =apila<
and -angadwar as well. (he followers of +ord #hiva %)ar' and followers of +ord
4ishnu %)ari' pronounce this place )ardwar and )aridwar respectively as told by
some. It is also a point of entry to 6ev *hoomi and 1haar 6ham %/our main centers of
pilgrimage in 8ttaranchal' 4iJ. *adrinath< =edarnath< -angotri and 0amunotri.
!rchaeological finding have proved that terracotta culture dating between 1?;; *.1.
and 1,;; *.1. eFisted in this region. +egendary king *hagirath is said to have brought
the river -anga from heaven to earth in order to provide salvation to his ancestors. It is
also said that )aridwar has been sanctified by the presence of three -odsH *rahma<
4ishnu and "ahesh. +ord 4ishnu is said to have his foot print on the stone that is set in
the upper wall of )ar-=i-Pauri where the )oly -anga touches it all the times. 6evout
believers feel that they can go to heaven by getting their salvation after a dip in the
sacred -anga at )aridwar.
1,
)aridwar is also one of the four placesH where =umbh "ela occurs after rotation of
every twelve 0ears and !rdh =umbh after every siF years. It is said that drops of !mrit
%&liFir' fell in to the *rahmkund of )ar-=i-Pairi< therefore considered that a dip in the
*rahmakund on this particular day which is very auspicious and when $upiter
%*rahaspati' comes to the sign !Euarius %=umbh' once in every twelve years the "aha
=umbh fair is celebrated at )aridwar. =umbh< 1::9 was the last "aha =umbh of this
century. 0et beyond the mystic aura and mythology< )aridwar casts another magic
spell on the visitor. *eing one of the oldest living cities< )aridwar finds its mention in
the ancient )indu scriptures as it waves through the life and time stretching from the
period of the *uddha to the more recent *ritish advent. )aridwar has not only
remained the abode of the weary in body< mind and spirit< but also served as centre of
attraction for many< for learning the arts science and culture. )aridwarKs long standing
position as a great source for !yurvedic medicines and herbal remedies as well as its
uniEue -urukul school of traditional education< the scenic beauty and lush
greenery...all give the city uniEue flavors and charmH a must among the sojourn centers
in a discovererKs intinary of 8ttaranchal - ! destination for all seasons.
)aridwar is one of the first towns where -anga emerges from the mountains to touch
the planes. !nd thatKs why the water is crystal clear and cool. +ush green forests and
small ponds add to the scenic beauty of this holy land. (he Rajaji National Park is just
1; kms from )aridwar. Its an ideal destination for wild life and adventure lovers. In the
evening the ghats look breathtakingly beautiful as thousands of diyas %lamps' and
marigold flowers float and illuminate the holy waters.
)aridwar as today has not only religious importance but it has another temple of modern
civiliJation i.e. *)&+< a INavratna P#8K to its credit. (he Roorkee 8niversity at Roorkee
is one of the oldest and prestigious institutes of learning in the fields of science and
engineering. !nother university of the district i.e. -urukul having vast campus is
giving traditional educations of its own kind.
)aridwar district< covering a vast landscape is in the western part of 8ttaranchal state of
India. Its latitude and longitude are ,:.;; degree north and ?9.39 degree east
respectively. (he height from the sea level is ,>:.? m. (he district came into eFistence on
,9th6ec. 1:99. Prior to its inclusion in the newly created state of 8ttaranchal< this district
was a part of #aharanpur 6ivisional 1ommissionary. (he district is ringed by
#aharanpur in the west< 6ehradun in the north and east< Pauri -arhwal in the east<
"uJJaffar Nagar and *ijnor in the south. (he district headEuarter is situated in the
Roshnabad< at a distance of about 1, kms from railway station. (he 1ollectorate< 4ikas
*hawan< 6istrict $udiciary< #.#.P. .ffice< Police line< 6istrict $ail< 6istrict sports
stadium< $awahar Navodaya 4idyalaya etc. are the prime establishments of this area. (he
district is administratively subdivided into three tehsils i.e. )aridwar< Roorkee and +aksar
and siF development blocks i.e. *hagwanpur< Roorkee< Narsan< *ahadrabad< +aksar and
=hanpur. )aridwar is one of the first towns where -anga emerges from the mountains to
touch the planes. !s per the ,;;1 census< the population of the district is 1>< >><,12. 6ue
to )aridwarKs location on the bank of river -anga< it has plenty of water resources and
12
almost all kind of food grains are produced here in abundance. /or more statistical
details< you may see K6istrict at a glanceK on this web site.
BE!' A#ID(A#
Bharat Heavy Electrical Li!ite" #BHEL$ in )aridwar is known the world over.
#ituated in the valley of the picturesEue #ivalik ranges of the )imalayas< on the banks of
-anga< )aridwar has always been a place of religious significance. (he first Prime
"inister of independent India< Pt. $awaharlal Nehru< established the L)eavy &lectrical
&Euipment +imitedM in )aridwar in 1:51. Production at *)&+ commenced in $anuary
1:5?. (oday< 3; countries< including the 8#!< Russia< !ustralia and New Nealand< are
buyers of *)&+Is products.
(o ensure ample supply of electricity- the key to national industrial development< the
O)eavy &lectrics India +imitedI was established and its first factory was established in
*hopal. +ater such projects of heavy electric eEuipments were planned in )aridwar<
(richinapalli and )yderabad. It was under this project that the O)eavy &lectrical
&Euipment PlantI )aridwar was established in 1:51. !s a result of the eFpansion of the
project< a new corporation was established on 1>th November< 1:5> named O*harat
)eavy &lectrical +imitedI. It was granted governance of all the three new projects.
Production started in $anuary 1:5? in the factory of )aridwar.
*)&+ collaborated with O=raftswork 8nionI of est -ermany to design< manufacture<
install and commission high capacity steam turbines and turbo generators based on
!.=.. technology. *)&+ then collaborated with #iemens in 1:9: to manufacture
advanced large gas turbines of advanced techniEues in the field of power. (he )aridwar
plant also successfully accomplished the orders of ,23 " steam generators and 3;;
" steam turbines and generators. (he )aridwar plant has manufactured about 12;
thermal sets which are installed in various thermal power stations across the country
which form the backbone of IndiaIs power generation capability.
*)&+ is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy-
related@infrastructure sector today. &stablishment of *)&+ ushered in the indigenous
)eavy &lectrical &Euipment industry in India - a dream that has been more than realiJed
with a well-recogniJed track record of performance. (he company has been earning
profits continuously since 1:?1-?, and paying dividends since 1:?5-??.
*)&+ manufactures over 19; products under 2; major product groups and caters to core
sectors of the Indian &conomy viJ.< Power -eneration B (ransmission< Industry<
(ransportation< (elecommunication< Renewable &nergy< etc. (he wide network of
*)&+Ks 1> manufacturing divisions< four Power #ector regional centers< over 1;; project
sites< eight service centers and 19 regional offices< enables the 1ompany to promptly
1>
serve its customers and provide them with suitable products< systems and services --
efficiently and at competitive prices. (he high level of Euality B reliability of its products
is due to the emphasis on design< engineering and manufacturing to international
standards by acEuiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading
companies in the world< together with technologies developed in its own RB6 centers.
!s a result of incessant and eFtensive innovation< this plant has become one of the main
manufactures of hydro sets. It has facilities of engineering and manufacturing =aplan<
/rancis< Palten and reversible hydro sets. (o remain competitive and meet customersK
eFpectations< *)&+ lays great emphasis on the continuous up gradation of products and
related technologies< and development of new products. *)&+Ks commitment to
advancement of technology is reflected in its involvement in the development of
futuristic technologies like fuel cells and superconducting generators. *)&+Ks investment
in RB6 is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. ! sophisticated and
modern hydro turbine research center provides facilities of model construction and
research in metal engineering< design and turbine model.
/or the treatment of cancer< the )aridwar plant manufactured a > "-I-4 +inear
!ccelerator and established a new record in the field of production of medical treatment
devices. Initially these types of hi-tech< microwave based products were only being
manufactured in 8.#.!.< -ermany< )olland< $apan and /rance. *)&+ )aridwar has also
entered into the field of aircrafts manufacturing. In the first phase< two light weight
passenger aircrafts named O#watiI were constructed.
13
C$%&ANY)S "ISI$N' %ISSI$N AND
"A!UES
;ISION ! world D1lass &ngineering &nterprise 1ommitted to
&nhancing #takeholder 4alve.
MISSION (o be an Indian "ultinational &ngineering &nterprise
providing (otal *usiness #olution through 7uality
Products< #ystems and #ervices in the field of &nergy<
Industry< (ransportation< Infrastructure and other
potential areas.
;ALUES  Neal to &Fcel and Nest for 1hange.
 Integrity and /airness in all "atters.
 Respect for 6ignity and Potential of Individual.
 #trict !dherence to 1ommitments.
 &nsure #peed of Response.
 /oster +earning< 1reativity and (eamwork.
15
 +oyalty and Pride in the 1ompany.
C$!!AB$#ATI$NS
(he divisions which were firstly established became the foundation for industrial
development of India. !t that time we were not in a position to establish such plants
obviously there were some collaborators for these establishments afterwards we setup
units with fully vernacularly developed technologies.

/ollowing table is showing it<

Na!e ./ the U,it Na!e ./ the 'ity
'.lla1.rat.r #Ori4i,al$
)&P *).P!+ !&I %8='
)P&P )06&R!*!6 #1.6!-&AP.R(# %8##R'
)P*P (IR81)0 #1.6!-&AP.R(# %8##R'
)&&P )!RI6!R PR.""!#)-&AP.R(# %8##R'
1?
1//P )!RI6!R 1R8&#.( +.IR& %/R!N1&'

(he technological base of *)&+ in the area of #team turbines and (urbo -enerators has
been created by acEuiring technological information from the collaborators.
Initially *)&+ had collaboration with "@s +" 8##R for 1;; and ,1; " sets. In
1:?5< *)&+ entered into technical collaboration agreement with "@s #iemens-=8<
-ermany to acEuire the know-how and know-why for turbine generator sets up to 1;;;
". (his collaboration still continues.(his helps *)&+ to keep pace with the worldwide
technological progress and offer state of the art eEuipment to itKs customer.
8nder this collaboration agreement< *)&+ has established strong design< manufacturing
and servicing base for unit up to 3;; " ratings.
!fterwards many more collaborations took place as reEuired for different products at
different units< the table would be helpful in the conteFt<
Pr."-ct '.lla1.rati.,
(hermal sets< hydro sets< motors
and control gears
Prommash-&Fports
8##R
*ypass and pressure reducing
#ystem
#ulJer *rothers +td.
#witJerland
&lectronic automation systems #iemens !-
-ermany
/rancis type hydro turbines -eneral &lectric
1anada
"oisture separator reheaters *aloke duerr
-ermany
1hristmus trees and conventional
wellhead assemblies
National .il ell
8#!
#team turbine< generators and #iemens !-
!Fial condensers -ermany
19
Pr."-ct '.lla1.rati.,
-as turbines -eneral &lectric 1o.
8#!
(ube mills #tein Industries
/rance
6ry type transformers "ay B 1hriste
-ermany
*UA!ITY C$NF$#%ATI$N
Quality policy of BHEL says
P(. "!IN(!IN ! +&!6IN- P.#I(I.N !# ! #8PP+I&R ./ 78!+I(0
PR.681(#< #0#(&"# B #&R4I1&# (. N!(I.N!+ @ IN(&RN!(I.N!+
#(!N6!R6# (. "&&( ()& R&78IR&"&N(# ./ 18#(."&RP
7uality is in fact a way of life in *)&+. *e it in incoming material< in process<
machining< assembly or testing< P7ualityP is the watchword. 7uality !ssurance B
1ontrol #ystem< 7uality Plans and /ield 7uality !ssurance are aids to total Euality
concept.
!s a testimony to eFcellent Euality consciousness in *)&+< *47I with accreditation
from 8=< )olland and -ermany has certified )&&P )ardwar with the prestigious I#.
:;;1 for all its products and services.
e follow various National@ International standards like I&1< !N#I< !#"&< 6IN etc. at
all the stages of product cycle.
1:
INTE#NATI$NA! $&E#ATI$NS
*)!R!( )&!40 &+&1(RI1!+# +I"I(&6 has over the years< established its
references in over 3; countries of the world< ranging from 8nited #tates in the west to
New Nealand in the far east. (hese references encompass almost the entire product
range of *)!R!( )&!40 &+&1(RI1!+# +I"I(&6< covering turnkey power
projects< rehabilitation projects< besides a wide variety of products like switch gear<
transformers< heat eFchangers< insulators< castings and forgings.
#ome of the< major
successes achieved by the company have been in .man< #audi !rabia< +ibya< -reece<
1yprus< "alta< &gypt< *angladesh< !Jerbaijan< #rilanka< IraE etc. &Fecution of
overseas projects has also provided *)!R!( )&!40 &+&1(RI1!+# +I"I(&6 the
eFperience of working with world D renowned consulting organiJation and inspection
agencies.

(he company has been successful in meeting demanding reEuirements of both
domestic and international markers< in terms of compleFity of the works as well as the
technological< 7uality and reEuirements viJ. /inancing package< eFtended warrantees<
associated operations B maintenance etc. (he success in area of rehabilitation and life
eFtension of power projects has established *)!R!( )&!40 &+&1(RI1!+#
+I"I(&6 as a comparable alternative to the original eEuipment manufacturers for such
power plants.
,;
BUSINESS ACTI"ITIES
*usiness activities of *)&+ can be classified as
1. Power sector
a. -eneration
b. (ransmission
,. Industries
a. (ransportation
b. (elecommunication
c. Renewable energy
d. .ther industries
2. International operations
P.%er Ge,erati., Sect.r
Power generation sector comprises thermal gases hydro and nuclear power plant
business. !s of 21-2-,;;> *)&+ supplied sets account of nearly ?1,33 " or 5>G of
the total installed capacity of 111131 " in the country as against nil till 1:5:-?;.
*)&+ has turnkey capabilities for eFecuting power projects from concept to
commissioning. It process the technology and capability to produce thermal sets with
super critical parameters up to 1;;;" unit rating and gas turbine generator sets of up
to ,3; " unit rating. 1ogeneration and combined cycle plants have been introduced to
achieve higher plant efficiencies. (o make efficient use of high ash content coal available
in India< *)&+ supplies circulating fluidiJed bed combustion boiler to both thermal and
combined cycle power plants.
(he company manufactures ,23 " Nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced
production of 3;; " nuclear turbine generator sets.
1ustom-made hydro sets of /ransis< Pelton< =aplan types for different head discharge
combinations are also engineered and manufactured by *)&+. In all< orders for more
than ?;; utility sets of thermal< hydro< gas and nuclear have been placed on the company
as on date. (he power plant eEuipment manufactured by *)&+ is based on the
,1
contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world< and is also internationally
competitive.
(he company has proven eFpertise in plant performance improvement through
renovation< moderniJation and up rating of a variety of power plant eEuipment< beside
specialiJed know-how of residual life assessment< health diagnostics and life eFtensions
of plants.
P.%er Tra,!ii.,
*)&+ also supplies a wide range of transmission and systems of up to >;; k4 class.
(hese include high- voltage power and instrument transformers< shunt and series reactors<
#/ switch gear< 22 k4 gas insulated sub-station capacitors< insulators etc. /or economic
transmission of bulk power over long distances< high voltage direct current systems are
supplied. #eries and shunt compensation systems< to minimiJe transmissions losses< have
also been supplied.
Tra,3.rtati.,
"ost of the trains operated by Indian railways including the metros in 1alcutta are
eEuipped with *)&+Is traction electric and traction control eEuipment. (he company
supplies electric locomotives to Indian railways and diesel shunting locomotives to
various industries. 3;;;@>5;; hp !1@61 locomotives developed and manufactured by
*)&+ have been supplied to Indian railways. *attery powered road vehicles are also
manufactured by the company.
*)&+ also supplies traction electrics and traction control eEuipment for electric locos<
diesel electric locos< &"8s and 6&"8s to the railways.
Re,e%a1le E,er4y
(echnologies that can be offered by *)&+ for eFploiting non conventional and
renewable sources of energy include wind electric generators< solar power based water
pump< lighting and heating systems.
(he company manufactures wind electric generators of unit siJe up to ,3; k for wind
forms< to meet the growing demand for harnessing wind energy.
Other I,"-trie
*)&+ is a major contributor of eEuipment and systems to industries such as
,,
1ement
#ugar
/ertiliJer
Refineries
Petrochemicals
#teel
Paper etc.
(he range of systems and eEuipments supplied includes captive power plants< 6- power
plants< high speed industrial drive turbines< industrial boilers and auFiliaries< waste heat
recovery boilers< gas turbines< heat eFchangers and pressure vessels centrifugal
compressors< electrical machines< pumps< valves< seamless steel tubes and process
controls.
1ontrol system for process industries and control B instrumentation systems for power
plant for power plants< defense and other applications.
(he company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to help augment
the supply of drinking water to people.
,2
%ANUFACTU#IN+ FACI!ITIES
)&&P )ardwar plant is eEuipped with most modern and sophisticated machine tools<
facilities and test eEuipment to manufacture and test generators up to 1;;; " rating<
which includeC
• "ost modern micalastic insulation plant for stator bars
• .verspeed and vacuum balancing tunnel
,>
• =oellmann rotor slot milling machine up to maFimum barrel length of ?;;; mm<
barrel dia. of 19;; mm and rotor weight of ,,3 tons
• (wo computeriJed test beds to test large siJe generators up to 1;;; "
• otan 1N1 horiJontal boring machine
• 1enter lathe machine up to maF. length of 15 m and dia. of 2.13 m
• Insulation life endurance test assessment facility
*esides these< )&&P has also set up a -enerator Research Institute with an objective to
develop basic know-how and know-why through eFperimental studies for reliable<
efficient and optimum design of generators and improve their performance in service.
C!ASSIFICATI$N $F &#$DUCTS
!ccording to industries to which they are meant to< classification of the products can be
done as followsC -
P.%er 4e,erati., a," tra,!ii.,
,3
#team turbine-generator sets B auFiliaries
*oiler and boiler auFiliaries
.nce-through boilers
Nuclear power generation eEuipment
)ydro turbine generator sets and auFiliaries
"ini@"icro )ydro -enerator #ets
-as (urbine -enerator #ets
aste )eat Recovery *oilers
)eat &Fchangers
1ondensers
*owl "ills and (ube "ills
-ravimetric /eeders
Regenerative !ir /ree )eaters
&lectrostatic Precipitators
*ag /ilters
4alves
Pumps
&lectrical "achines
Piping #ystems
P.%er Ditri1-ti.,
#ynchronous 1ondensers
#witchgear
1ontrol gear
6istributed 6igital 1ontrol for Power #tations
*us 6ucts
Rectifiers
Porcelain Insulators
1eralin
Syte! > Service
(urnkey 8tility Power #tations@ &pc 1ontracts
1aptive Power Plants
1ogeneration #ystems
1ombined 1ycle Power Plants
"oderniJation B Renovation .f Power #tations
R+! #tudies
#witchyards and #ubstations
)461 (ransmission #ystems
#hunt and #eries 1ompensation #ystems
Power #ystem !nalysis
&raction< 1ommissioning B .perations
1onsultancy B 1onstruction #ervices
,5
I,"-trie
#team (urbine -enerator #ets
-as (urbine -enerator #ets
6iesel &ngine *ased -enerators
Industrial #ystem -enerators
)eat Recovery #team -enerators
/luid *ed 1ombustion *oilers
6rive B "arine (urbines
Industrial )eat &Fchangers
1entrifugal 1ompressors
Industrial 4alves
Reactors
1olumns
Pressure 4essels
Pumps
Industrial /ans
#eamless #teel (ubes
/abric /ilters
!c@6c "otors
4ariable #peed !c 6rives
&lectronic 1ontrol gear and !utomation
E:-i3!e,t
661 for Process Industries
(hyrister &Euipment
Power 6evices
&nergy "eters
(ransformers
#witchgear
Insulators
1apacitors
*road -auge !1 @ 61 +ocomotives
6iesel &lectric #hunting +ocomotives
(raction "otors and 1ontrol &Euipment
&lectric (rolley *uses
!c@6c &lectric "ultiple 8nits
6rives and 1ontrols for "etro #ystems
*attery .perated Passenger 4ans
.il Rigs and .il /ield &Euipment
6igital #witching #ystems
A-"as (rees and ell )eads
1athodic Protection &Euipment
Rural !utomatic &Fchange
#imulators
,?
ind &lectric -enerators
#olar Powered ater Pumps
#olar ater )eating #ystems
Photo 4oltaic #ystems
6efense &Euipments
$B,ECTI"ES
 (o plan the manpower reEuirement B budget the human resources with necessary
Eualification< skills< aptitude< merit B suitability in accordance with the
organiJational reEuirements.
 (o ensure that the company attracts B retains the best of personnel in each of the
areas of functioning.
,9
 (o focus on placement of employees in the job to which they are best fitted.
 (o adapt to B fulfill the socioeconomic commitment of the govt. to the
unfortunate@minority sections.
 (o systematically build up a model system for the guidance of B emulation by other
enterprises both in the public B private sectors.
• Personnel %.& B Policy'
• Personnel %& B 1 @ IR'
• .peration cell
• elfare
• 1anteen
• -eneral !dministration cell @ legal
• +aw
• Recruitment cell
• +iaison cell
• "anpower Planning
eavy Electrical E-.ip/ent &lant 0EE&1'
arid2ar
,:
)eavy &lectrical &Euipment Plant< )aridwar is one of the major manufacturing units of
*)&+. It has achieved an all time high turnover of Rs. 15>1 crores in ,;;3 D ,;;5. (he
,1;< ,3; and 3;; " thermal sets< made by )&&P< constitute 53G of total thermal coal
based power plants. (hese contribute to ?1 G of total generated by coal based thermal
sets in the country. )&&P shares in the total installed capacity of the nation have
continuously grown over the years. In ,;;3 D ;5 )&&P added 1,3; " to national grid
and 21, " added in +ibya by eFports. Product profile of )&&P consists of :1.3 G
share of turnover as thermal< gas and nuclear turbine generator sets and rest as hydro
turbine generator sets< !1 motors and #R-" guns for defense. )&&P customer profile
ranges from #tate &lectricity *oards< -overnmentH power utilities like N(P1< NP1<
N)P1 to IPPIs like Reliance &nergy. )&&P has also eFported gas turbine sets to +ibya
and IraE. P# regions of *)&+ are its key internal costumers. (he key costumer N(P1
has drawn up plans for capacity addition of 1?;;; " by ,;1,. )&&P has planned for
eFecution of 2><51: " by ,;1,. to meet the emerging challenges the focus is given on
increasing manufacturing capacity and introduction of new technologies %2;;@ 23;@ 9;;
" thermal sets'. It helped )&&P to maintain its leading position in the domestic
market. )&&P obtained orders worth Rs. 1>9> crores in ,;;3 D ;5 taking total order book
to record Rs. 295: crores. (o meet the 11
th
3 D year plan target of adding 5,3,: "<
1&! has planned addition of ,2 nos. standard 3;; " sets for faster project eFecution
and cost reduction. )&&P is a part of this process. )&&P is strategically concentrate on
higher rating coal based thermal sets to fulfill the countryIs vision of adding 1;?<;;;
" capacity to achieve LPower on 6emandM by ,;1,.
"uch before the manufacturing of the first electrical machine at )&&P *)&+
)aridwar< the )R6 1entre was established in the year 1:52. known as (echnical training
#chool in the yesteryears< the foundation stone of )R6 was laid on 1?th $uly 1:52 by the
then 1hief "inister of 8ttar Pradesh< +ate #hri 1.*.-upta. (he (echnical (raining
#chool of 1:52 became popular as (raining #chool in the later years. In fact the campus
and building of )R6 was the first to be built in *)&+ (ownship. (he earlier years saw
training of first batch of artisans and engineers in the erstwhile O(echnical (raining
#choolI. (he 1entre was utiliJed for large scales fabrication activity< which helped the
erection of )eavy &lectrical &Euipment Plant.
.ver a period of 25 long years spanning more than three decades< the center has grown
both in its field of activities and magnitude of efforts made to develop human resource.
Initially the objective was solely training of artisans who were to man the plant of )&&P.
#kill training in the various trades relevant to the plant was indeed the primary goal. (he
scope and function of the 1entre later eFpanded to include training of supervisors<
engineers and managers. (he growth of 1enter kept pace with the demands of changing
technology and compleFities of management due to ever changing environment
conditions.
&#$DUCT &#$FI!E $F EE&
Sr2N.2 PRODU'T RANGE
2;
62
?2
52
@2
A2
B2
C2
D2
E2

(hermal sets
)ydro sets
-as (urbines 1ombined
1ycle Power Plant.

&lectrical "achines.
"edical eEuipment.
&Euipment for Nuclear
Power Plant.
1ontrol Panel.
!viation.
6efense eEuipment.
#team (urbines B (urbo -enerators
of unit siJe up to 1;;; ".
1ustom-built conventional )ydro (urbine of
=aplan< /rancis B Pelton with matching
generators up to ,3; " unit siJe.
5;<13; B ,;; ".I#. Ratings.
ith #team (urbines up to 2;; ".
"edium B +arge siJed !1@61 &lectrical
"achines various capacities up to ,;"
>-5 "e4 +inac !ccelerator "achine for
treatment of cancer.
(urbines B generators up to 3;;"
#team generator up to 3;;" unit siJe<
Reheaters@#eparators< )eat eFchangers B
pressure vessels.
1ontrol panel for voltage up to >;; k B
control desks for generating stations B &"4
sub-stations.
+ight aircraft namely L#!(I.
Naval guns with collaboration of Italy.
!t present nearly 2?G of the countryIs electrical energy is generated from the sets
manufactured by *)&+< )ardwar. /oundry /orging Plant %1//P' is located.
21
&#$DUCT &#$FI!E $F CFF&
#r.No. PRODU'T RANGE
62
?2
52
@2
#teel castings.
#teel forging shafts.
Rings.
6iscs.
8p to 3; (@pc.wt.
1ast weld up to
9;(@pc.wt.
8p to 33(@pc.wt.
"aF. 6ia ,;;; mm.
+ength D 1>m.
"aF. 6ia 2;;;mm.
(hickness- 29;;mm.
"aF. 6ia. 23;;mm.
(hickness-variable.
2,
Description of 8
Blocks
22
CHART SHOWING THE DIFFERENT BLOCKS OF
B.H.E.L HARDWAR
2>
*)!R!( )&!40 &+&1(RI1!+# +(6.
HARD*AR
)ARDWAR
HEEP #HEA;+EL E'TRI'AL
EFUIPMENT PLANT$
'FFP #'ENTRAL FOUNDAR+
FORGED PLANT$
BLO'K9?0 HEA;+ FABRI'ATION SHOP
BLO'K950 TURBINE MANUFA'TURING BLO'K
BLO'K9@0 'IM #'OILS > INSULATION MANU9
FA'TURING$ BLO'K
BLO'K9A0 'ONDEN'ER FABRI'ATION >
FORGR BLO'K
BLO'K9B0 FABRI'ATION SHOP, DIE SHOP,
STAMPING SHOP$
BLO'K9C0 'ARPANTAR+ SHOP
BLO'K9D0 HEAT EG'HANGER SHOP
BLO'K960 ELE'TRI'AL MA'HINE SHOP
DESC#I&TI$N $F 3 B!$C4S $F EE&
BLO'K96 (his is the main block of )&&P named as &lectrical "achine #hop. (he main
products of this block D1 are turbo generators< hydro generators B !1 and 61 motors. In
this block there are 2 bays which are known as )"# %)eavy "achine #hop'.In this shop
all components of generators B motors are manufactured on different machines such as
+athes< vertical B horiJontal boring machines and vertical B horiJontal milling
machines. (here is also one important dept. .*I %.ver speed *alancing Installation' in
which balancing of Rotors of generators B motors is carried out. inding of generators
B motors is also done.
VIEW OF BLOCK - 1
O!TER CASING OF H"DRO GENERATOR
23
Some of the important machines of block 1 are as shon ahea!" #

#=.6! +!()& "!1)IN& !+6RI1) 1N1 #+.( 18((IN- "@1
BLO'K9? (his is a )eavy /abrication #hop in which fabrication of all type of parts of
turbines as well as generators are done. In which internal and eFternal casing of turbines
and generators fabricated. In this block )ollow and #olid *lades of #team (urbines are
welded on a disk which is fitted on the rotor.
In this block work is divided into four steps namely *ay-1< *ay-,< *ay-2< and
*ay->.In *ay-1 Preparatory work is been done i.e. cutting< shaping< grinding< pressing
etc. In *ay D, B *ay-2 assembly work is done. *ay-> is called )"# %)eavy "achine
#hop' in which all types of components of turbine< generators and motors are
manufactured. In *ay-> small )eat &Fchanger are also manufactured which is used in
turbines for cooling purpose. ! #mall #heet "etal #hop is also a part of this *lock. !
gentry shop is also a part of this block where raw material is been kept and transported to
different bays.
BLO'K95 (his block is called (urbine "anufacturing *lock. (his block contributes
maFimum in terms of turnover. here steam< -as B )ydro all three types of
turbines are manufactured. (his *lock also divided into > *ays. !nd these bays
are further divided into several sections and shops.
BLO'K99 @ *lock-> is called as 1I" %1.I+# B IN#8+!(I.N' *+.1=. In this
block coils of -enerators B motors are made B assembled. !lso insulation of all 61 B
!1 motors and -enerators are done. (he material of coils is copper %1u'< there are small
cranes< trolleys< conveyors< B trucks are used for transportation. 1oiling B insulation of
all motors B -enerators of capacity up to 3;; " made in *lock-1 are done here with
the help of several machines B manpower. &lectric control panel B copper bars of turbo
generators are also manufactured here. 1oiling of motor B generators are done with help
of taping operation.
25
*lock-> having following two sectionsC

1. 1oil and insulation manufacturing section
,. !dvanced control gear manufacturing section
BLO'K9A Bl.c7-3 is called as 1.N6&N#&R /!*RI1!(I.N B /.R-& *+.1=
!ll type of condenser used for refrigeration purpose in turbines are fabricated here. (his
block is small as compare to *lock-,. In these block different types of machines like
#ubmerged arc elding machine< Planer machine< 1N1 milling machines< grinding
machine etc are used for fabricated the condensers.
BLO'K9B *lock D5 is divided into 2 parts /abrication shop< 6ie shop< #tamping shop.
Bl.c79C (his *lock is called as 1!RP&N(R0 #).P. In this *lock all carpentry work is
done such as making of wood pattern for casting purpose< making of fiFtures.
+arge wood container used for packing of several jobs like different components
of (urbines< -enerators< motors etc.
Bl.c79D (his is the last block of )eavy &lectrical &Euipment Plant %)&&P' named as
)&!( &A1)!N-&R #).P. In this *lock all type of )eat &Fchanger of #team turbines
are manufactured. (his block also manufactures pressure vessels. In this block work is
done with help of several machines like submerged arc welding< 4ertical B )oriJontal
*oring machine etc.
2?
B!$C4 5 6 TU#BINE B!$C4
29
DESC#I&TI$N $F B!$C4 (IT
%ACINES
*ay 1 *ay , *ay 2 *ay >
)eavy "achine #hop
%(urbine B Its component
manufacturing'
(urbine -overning
!ssembly
(ool room .ld *lade
shop
)oriJontal
*oring "@1
)P< IP< (urbine
!ssly.
.perating 4alves
for #team /low
1ontrol
#tandard
%I#. based'
tools.
"anufacturing
of .ld 6esign
*lades
#pecial
purpose
tools D $igs
B /iFtures
!bout
?;;;;
tooling in
turbine
assly.
1N1
4ertical
*oring
+P Rotor !ssly. I
st
-eneration
*lades %+ate
1:?;Is'
,
nd
-eneration
blades %+ate
1:9;Is'
Ram *orers +P 1asting
"anufacturing
NoJJle B (hrottle
1ontrol -overning
#ystems
(, Profile
*lades
(> Profile
*lades
*and #aw
"@1
1ylindrical
Profile
1ylindrical
Profile
6eep hole
drilling "@1
1G of -ain in
stage
efficiency
over (,
Profile.
"anufacturing of +P free
standing blades by employing
modern processes in (*"
2:
SALIENT FEATURES
6C "!N8/!1(8RIN- 1!P!*I+I(I&#
 1apability to manufacture three types of stem turbines
/or fossil fuel power plant %)P< +P< IP' D 1;;;"
/or nuclear power plants D 3;;"
/or combined cycle power plants D 2;;"
 (wo types of designs are broadly manufactured
+" %+enning metal works'< Russian design
=8 %=raft works union' design
 "odular turbine design concept
 )P B IP 1asing has double shell construction B +P has three shell
construction.
 )P outer casing barrel type construction.
 IP turbine with single or double flow type.
 (urbine with noJJle @throttle governing system.
 (urbine suitable for constant pressure as well as sliding pressure operation
along with base load operation.
?2 OPERATIONAL FA'ILITIES
 )ollow guide blade with suction slits for moisture removal in last +P stage.
 Pedestal bearings isolated from turbine casing.
 1ombined stop B control valves with servomotor control individually.
 )ybrid burner for gas turbine
 & D ring for gas turbine.
 6eep hole drilling in )P outer casing supplied by "@# 1//P.
 =."&( drilling machine for joint plane drilling of casing B +P rotor.
 Ram borer machine for fir D tree-grooving operation.
 .#*( for rotors up to 12;;" unit siJe #(@(-.
 1N1 lathe machining of valve covers B yokes.
>;
 4ertical band saw machine for joint plane slitting of turbine casing.
 #pecial facing B boring )ead for 1N1 horiJontal borer for deep boring in I4
B 14.
GAS TURBINE
>1
STEAM TURBINE


GENERAL DES'RIPTION
(he turbine is condensing< tandem compound< three cylinder< horiJontal disc and
diaphragm type with noJJle governing and regenerative feed water heating. (he double
flow +.P. turbine incorporates a multi eFhaust in each flow.
(he complete assembly is mounted on a pedestals and sole plates< which are designed to
ensure that the components are free to eFpand whilst correct alignment is maintained
under all conditions. +ive steam from the boiler enters in two emergency stop valves
%&#4' of high pressure turbines. /rom &#4 steam flows to the four control valves %14'
mounted on the casing of high pressure turbine %)P(' at the middle bearing side. 1ontrol
valves in turn feed the steam to noJJle boFes located inside the )P(.
>,
(he high pressure turbine comprises of 1, stages< the first stage being governing stage.
(he steam flow in )P( being in reverse direction< the blades in )P( are designed for
anticlockwise rotation< when viewed in the direction of steam flow.
!fter passing through ).P. turbine steam flows to boiler for reheating and reheated steam
comes to the intermediate pressure turbine %IP(' through two Interceptor valves %I4' and
flow control valves %14' mounted on the IP( itself.
(he intermediate pressure turbine has 11 stages. ).P. and I.P. rotors are connected by
rigid coupling and have a common bearing.
!fter flowing through IP(< steam enters the middle part of low pressure turbine<%+P('
through two cross over pipes. In +P turbine< steam flows in opposite path having four
stages in each part. !fter leaving the +.P. turbine< the eFhaust steam condenses in the
surface condensers welded directly to the eFhaust part of the +.P. turbine.
Rotors of intermediate and low pressure turbine are connected by a semi fleFible
coupling.
(he direction of the rotation of the rotors is clockwise when viewed from the front
bearing end towards the generator. (he three rotors are supported on five bearings. (he
common bearing of ).P. and I.P. rotors is a combined journal and radial thrust bearing.
(he anchor point of the turbine is located at the middle foundation frame of the
front eFhaust part of low pressure cylinder. (he turbine eFpands towards the front bearing
by nearly 2; mm and towards generator by 2 mm in steady state operation at full load
with rated parameters.
(urbine is eEuipped with turning gear which rotates the rotor of the turbine at a
speed of nearly 2.> r.p.m. for providing uniform heating during starting and uniform
cooling during shut down.
In order to heat the feed water in the regenerative cycle of the turbine< condensate
from the hot well of condenser is pumped by the condensate pumps< and supplied to the
deaerators through ejectors< gland steam coolers< +.P. heaters and gland cooler. /rom
deaerator< the feed water is supplied to boiler by boiler feed pumps through ).P. heaters.
&Ftracted steam from the various points of the turbine is utiliJed to heat the condensate.
>2
HP TURBINE

(he outer casing of the )P turbine is of barrel type construction without any massive
horiJontal flange. (his uniEue construction permits rapid start-up from any thermal state
and high rates of load changes of the turboset. (he steam and metal temperature matching
reEuirements are also less stringent as there is no asymmetry of mass distribution in
transverse or longitudinal planes.
!lthough )P inner casing is with a horiJontal split joint< yet it represents itself like a thin
thermal membrane. !s the inner casing is not subjected to large pressure differentials< the
horiJontal flange joint and bolts are made of thin sections thus permitting large transverse
temperature hanges. Inner casing is kinematically supported within the outer barrel.
/or overhauls and capital maintenance of barrel type )P outer casing < handling
fiFtures are supplied along with turbine which enable the disassembly and assembly of
)P turbine in a short time.
>>
IP TURBINE

(he IP turbine is a double flow turbine with a horiJontal split inner casing being
kinematically supported within the outer casing. IP inner and outer casings are suspended
from top halves so as to totally eliminate the effect of thermal displacement of (- center
line with the heating up of casings B flanges. !lthough the casings are of horiJontal split
design yet they do not impose any constraints in start-up timings and rapid load
fluctuations.

>3
>5

LP TURBINE

+P (urbine is a double flow type with eFhaust area optimally selected for the eFpected
vacuum conditions. (he casing of +P turbine is connected with IP cylinder by two cross
around pipes< one on either side of the machine and level with the floor. (he horiJontally
split< fabricated +P casing is of three shell construction.
#pecial design measures have been adopted to remove the moisture from last stages by
reducing the thickness of water film on guide blades. (he aFial clearances between guide
and moving blades have been so chosen as to reduce the droplet siJes and resulting
erosion of leading edges. +ow pressure eFtraction has been optimiJed not only from
thermodynamic considerations but to effectively drain out moisture also. /ree standing
blades have been envisaged for the last three stages. (he blades are designed to operate
the machine continuously within freEuency range from >?.3 to 31.3 )J.
>?
>9
TURBINE BLADE
GAS TURBINE BLADE
>:
1ylindrical reaction blades for )P< IP and +P (urbines
2-6# blades< in initial stages of )P and IP (urbine< to reduce secondary losses
(wisted blade with integral shroud< in last stages of )P< IP and initial stages of +P
turbines< to reduce profile and (ip leakage losses
/ree standing +P moving blades
(ip sections with supersonic design
/ir-tree root
/lame hardening of the leading edge
*anana type hollow guide blade
(apered and forward leaning for optimiJed mass flow distribution
#uction slits for moisture removal
Classificatio# of Bla$%s
 +.P. "oving *lade /orged Ist #tage.
 +.P. "oving *lade 3;; " +ast #tage.
 1;; " ,3
th
#tage Impulse *lade.
 1ompressor blade #ermental coated.
 1ompressor *lade K.K stage.
 -as (urbine 1ompressor *lade.
 (-, *lade.
 (-> *lade.
 26# *lade.
 *raJed *lade
3;
 Russian 6esign *lades.
 N D #hroud *lade.
 (wisted *lade.
 Present Range of *lades.
 /uture Range of *lades.
ROTORS
62 Hi4h Pre-re R.t.r
(he )P rotor is machined from a single 1r-"o-4 steel forging with integral discs. (he
rotor forging is thermally stabiliJed to prevent abnormal deflection. (he blades are
attached to their respective wheels by O(I root fastening.
In all the moving wheels< balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure
difference across them< which results in reduction of aFial thrust. /irst stage has integral
shrouds while other rows have shrouding< riveted to the blades at periphery. (he number
of blades connected by a single strip of shrouding is called a blade packet and the number
of blades per packet is decided from vibration point of view.
?2 I,ter!e"iate Pre-re R.t.r
(he IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk
fit. (he shaft is made of high creep resisting 1r-"o-4 steel forging while the shrunk fit
discs fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings.
(he blades on the integral discs are secured by O(I root fastenings while on
shrunk fit discs by Ofork rootI fastening. &Fcept the last two wheels< all other wheels have
shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades. (o adjust the freEuency of the moving blades<
lacing wires have been provided in some stages.
52 L.% Pre-re R.t.r
31
(he +P Rotor consists of shrunk fit discs on a shaft. (he shaft is a forging of 1r-"o-4
steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings.
*lades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork foot fastening. In all the stages
lacing wires are provided to adjust the freEuency of the blades.
In the last two rows satellites strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to
protect them against wet steam erosion.

3,
Technolo7y .sed by bhel arid2ar for
balancin7 of rotors
OVER SPEED VACUUM BALANCING TUNNEL
(OSBT)
#!+I&N( /&!(8R&# ./ .#*(
Rotor weightC 2,;"( maF
Rotor 6iameterC 5::;mm maF
Rotor $ournalC :3;mm maF
*alancing #peedC 25;;rpm maF
.ver speeding rangeC ,3;;->3;;rpm maF
4acuumC ,torr
(unnel +engthC 1:;;;mm maF
(unnel 6iameterC :;;;mm maF
(unnel (hicknessC 2,mm
32
6istance between- ?3;;mm maF
pedestal bearingsC
(unnel all (hicknessC ,3;;mm

BA!ANCIN+ &#$CEDU#E F$# TE
#$T$#S
(he present procedure which is being followed at *)&+ is covering various turbine
rotors in the range of ,;;-1;;;" rating and reEuired to be at rated speed. (his includes
both rigid and fleFible rotors. (he procedure outlines the seEuence and description of the
operation which are to be performed to accomplish the process of balancing and over
speeding of the turbine rotors.
 RIGID ROTORS
! rotor is considered rigid when it can be corrected in any two %arbitrarily
selected' planes and after these correctionsH itIs unbalanced does not
significantly eFceed the balancing limits or tolerances %relative to the shaft
aFis' at any speed upto maFimum service speed when running under
condition approFimately close to those of the final supporting system.
 FLEXIBLE ROTORS
3>
(he rotor not specifying the definition of rigid rotors is fleFible rotor
due to elastic definition.
!ccording to the I#. definition balancing is the procedure by which the mass
distribution of the rotor is checked and if necessary is adjusted in order to ensure that the
vibrations on the supporting bearings at a freEuency corresponding to the operation
within the specified limits. (his is done to avoid damage to bearings< housings and
foundation and to minimiJe the fatigue stresses on the rotor.
*alancing is carried out by consecutive compensation below and above critical speed and
its rated speed to bring down the vibration within the specified limits. !ccording to the
check list provided by Euality control department should be strictly followed for trouble
free balancing.
B#IEF !AY$UT $F TE #$T$#S
(he rotors are assembled on the bogie pedestals and it is then driven into the over speed
and balancing tunnel which can be evacuated to a high degree of vacuum upto , torr
depending upon the reEuirement. 4ibrations are picked up through electromagnetic
pickups mounted on the pedestals and the readings are displayed on the instruments
installed in the control room. (he intelligence about various parameters e.g. vibrations
bearing temperature< tunnel temperature etc. are carried out to the instruments installed in
the control room through cables passing through special vacuum penetration system
located in the rear wall of the tunnel. !ccess to the rotor is provided through a main door
in the rear wall of the tunnel while the rotor is in standstill condition. (he rotor is driven
through a drive system consisting of two 6.1. motors of 2.3" each connected in
tandem. (he speed of the motor can be regulated from , rpm to 3;; rpm and of rotor
from 1; rpm to >>3; rpm. (he power to the motor is fed through a "- set consisting of a
:" synchronous motor and two 6.1. generator of >" each.
(here are two lubrication systems- atmospheric oil system providing oil to "- set
and drive system and vacuum oil system providing oil to the rotor bearing housed
balancing pedestals in the tunnel and the oil is water cooled.
33
ASSEMBLY OF ROTORS
(he distance of bogie pedestals is adjusted as per the supporting journal to journal centre
line distance of the rotor. (he continuity of the bearing should be checked by the Euality
control engineer before these are mounted in pedestals. (he rotors are then placed in the
balancing machine pedestals with special lifting tackles and the assembly is done as per
relevant assembly drawings. 1are must be taken to ensure that the dowel pin of the top
cover of both bearings is set in right position. 7uality control engineer will check the
correctness of the bearings and cover bolts< correctness of installation of R(6Is and their
resistances etc.
7uality control engineer will certify that the rotor has been manufactured and assembled
according to the relevant drawings and specifications and is fit for balancing and over
speeding test.
PREPARATION FOR BALANCING OF ROTOR
!fter securing of the pedestals and connection of the rotor with drive system the
lubricating oil pipes< jacking oil pipes and drain pipes should be connected. +ubricating
oil should be started to the pedestals bearing %to match design reEuirements' and flushing
may be carried out for a couple of hours. 6uring flushing rotor may be jacked few times
and rotor lifts at both the pedestals are to be checked by means of dial gauges and the
reading noted down. (he rotor can be run at about 13; rpm for a few minutes without any
vacuum and is observed visually. It should be checked that there is no abnormal sound
and no leakage of oil etc. !fter this the main door near the rear wall should be closed and
tunnel gate should be closed and hydraulically pressed against the wall of tunnel. (he
light of the tunnel and power supply to the tunnel hoist and jib crane should be Oswitched
onI. !fter the reEuisite vacuum in the tunnel the rotor can be run upto a suitable speed
below first critical speed at which vibration does not become eFcessive.
!fter correction of unbalance for the first critical speed< it should be possible to increase
the rotor speed beyond the first critical speed without subjecting the rotor to any
35
eFcessive level of vibration at the first critical speed. Rotor should now be ready for ,
nd
balancing. (he process is continued till we get a low value of vibration at 2;;; rpm.
Rotor can now be brought to the specified over speed %225; rpm or 25;; rpm' as the case
may be and retained there for two minutes or specified in the technical reEuirements. (he
accuracy of the drive system permits the maintenance of speed within Q1G of the set
value. !fter over speeding the rotor is stopped< thoroughly checked for any part of the
rotor having becoming loose specially the locking blades lift. (hese check are made by
7.1. and assembly group and if reEuired the rectification should be carried within the
permitted limits. !fter achieving the vibrations within the permitted limits couple of runs
will be carried out to improve the balance Euality further if possible. !fter the balancing
is over the position of the weights placed in different correction planes will be noted with
reference to the clock punched on the rotor.
EVALUATION OF BALANCING
!ll the rotors in .#*( are balanced at the rated speed and the evaluation of unbalance is
by means of vibrations measurement at the rated speed. (he permissible vibrations at the
rated speed for rotors are given as followsC-
Rotor at 2;;; rpm 4ibration velocity
in mm@s
&Euivalent peak
vibration in
R%microns'
/or rotors of all modules
of O)I series upto )2;-
1;; and O)RI series upto
)R2;-52
;.3 >.3
/or rotors of all modules
of O"I series upto "2;-
1;; and O#I series upto
#2;-1;;
;.? 5.2
/or rotors of all modules
of +P upto N2;-,S1;
1.; :.;
Near first critical speed ;.3 1,.2
3?
of 11;; rpm +P%N2;-
,S1;'
Near the ,
nd
critical
speed of ,5;; rpm
+P%N2;-,S1;'
,.; ,;.9
MARKING OF ROTOR
39
(he rotor is marked with 1artesian coordinate system with reference to the marking on
the intermediate shaft as shown belowC
BALANCING STANDARDS
(he various standards followed for evaluation of balancing Euality of rotating machine in
#team (urbine and in particular at *)&+ is as followsC
!P( 31,
#pecial purpose steam turbines for petroleum< chemical and gas industry services.
I#. 1;>;-1
"echanical vibrations- balance Euality reEuirements of rigid rotors.
I#. 112>,
"echanical vibrations- method and criteria for the mechanical balance of fleFible rotors.
3:
PROJECT ON “GENERAL VIEW OF
STEAM TR!INES"
INTRODUCTION
1oupled steam turbine
! tea! t-r1i,e is a mechanical device that eFtracts thermal energy from pressuriJed
steam< and converts it into useful mechanical work. It has almost completely replaced the
reciprocating piston steam engine< invented by (homas Newcomen and greatly improved
by $ames att< primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-
weight ratio. !lso< because the turbine generates rotary motion< rather than reEuiring a
linkage mechanism to convert reciprocating to rotary motion< it is particularly suited for
use driving an electrical generator T about 95G of all electric generation in the world is
by use of steam turbines. (he steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of
its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the
eFpansion of the steam< as opposed to the one stage in the att engine< which results in a
closer approach to the ideal reversible process.
! steam turbine consists of a rotor resting on bearings and enclosed in a cylindrical
casing. (he rotor is turned by steam impinging against attached vanes or blades on which
it eFerts a force in the tangential direction. (hus a steam turbine could be viewed as a
compleF series of windmill-like arrangements< all assembled on the same shaft.
#team has one great advantage over waterTit eFpands in volume with tremendous
velocity< often as much as ><;;; feet %1<,;; meters' per second. No wheel made can
revolve at any speed approaching this velocity. 4arious devices< however< are used to
subdue the steam. (his is usually done by sending it through successive turbine wheels of
increasing siJe.
5;
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
1. 1.N6&N#IN- (8R*IN&#
,. 1.N6&N#IN--*+&&6&R (8R*IN&#
2. *!1=-PR&##8R& (8R*IN&#
>. (.PPIN- (8R*IN&#
3. "IA&6 PR&##8R& (8R*IN&#
5. 1R.## 1."P.8N6 (8R*IN&#
?. (!N6&" 1."P.8N6 (8R*IN&#
9. &A(R!1(I.N (8R*IN&#
1.N6&N#IN- (8R*IN&#
ith the condensing turbine< the steam eFhausts to the condenser and the latent heat of
the steam is transferred to the cooling water. (he condensed steam is returned to the
boiler as feed water.
1.N6/&N#IN--*+&&6&R (8R*IN&#
(he condensing-bleeder turbine reduces the condenser losses as steam is bled off at
several points of the turbine. (he bleed-steam is used for feed water heating< upto ,;G of
the total steam flow may be bled off.
*!1=-PR&##8R& (8R*IN&#
*ack-pressure turbines are often used in industrial plants< the turbine acts as a reducing
station between boiler and process steam header. (he process steam pressure is kept
constant and the generator output depends on the demand for process steam. (he back-
pressure turbine may also have bleed points and is then called a back-pressure-bleeder
turbine.
51
Non condensing steam cycle %back pressure turbine'
E$T%ACT&ON T'%(&NES
&Ftraction steam turbines
&Ftraction steam turbines
5,
(his serves and controls steam networks in the customerIs plant using defined steam
parameters. 6epending on the mode of operation< the Euantity of steam and the pressure<
an eFtraction control stage< adjustable stator blades or the overflow throttle are used to
control eFtraction. (he eFtraction valves are located in the top of the casing. &Ftraction
noJJles can be fitted underneath or to the side. (he minimum coolant Euantity for the
low-pressure blading is guaranteed even at the maFimum eFtraction Euantity.
1.N6&N#IN-< 1.N(R.++&6 &A(R!1(I.N (8R*IN&#
! controlled turbine that bleeds off %condenses' part of the main stream flow at one
%single eFtraction' or two %double eFtraction' points. 8sed when process steam is
reEuired at pressures below the inlet pressure and above the eFhaust pressure.
Non#con!ensin) or backpress*re t*rbines are most widely used for process steam
applications. (he eFhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of
the process steam pressure. (hese are commonly found at refineries< district heating
units< pulp and paper plants< and desalination facilities where large amounts of low
pressure process steam are available.
Con!ensin) t*rbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. (hese turbines
eFhaust steam in a partially condensed state< typically of a Euality near :;G< at a pressure
well below atmospheric to a condenser.
%eheat t*rbines are also used almost eFclusively in electrical power plants. In a reheat
turbine< steam flow eFits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the
boiler where additional superheat is added. (he steam then goes back into an intermediate
pressure section of the turbine and continues its eFpansion.
E+tractin) t*rbines are common in all applications. In an eFtracting turbine< steam is
released from various stages of the turbine< and used for industrial process needs or sent
to boiler feed water heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. &Ftraction flows may be
controlled with a valve< or left uncontrolled.
&n!*ction t*rbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce
additional power.
52
SE!ECTI$N $F %ATE#IA! F$#
%ANUFACTU#IN+ $F STEA%
TU#BINE
REQUIREMENT:
 !bility to withstand centrifugal forces proportional to the
rotational speed.
 !bility to withstand transient thermal stresses at start-up@shut-
down or on load changes.
 -ood fatigue@notch toughness to withstand local stress
concentrations at blade attachment areas.
 !bility of medium pressure rotor to withstand creep loading due to
high temperature caused by double re-heats.
CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS:
(he following micro structural parameters are to be systematically determined for all the
relevant materials in the virgin condition and following long term creep stressingC-
 )ardness.
 Primary phase description %"artensite< ferrite'.
 #econdary phase description.
 #pecies %"
,2
1
5<
"A etc'.
 #iJe distribution.
5>
 +ocation %intergranular< cell boundaries'.
 1hemical composition.
 Intermolecular spacing.
 1ell siJe B shape.
 6islocation density.
TESTING OF MATERIALS:
(est reEuired to be carried out to determine the long term propertiesC
 "etallographic tests.
 (ensile and impact energy tests.
 +ong term embrittlement tests.
 +ow cycle fatigue tests.
.ther important properties to be determined such asC
 6etermination of creep strain behavior.
 +ong term low cycle fatigue behavior.
 "ulti aFial creep behavior.
 1reep and creep fatigue crack behavior.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
!n ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process< or constant entropy
process< in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is eEual to the entropy of
53
the steam leaving the turbine. No steam turbine is truly isentropic< however< with typical
isentropic efficiencies ranging from ,;G-:3G based on the application of the turbine.
(he interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades< commonly referred to as
buckets. .ne set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating
blades is connected to the shaft. (he sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances<
with the siJe and configuration of sets varying to efficiently eFploit the eFpansion of
steam at each stage.
THE IMPULSE PRINCIPLE
If steam at high pressure is allowed to eFpand through a stationary noJJle< the result will
be a drop in the steam pressure and increase in the steam velocity. In fact< the steam will
issue from the noJJle in the form of a high speed jet. If this high velocity steam is applied
to a properly shaped turbine blade it will change in direction due to the shape of the
blade. (he effect of this change in the direction of the steam flow will be to produce an
impulse force on the blade causing it to move. If the blade is attached to the rotor of a
turbine then the rotor will revolve. /orce applied to the blade is developed by causing the
steam to change the direction of flow %N&(.NI# ,
nd
+aw- change of momentum'. (he
change of momentum produces the impulse force.
(he pressure drops and the velocity increases as the steam passes through the noJJles.
(hen as the steam passes through the moving blades the velocity drops but the pressure
remains the same. (he fact that the pressure does not drop across the moving blades is the
distinguishing feature of the impulse turbine. (he pressure at the inlet to the moving
blades is the same as the pressure at the outlet from the moving blades.
REACTION PRINCIPLE
! reaction turbine has rows of fiFed blades alternating with rows of moving blades. (he
steam eFpands first in the stationary or fiFed blades where it gains some velocity as it
drops in pressure. It then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed
thus producing an impulse force on the moving blades. In addition however< the steam
upon passing through the moving blades again eFpands and further drops in pressure
giving a reaction force to the blades. (his seEuence is repeated as the steam passes
through additional rows of fiFed and moving blades. Note that the steam pressure drops
across both the fiFed and the moving blades while the absolute velocity rises in the fiFed
blades and drops in the moving blades.
(he distinguishing feature of the reaction turbine is the fact that the pressure does drop
across the moving blades. In other words there is a pressure difference between the inlet
to the moving blades and the outlet from the moving blades.
55
SPECIAL ASPECTS OF THE REACTION TURBINE
(here is a difference in pressure across the moving blades. (he steam will therefore tend
to leak around the periphery of the blades instead of passing through them. *lade
clearances therefore must be kept to a minimum. !lso due to the pressure drop across the
moving blades an unbalanced thrust will be developed upon the rotor and some
arrangement must be made to balance this.
IMPULSE TURBINE STAGING
In order for the steam to give up all its kinetic energy to the moving blades in an impulse
turbine it should leave the blades at Jero absolute velocity. (his condition will eFist if the
blade velocity is eEual to the half of the steam velocity. (herefore< for good efficiency the
blade velocity should be about one half of the steam velocity. If the steam was eFpanded
from admission pressure down to final eFhaust pressure in a single set of noJJles %single
stage' then the velocity of the steam leaving the noJJles might be in the order of
11;;m@s. in order to have good efficiency the blade velocity would have to be about
33;m@s which would reEuire eFcessively high rev@mm of the turbine rotor. &Fcessively
high steam velocity will cause high friction losses in noJJles and blading.
In order to reduce steam velocity and blade velocity< the following methods may be usedC
1. Pressure compounding.
,. 4elocity compounding.
2. Pressure-velocity compounding.
PR&##8R& 1."P.8N6
(he eFpansion of steam from the boiler pressure to eFhaust pressure is carried out in a
number of steps or stages. &ach stage has a set of noJJles and a row of moving blades.
(he rows of moving blades are separated from each other by partitions or diaphragms
into which the noJJles are set. !s only a portion of the velocity available is developed in
each set of noJJles< the blade velocity is kept down to a reasonable amount. (his type of
compounding is known as the R!(&!8 "&().6. In this arrangement the pressure of
the steam drops min each set of noJJles as indicated by the pressure graph. (he steam
velocity is increased by each pressure drop and then decreases again in each row of
moving blades.
4&+.1I(0 1."P.8N6IN-
(his design consists of one set of noJJle in which the steam is eFpanded from initial to
eFhaust pressure. (he velocity of the steam resulting from this eFpansion is absorbed in
5?
two or more rows of moving blades. Rows of fiFed or guide blades attached to the casing
are set between rows of moving blades and receive and redirect the steam to the neFt row
of moving blades. (his type of compounding is known as the 18R(I# "&().6.
(he pressure drops from inlet pressure to eFhaust pressure in the single set of noJJle as
the pressure graph shows. (his large single pressure drop produces high steam velocity
which is absorbed in the two rows of moving blades. Note that there is no pressure or
velocity drop in the fiFed blades.
PR&##8R&-4&+.1I(0 1."P.8N6IN-
(his is a combination of the first two methods of compounding. (he steam is eFpanded in
two or more sets of noJJles in series and each set having velocity compounded blades to
receive the steam issuing from the noJJles.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
hen warming up a steam turbine for use< the main steam stop valves %after the boiler'
have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve and proceed to
heat up the lines in the system along with the steam turbine. !lso a turning gear is
engaged when there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even
heating to prevent uneven eFpansion and rotor bowing. !fter first rotating the turbine by
the turning gear< allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane %no bowing'< then
the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to the turbine. /or most utility and
industrial steam turbines< a starting and loading chart is included in the unit instruction
manual. (he starting and loading chart is used to guide turbine operators in loading their
units in such a way as to minimiJe rotor and shell thermal stresses< but also minimiJe the
chances of the rotor heating faster than the shell< creating a rotor long condition. hen
starting a shipboard steam turbine %marine unit'< steam is normally admitted to the astern
blades located in the +P turbine< and then to the ahead blades slowly rotating the turbine
at 1; to 13 revolutions per minute %RP"' to slowly warm the turbine.
Problems with turbines are rare and maintenance reEuirements are relatively small. !ny
imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration< which in eFtreme cases can lead to a blade
letting go and punching straight through the casing. !lso< it is essential that the turbine be
turned with dry steam. If water gets into the steam and is blasted onto the blades rapid
impingement and erosion of the blades can occur< possibly leading to imbalance and
catastrophic failure. !lso< water entering the blades will likely result in the destruction of
the thrust bearing for the turbine shaft. (o prevent this< along with controls and baffles in
the boilers to ensure high Euality steam< condensate drains are installed in the steam
piping leading to the turbine.
(he basic process behind steam power generation is the LRankine 1ycleM. ater is
heated until it is a saturated liEuid. /rom there< it is compressed into steam. (he steam is
transferred to a turbine where the pressure of the steam is reduced %usually to sub
atmospheric pressures' by eFpansion over the turbine blades. (his process produces
59
electricity. (he low pressure steam is condensed back to a liEuid. (he water< now referred
to as return water< is miFed with new water< referred to as Lfeed waterM< and pumped back
to the boiler. (he figure below shows a common diagram used to describe the
Rankine 1ycle.
#team turbine parts
EFFICIENC
(o maFimiJe turbine efficiency< the steam is eFpanded in a number of stages< generating
work from each steam eFpansion and pressure drop. (hese stages are characteriJed by
how the energy is eFtracted from them and are known as either impulse or reaction
turbines. "ost modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse
designs. (ypically< higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages
are reaction type.
1onsider the steam turbine shown in the cycle above. (he output power of the turbine at
steady flow condition isC P U m %h1-h,'
5:
where m is the mass flow of the steam through the turbine and h1 and h, are specific
enthalpy of the steam at inlet respective outlet of the turbine.
(-s diagram %(emperature versus &ntropy' Ra,7i,e 'ycle
(he efficiency of the steam turbines is often described by the isentropic efficiency for
eFpansion process. (he presence of water droplets in the steam will reduce the efficiency
of the turbine and cause physical erosion of the blades. (herefore the dryness fraction of
the steam at the outlet of the turbine should not be less than ;.:.
?;
Different parts of t.rbine
TURBINE CASING
1asing or cylinders are of the horiJontal split type. (his is not ideal< as the heavy flanges
of the joints are slow to follow the temperature changes of the cylinder walls. )owever<
for assembling and inspection purposes there is no other solution. (he casings are heavy
in order to withstand the high pressures and temperatures. (he thickness of walls and
flanges decreases from inlet to eFhaust end.
(he reason for using different casing materials is that materials at the given maFimum
temperatures and under constant pressure continue to deform with very slow increasing
strain of the material. (his phenomenon is known as L1reepM.
TURBINE ROTORS
(he design of a turbine rotor depends on the operating principle of the turbine. (he
impulse turbine with pressure drop across the stationary blades must have seals between
stationary blades and the rotor. (he smaller the sealing area< the smaller the leakageH
therefore the stationary blades are mounted in diaphragms with labyrinth seals around the
shaft.
(he reaction turbine has pressure drops across the moving as well as across the stationary
blades and the use of a disc rotor would create a large aFial thrust across each disc. (he
application of a drum rotor eliminates the aFial thrust caused by the discs< but not the
aFial thrust caused by the differential pressure across the moving blades.
DISC ROTORS
!ll larger disc rotors are now machined out of a solid forging of nickel steel. (his gives
the strongest rotor and a fully balanced rotor. It is rather eFpensive as the weight of the
final rotor is approFimately 3;G of the initial forging. .lder or smaller disc rotors have
shaft and discs made in separate pieces with the discs shrunk on the shaft. (he bore of the
discs is made ;.1G smaller on diameter than the shaft. (he discs are then heated until
they are easily slide along the shaft and located in the correct position on the shaft and
shaft key. ! small clearance between the discs prevents thermal stress in the shaft.
DRUM ROTORS
?1
(he first reaction turbine has solid forged drum rotors. (hey were strong but with the
increasing siJe of the turbines the solid rotors got too heavy and the hollow drum rotors
were introduced. (his rotor is made of two or more pieces. /or proper balance the drum
must be machined both inside B outside and the drum must be open at one end. (he
second part of the rotor is the drum end cover with shaft. elding is performed with
automatic welding machines. "ost rotors are now made of nickel alloy steels. Rotors for
high outputs and high temperatures are generally made of chromium-nickel-molybdenum
steels.
TURBINE SEALS
1. *+!6& #&!+#
(he efficiency of the reaction turbines depends to a large eFtends on the blade sealsH
radial as well as aFial seals are often part of the covering with the seal clearances kept as
small as possible. !s protection for the aFial seals some manufactures apply an adjustable
thrust bearing. (he whole thrust block is cylindrical and fits like a piston in the cylinder
with the whole thrust block able to be aFially adjusted. 6uring startup the thrust block is
pushed against a stop in the direction of eFhaust for maFimum seal clearances. hen the
turbine is heated up and has been on load for a short time the thrust block is pulled
forward against a forward stop for minimum seal clearance and maFimum blade
efficiency.
,. #)!/( #&!+#
#haft seals must be provided in order to prevent or at least reduce steam leakage where
the shaft eFtends through the casing. !lso when the low pressure turbines are under
vacuum the seals must prevent air from leaking into the casing. )igh pressure turbines
operating at 1,;:; to 13;;;kPa cause a sealing problem as a straight labyrinth seal for
that pressure would be eFtremely long or have lots of steam leaking through. (he
problem is solved by a series of steam pockets between sets of labyrinth seals. (he high
pressure steam leaks through 1;;-,;; mm of the labyrinth seal into the first pocket which
is connected to the ).P. eFhaust< thus any steam leaking through the seal is used in the
I.P. turbine.
Neither the carbon nor the labyrinth shaft seals prevent all leakage. If a positive or leak
proof seal is needed a water seal may be installed.
?,
2. !(&R #&!+
! water seal consists of an impeller on the turbine haft which rotates in a water filled
casing and water thrown out from the impeller forms a leak proof water barrier. ater
seals are mainly applied to +.P. glands to guard against air leakage< but they may also be
applied as the final seal for ).P. and I.P. glands. ater seals are supplied with clean cool
condensate from the eFtraction pump. It may be supplied directly or via a head tank with
automatic level control.
TURBINE COUPLINGS
(he purpose of the turbine coupling is to transmit power from the prime mover to the
driven piece of machinery. /or heavy loads the solid flange coupling is used. (he flanges
are generally integral parts of the shafts but they may be separate parts for smaller
turbines. (he friction between the coupling halves and the shear force of the bolts
transmits the power. /or maFimum shear stress the bolts must be fitted. (he coupling
bolts should be undercut< that is machined off to a smaller diameter slightly less than the
bottom diameter of the thread to avoid any strain on the thread.
TURBINE BLADES
(he efficiency of the turbine depends more than anything else on the design of the
turbine blades. (he impulse blades must be designed to convert the kinetic energy of the
steam into mechanical energy. (he same goes for the reaction blades which furthermore
must convert heat energy to kinetic energy. (he later years increase in blade efficiency is
due to increased aerodynamic shape calculated by computers and the milling of blades on
automatic milling machines.
It is always possible to give the blades the theoretically best possible profile as several
other considerations must be taken. (he blade must be made strong enough to withstand
high temperatures and stresses from heavy< often pulsating steam loads. (here is also
stress due to centrifugal force %for large +.P. blades the centrifugal force on a single blade
may eFceed ,;;('. 4ibrations and resonant vibrations in particular must be taken into
account and finally there is erosion and corrosion.
?2
+$"E#NIN+ SYSTE%S
(he control of a turbine with a governor is essential< as turbines need to be run up slowly
to prevent damage. #ome applications< such as the generation of electricity< reEuire
precise speed control. 8ncontrolled acceleration of the turbine rotor can lead to an over
speed trip< which causes the noJJle valves that control the flow of steam to the turbine to
close. If this fails< the turbine may continue accelerating until it breaks apart< often
spectacularly. (urbines are eFpensive to make< reEuiring precision manufacture and high
Euality materials.
(he most common and simplest reEuirement of governing system of an industrial turbine
is the control over speed. (he common reEuirements of industrial turbine governing
system which are encountered in industries at present with varying degree of automation
areC
 #peed @ load control for (urbo generators.
 #peed control for (urbo compressors.
 &Fhaust #team %back' pressure control.
 6ouble eFtraction #team pressure control.
 &Ftraction and eFhaust #team pressure control.
 Injection #team pressure control.
 (urbine protections.
(he function of the governing system is maintaining the constant speed of turbine at 2;;;
rpm irrespective of the load. /or this purpose we control the Euantity of the steam
entering into the turbine.
SOME BASIC USEFUL TERMS
?>
In this section few basic terms are introduced which are most commonly used in turbine
governing system.
GOVERNING SYSTEM
! system whose purpose is to govern or control a prime mover is called governing
system.
SPEED GOVERNOR
(he governor which controls the speed of the prime mover is called as speed governor. It
includes those elements which are directly responsive to speed.
SPEED CHANGER
(he speed changer is a device for changing the setting of the governing system within the
specified speed range while the turbine is in operation.
SPEED RANGE
#peed range is specified range of operating speeds below and above rated speed for
which the governor is adjustable when the turbine is operating under the control of speed
governor.
SPEED VARIATION
#peed variation eFpressed as percentage of rated speed is the total magnitude of the speed
change or the fluctuations from the speed setting under steady state operating condition.
DEAD BAND
It is the total magnitude of the input signal for which there is no measurable change in
output.
DEAD TIME
It is the time that elapses between the start of an input change and the start of the
resulting output change.
RESPONSE TIME
?3
(he time reEuired for a governor or governing system to make a change from initial value
to a specified %large' percentage of the final steady value.
STABILITY
(he ability of a governor or control system to make corrections in the shortest possible
time so that sustained oscillations of speed is not produced by the governing system.
GAIN
It is the ratio of the change in output signal to change in input signal.
RESET TIME
(he time reEuired by a device to produce output signal eEual to 52.2G of its final value
for a step change in input signal to the control device.
?5
+$"E#NIN+ SYSTE% $F TU#BINE
(he turbine is having a )06R!8+I1 #P&&6 -.4&RN.R %)#-' and an &+&1(R.
)06R!8+I1 1.N4&R(.R %&)1'. )#- and &)1 are switched in parallel to form a
minimum value gate. (he system is not eFercising control at any given point. (hese two
assemblies form the basis of the governing system.
HYDAULIC SPEED GOVERNOR
(he main oil pump supplies the primary oil. (his primary oil pressure is proportional to
speed. It acts on the diaphragm of the )#- against the force of speed setting spring. (he
travel of the diaphragm is transmitted by the linkages to the sleeve of the auFiliary follow
up pistons. (hus by changing diaphragm position the signal oil pressure changes and this
in turn controls the control valve servomotor.
ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC CONVERTOR
(he &)1 consists of speed control convertor and a plunger coil system. (he signal from
the &)1 actuates the control sleeve via the plunger coil system.
In addition to these two assemblies there are other assemblies alsoC
 "ain trip valve.
 !(( change over valve %automatic turbine tester'.
 .# trip test device %over speed'.
 +ow vacuum condenser protection device.
 &Fertion valve relay.
 (hrust bearing trip.
!ll these assemblies are protective devices and are not having any role in governing as
such.
??
!ll these assemblies eFcept the thrust bearing trip are mounted on a cabinet known as
governing rack.
In addition to the governing rack there is +P *0P!## R!1= also. (he function of +P
bypass rack control system is to monitor the pressure in the reheat system and to control
it under certain operating conditions. 6uring the startup and shut down and the operations
below a minimum boiler load the volume of the steam is not utiliJed by the IP B +P
cylinders is passed to the condenser via the +P *0P!## valves. (he main components of
the +P *0P!## R!1= are as followsC
 )ydraulic convertor.
 Iskania governor.
 +ow vacuum condenser protection.
 #pray valve pressure switch.
 Pilot valve for water injection valve.
?9
SE#"$%$T$#
/or )P turbine we have &"&R-&N10 #(.P B 1.N(R.+ 4!+4& and
#&R4.".(.R.
/or IP turbine we have IN(&R1&P(.R 4!+4& B 1.N(R.+ 4!+4&
and #&R4.".(.R.
/or +P turbine we have +P *0P!## R!1= and #&R4.".(.R.
(he stop valve servomotor is either fully open or fully closed. hen servomotor is fully
open steam can enter the turbine. 1ontrol valve servomotor opens as per the
reEuirements. It has a feed back system and there is instant adjustment as per load
reEuirement. )ow much the servomotors open depends on the signal from the )#- and
&)1.
SPECIAL PROCESSES USED IN MAKING OF GOVERNOR
PARTS
#(&RI+ININ-
In this process the material to be hardened is coated with a thin layer of sterellite to
increase the life of the component. (he advantage of sterelliting is that sterellite is able to
retain its hardness at high temperatures.
NI(RI6IN-
In this process the material which is to be hardened is treated with )N.
2
and this process
is used for less important parts i.e. which are easy to replace when worn out.
?:
6P (&#(
(his test is procedure for checking the cracks and flaws in the components of governor so
that the components are able to withstand the high vibration inside the governor.
Stea/ t.rbine 7overnin7
NOZZLE GOVERNING
ith noJJle governing a series of noJJle valves open in seEuence as the load increases.
(his type of governing is most efficient and is used for the impulse turbines throttle
governing. ith throttle governing a single large control valve controls the load from ;G
to 1;;G. /or large turbines two control vanes operating in parallel replace a large single
valve. hen the steam is throttled the superheat increases and the turbine eFhaust steam
is drier reducing the turbine blade erosion< but with the drier steam entering the
condenser the condenser losses increases. (hrottling of steam through a valve is an
isenthalpic %constant enthalpy' process and no heat is lost. (he so called throttling losses
occur in the condenser.
BY PASS GOVERNING OR OVERLOAD GOVERNING
(his system is used on impulse as well as reaction turbines. !n eFtra set of control valves
admit steam to the space behind the 1urtis wheel or for the reaction turbine to an annular
space behind the first 9-1, stages. *ypassing part of the turbine increases the turbine
capacity but at reduced efficiency. (he bypass valves are smaller than the regular
governor valves as too much bypass steam may starve the bypassed stages rotating in
steam at very high density and the blades may overheat.
9;
TURBINE GOVERNORS
(he two general types of governors used are the speed sensitive governor and the
pressure sensitive governor. #peed sensitive governors are applied to all kinds of
turbines. Pressure sensitive governors are applied to back pressure and eFtraction turbines
in connection with the speed sensitive governor.
SPEED GOVERNING
(he freEuency of 3;)J is used as the set point of balance between supply and the demand
of an electric network. !ny over supply of energy will increase the freEuency and an
under supply will decrease the freEuency. (he supply used at any time is eEual to the
demand and to keep the freEuency at eFactly 3; )J.
OVER SPEED TRIP
(he high rotational speed of turbines creates large centrifugal forces as these forces
increase s with the sEuare of the speed. (herefore an absolute reliable over speed
protection must be provided.
(he over speed trip is mechanical-hydraulic and shows clearly the operating principle of
all over speed trips for turbines with hydraulic governor systems. (he spring loaded
tripping bolt located in the turbine shaft has the centre of gravity slightly off the centre of
the shaft in direction of the bolt head. (he nut at the end of the bolt provides a stop for
the bolt in the tripped position and for tripping speed adjustment. 6uring normal
operation the main spring holds the relay rod against the tripping lever piston ! has
closed the oil drain and )P oil passes between the pistons ! and * to the stop valve.
91
A&&!ICATI$N8USES $F STEA%
TU#BINES
STEAM TR!INE
Refinery
)ydrogen 1racking
6esulfuriJation
1atalytic 1racking
1hemical B
Petrochemical
"ethanol
.lefine
(erephthalic !cid
/ertiliJer
!mmonia
Nitric !cid
Industrial -ases
!ir #eparation
9,
Iron B #teel<
"ining
*last /urnace
Power -eneration
(he (urbinia - the first steam turbine-powered ship
!nother use of steam turbines is in shipsH their small siJe< low maintenance< light weight<
and low vibration are compelling advantages. #team turbine locomotives were also
tested< but with limited success. ! steam turbine is efficient only when operating in the
thousands of revolutions per minute %RP"' range while application of the power in
propulsion applications may be only in the hundreds of RP"< which reEuires that
eFpensive and precise reduction gears be used< although several ships< such as (urbinia<
had direct drive from the steam turbine to the propeller shafts. (his purchase cost is offset
by much lower fuel and maintenance reEuirements and the small siJe of a turbine when
compared to a reciprocating engine having an eEuivalent power. "ost modern vessels
now use either gas turbines or diesel engines< however< nuclear powered vessels such as
aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines use steam turbines driving the propeller shaft
through a reduction gearboF as the main part of their propulsion systems.
92
CFF& 6 CENT#A! F$UND#Y F$#+E
&!ANT
#METALLURGI'AL UNIT$
#"# D #teel "elting #hop
%Input "aterial'
1asting -roup %#and 1astings'
• )eavy #teel foundry
• +ight #teel foundry
/orging -roup
Pattern making %wooden patterns' Ingot manufacturing
"oulding Recharging in furnace %1,;;-12;;
o
1'
"etal heating in
furnace
• "ould
/lame
)eating
/orging press D ?3;;;(on )eavy duty
%:;;;;(on with intensifiers'
9>
elding at
joints
• eld
strength
tests %8(<
A- ray'
-ating #ystem )eat (reatment in furnace 1;;;
o
1
Pouring *asin D #prue--ate-Risers $ob cooling using water air miFture spray
for attaining hardness.
1ore making %1avity in mould' (echnical !udit
%71 1heck'
1ore *aking
"olten metal pouring
#and casting%output' 1omplete forged job
"achining #hop
Rough "achining
PRODU'TS
62 1astings
 )P casing.
 IP casing.
 &#4 B14 casings.
 I4 B 14 casings
 Industrial use turbine casings.
 RunnerIs castings.
#teel gradeC Plain carbon< !lloy< 1reep resistance B #tainless steel.
?2 /orgings
 )P rotor
 IP rotor
 (urbine B -enerator rotors for industrial use
 Rotor for gas turbine
93
 &Fciter shaft



EN+INEE#IN+ CA&ABI!ITIES
*)&+ carries out life eFtension programs on steam turbines of various ratings< which
forewarn the impending failure and help in reducing costly plant breakdowns by
recommending replacement and up gradation of defective components.
.ver the past two decades< *)&+ has gained a vast eFperience in design< manufacture<
erection and commissioning of various capacities of (urbine -enerator sets ranging from
1;; " to 3;; ".
"any specific features to suit the customer reEuirements< layout B operation are taken
care of. (o name a fewC
#tress &valuator< hand *arring -ear and !utomatic (urbine Run-up #ystem for ,1; "
Russian (urbine.
*ase load@cycle @(wo-shift operations
(hrottle @NoJJle governing
1onstant@#liding pressure operation
*)&+ )aridwar has a strong engineering base with Eualified and eFperienced engineers
supported by technicians< spanning the functions of proposal< performance and product
95
engineering< project management< field engineering< research and development<
computeriJation etc.
R&N.4!(I.N B ".6&RNI#!(I.N %RB"'
6epending on the actual operating conditions< material properties of the components
degrade as function of service life due to one or more time dependent material damage
mechanisms such as creep< fatigue< corrosion< erosion< wear embattlement etc.
+ife eFtension programme %+&P' is a special package comprising systems and
methodologies< which evaluates the residual life of components through sophisticated
N6(< /&" stress analysis and metallurgical techniEue.
"any improvements in material and design of critical components with state-of-art
design is a part of the life eFtension process. (hus the performance< availability and
efficiency of the plant may be improved by RB" Programs.
M&C%OST%'CT'%E E$AM&NAT&ON O, %OTO%
Tech,.l.4y ) '.lla1.rati.,
(he technological base of *)&+ in the area of #team turbines and (urbo -enerators has
been created by acEuiring technological information from the collaborators. Initially
*)&+ had collaboration with "@s +" 8##R for 1;; and ,1; " sets. In 1:?5<
*)&+ entered into technical collaboration agreement with "@s #iemens-=8< -ermany
9?
to acEuire the know-how and know-why for turbine generator sets upto 1;;; ". (his
collaboration still continues. (his helps *)&+ to keep pace with the worldwide
technological progress and offer state of the art eEuipment to its customer. 8nder this
collaboration agreement< *)&+ has established strong design< manufacturing and
servicing base for unit upto 3;; " ratings.
%ANUFACTU#IN+ DI"ISI$NS
 )eavy &lectricals Plant< Piplani< *hopal
 &lectricals "achines Repair Plant %&"RP'< "umbai
 (ransformer Plant P... *)&+< $hansi.
 *harat )eavy &lectricals +imited C
D )eavy &lectricals &Euipment Plant<
D 1entral /oundary /orge Plant.< Ranipur< )ardwar
 )eavy &Euipment Repair Plant< 4aranasi.
 Insulator Plant< $agdishpur< 6istt. #ultanpur.
 )eavy Power &Euipment Plant< Ramachandra Puram< )yderabad
 )igh Pressure *oiler Plant B #eamless #teel (ube Plant< (iruchirappalli.
 *oiler !uFiliaries Plant< Indira -andhi Industrial 1ompleF< Ranipet.
99
 Industrial 4alves Plant< -oindwal.
 &lectronics 6ivision C
D &lectronics #ystems 6ivision.
D !morphous #ilicon #olar 1ell Plant %!##1P'.
D &lectroporcelains 6ivision.
D Industrial #ystems -roup.
BANGALORE2
 1omponent /abrication Plant< Rudrapur.
 Piping 1entre< 1hennai.
 Regional .perations 6ivision< New 6elhi

9:
CA!E !T"D
OF FI#T"RE
:;
BRAIN STORMING FOR THE
PROBLEMS
1. PR.*+&" ./ 6RI++IN- .I+ $!1=IN- ).+&# IN /R.N(< +P
!N6 IP *&!RIN-#.
,. )!+/ *.R& &RR.R IN !++ ()& *&!RIN-#.
2. (. "!=& #P&1I!+ *8#) /.R ..#.*.( P8"P.
>. PR.*+&" ./ "!=IN- R!6I8# R> IN 6R-.,-11,-,2-;3;;,.
3. R.N- "!R=IN- ./ ()&R".1.8P+& ).+&# IN ()& )P
*&!RIN-
5. 1.+.8R 1)&1= ./ (.8R8# PI&1& I() 10+N6RI1!+
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.N ()& "!1)IN&
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9. #!N6 *+!#(IN- ./ .I+ 681(#
:. 8R-&N( R&78IR&"&N( ./ *&!RIN-#
1;..4!+I(0 IN ()$& +IN&R
$( T$ DISC$"E# &#$B!E%S
*HAT ARE PROBLEMS

Problems of "aintenance

Problems of Improvement
HO* TO DIS'O;ER PROBLEMS
Problem awareness
Important points in discovering problems
&ffective approaches to problems
6efine problem in solvable form
:,
I%&$#TANT &$INTS
IN DISC$"E#IN+ &#$B!E%S
 6I#1.4&RIN- PR.*+&"# ()R.8-) .16#"< >"< "8RI< "86!
!N6 3I)
 6I#1.4&RIN- PR.*+&"# ()R.8-) 1."P!RI#.N#
 6I#1.4&RIN- PR.*+&"# ()R.8-) 1.N(R.+ +I"I(#
 6I#1.4&RIN- PR.*+&"# ()R.8-) "I6 !N6 +.N- (&R"
.*$&1(I4&
 O6I#1.4&RIN- PR.*+&"# *0 #I"P+I/0IN- !N6 #(R&!"+ININ-
.R=
:2

ATT#IBUTES $F A +$$D &#$B!E%
S$!"E#
 !N &AP&R( !( 6I#1.4&RIN- PR.*+&"#
 #."&.N& ). =N.# ()& #0#(&"
 #."&.N& 4&R#&6 IN 71 "&().6
 #."&.N& ). +&!RN# /R." /!1(#
 #."&.N& I() 8N6!8N(&6 &N()8#I!#"
 ! P&R#.N ./ 1)!R!1(&R
:>
 #."&.N& I() #(R.N- (&1)NI1!+ #=I++#
 #."&.N& -..6 !( +I#(&NIN- !N6 (!+=IN-
 ! 1.N#1I&N(I.8# P&R#.N
&#$B!E% CAN BE C!ASSIFIED IN %ANY (AYS
AND TE C!ASSIFICATI$N IS ACC$#DIN+ TE
DE+#EE $F $BSE#"ATI$N $F TE CAUSES AND
C$UNTE#%EASU#ES NEEDED
 !C Problem really worth solving
 *C Problem reEuiring a high level of tech.
 1C #imple Problem
 6C Problem reEuiring care
(ype L ! L are the problem which are .R() #.+4IN- and cannot be solved without
using 71 tools< (his also improves problem solving capabilities
&.g.
-Reduction in no. of easy lines
-Reduction in time to service a customer
:3
L(0P& L* LReEuire high level of tech. in problem solving capabilities.
&.g.
-L#ales have dropped because a competitor has opened a new store nearlyM
-(he output is low< because the line is not fed by acceptable parts all the timeM
(ype L1 Lhave simple causes and action needed to solve them are also obvious.
&.g.
-#ince the temp. is not controlled at the moment< let us install thermometer and adjust
thermometer based on reading
(ype L6Lproblems are those where necessary action is known< but the causes are not so
clear.!ppearence of the causes of a problem would mean acting against phenomenon for
not eliminating the root causes.
&.g.
-! company faced with a large no of defective electronic parts may add on aging process
to its production line in order to bring defective to light but there can be more problems.
(here for prevention of recurrence not assessed.

:5
A!(AYS #E%E%BE# FUNDA%ENTA!
#U!ES $F &#$B!E% S$!"IN+
 !doption of these rules brings lot of saving and cultural change.
GOLDEN RULE OF 5 RH
 "ake a LR8+& L i.e what you want to achieve.
 L R.8(& L your objective to achieve targets
 6efine LR8+& L i.e. for each person involved in enroot.
 (o achieve above we must remember principle of 2!Is for defining a problem

• .bserve !ctual Problem
• .bserve actual problem place
• .bserve actual #ituation
:?
• !+!0# R&"&"*&R R8+&I# ./ /I4& Is B .N& )
• )!(
• )&N
• )&R&
• )0
• ).
• ).
(AT IS A SYSTE%ATIC &#$B!E%
S$!"IN+9
#tep by step systematic approach provides a sense of discipline in problem solving this
helps in working towards prevention rather than a curve. In other words systematic
problem solving helps in shifting from free fighting to lasting 78!+I(0
I"PR.4&"&N(#
PD'A '+'LE
 !ll systematic problem solving in Euality improvement process follows from
basic demming cycle which is commonly known as P61! 101+&
PLAN
 /irst make the objective< problem area or improve opportunity clear and set up the
mean to achieve the same.
DO
 Put the plan into practice.
:9
'HE'K
 .bserve the results to see if the desired objective is achieved.
A'T
 If there is progress standardiJe the plan otherwise review the plan

::
&DCA CYC!E
P %plan'
6 %do' 1 %check'
! %act'
1;;
SUB,ECT $F TE CASE
STUDY
 6RI++IN- ./ 6I! 3"" ).+&# !( 6.8*+& !N-+& ./
11 !N6 2. 6&-R&& IN +P< IP< !N6 /R.N( *&!RIN-#.

1;1
&#ESENT SITUATI$N
.N ()& "!1)IN& )I+& 6RI++IN- 6I! 3"" ).+&# ./
$!1=IN- +IN&# *&!RIN- !# )!N-&6 *0 1R!N& /.R
#&((IN- ()& *&!RIN- .N "!1)IN& *0 P8((IN- #8I(!*+&
P!1=IN-# 8N6&R ()& *&!RIN- !N6 !N-+& ./ 11 6&-R&&
!# "!IN(!IN&6 I() ()& )&P+ ./ *&4&+ PR.(&1(.R !N6
2; 6&-R&& !N-+& !# -I4&N *0 (I+(IN- ()& "!1)IN&
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$B,ECTI"ES
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1;2
DATA C$!!ECTI$N AND ANA!YSIS
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2. IN!118R!10 ,;G
>. R&681(I.N IN &//I1I&N10 1;G
1;>
B#AIN ST$#%IN+ F$# S$!UTI$N
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.8R#&+/
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/IA(8R&
2. P!1=IN- #IN& #).8+6 *& 1!+18+!(&6 !N6 P!1=IN- ./
R&78IR&6 #IN& #).8+6 *& "!6& (. P8( 8N6&R ()&
*&R!IN-.
1;3
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1;5
INTE#ECTI$N (IT $TE#
A+ENCIES
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I%&!E%ENTATI$N STATUS
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DATA AFTE# I%&!E%ENTATI$N
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>. &//I1I&N10 95G

1;:
#ESU!TS C$%&A#ISI$N
*&/.R& !/(&R
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(. 1+!"P ()& $.*.
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+..#&NIN- ()& $.*.
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(I"&
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1.#(
 +&## PR.681(I4I(0 PR.681(I4I(0
IN1R&!#&6
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IN1R&!#&6 1R!N&
6&1R&!#&6

78!+I(0
I"PR.4&6






11;
GAINS
INTAN+IB!E
 #!4IN- IN (I"&
 #!/&R(0 IN1R&!#&6
 18#(."&R #!(I#/!1(I.N
 R&681(I.N IN /!(I-8&
 PR.681(I4I(0
 (I"&+0 #8PP+0 ./ R&P!IR !N6 .()&R *&!RIN-# (.
18#(."&R
 ()8# ()& P.&R PR.*+&" ./ 1.8N(R0 I"PR.4&6

111
+AINS
TAN+IB!E
 PR.681(I4I(0 IN1R&!#&6
 1.#( ./ 1 )R. ./ R8NNIN- ()& ).RI. *.RIN- "@1U 13; rs.
 #!4IN- IN (I"& IN .N& *R-#.U 9 ).8R#
 #!4IN- IN 1.#( ./ 1;; *R-#@0&!RU 13;S9;;U 1<,;<;;;
 #!+&R0 ./ .P&R!(.R P&R 6!0U Rs. 2?>
 "!N 6!0 #!4&6 P&R 0&!RU 1;;
 #!4IN- IN #!+&R0 1.#( P&R 0&!RU 1;;S2?>U Rs. 2?<>;;
 #!4IN- IN 1R!N& P&R 0&!R /.R 1;; )R#U Rs. 13;;;
 -R!N6 #!4IN- P&R 0&!R
U Rs. 1<,;<;;;VRs. 2?>;;V Rs. 13;;;

U Rs. 1<?,<>;;
 ()I# I# ! R&18RRIN- -!IN.



11,
1ase study of
(emplate

&roble/
$obIs name casing
112
In this job diameter of >1mm is made at a distance of 1,.>mm
on taper face and distance 39>.5-;., depends on this diameter.
(hatIs why it is necessary that this diameter should be made
correctly. It is checked by Euality control department on 26
machine but it is difficult to measure by taper gauge provided
by technology department and there are chances of damage of
job.
Ne2 %ethods
11>
• 8se of bevel protector to check the degree of taper.
• 8se of $ B / taper gauge for colour matching.
• 1,.>mm cut is made by measuring with gear tooth vernier.
• 8se of a template to measure diameter >1mm at adistance
of 1,.>mm.
I/portant S.77estions
113
1. ! template should be made.
,. 1heck carefully with technology gauge.
2. 1heck the taper with bevel protector.
>. 8se the gear tooth vernier.
3. #end the problem to technology department and wait for
the solution.
115
Sol.tion +iven
! template should be made with the help of which diameter
of >1mm should be measured correctly at a distance of
1,.>mm on the taper face.

11?
&roble/ Solvin7 +raph
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
Identified
Solved
Saving(lacs)
119
BIB!I$+#A&Y
*.).&.+ #I(&#
*.).&.+. "!N8!+#
6!I+0 6I!R0
11:

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