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(26th Feb 2012 TO 7th April 2012)


Submitted in partial fulfillment For B.Tech (M.E) VIIIth Semester Examination

Submitted by:-



1. 2. 3. #. &.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CERTIFICATE COM AN! ROFILE OF ".E.L. GENERAL ROFILE OF ".E.L. G$A%IA"AD ROTATIONAL RE ORTS OF 'ARIO(S SECTIONS • )*du+ti*, +*,t)*• M.,./eme,t 0e)1i+e • A,te,,.e 2.b)i+.ti*, • M.+3i,e 03*4 • F.b)i+.ti*, 03*4 RE ORT ON N(MERICAL CONTROL CELL • CNC 6C*m4ute) Nume)i+.- C*,t)*-7 M.+3i,e • DNC 6 Di)e+t Nume)i+.- C*,t)*-7 M.+3i,e • I,t)*du+ti*, t* 4)*/).mmi,/ • W*)8i,/ )*+edu)e0 *2 NC Ce-• Sy0tem +*de0 CONCL(SION


First of all I !ould li"e to express m# $ratitude to Mr. TA%AS& B SE' ()M &*( department for arran$in$ m# trainin$ for duration of six !ee"s. The trainin$ schedule prepared b# him $ot me to ha+e an insi$ht into !or"in$ methodolo$# and procedures at BE,. I !ant to than" department of &*( for cooperation from their part. I offer m# sincere $ratitude to m# $uide Mr. %ra+een Mishra for his continuous $uidance and support. I ta"e the opportunit# to than" Mr. Anil -umar )upta and all the member of (.E /*0 for helpin$ me throu$hout m# trainin$. M# special than"s to Mr. A!adesh -umar' ()M' (.E1*2 to permit me as a trainee in machine shop' has pro+en to be inspirin$' helpful' producti+e and fruitful to me. It !ill be in debt of m# part if I for$ot to extend m# than"s a lot to all those +isible and in+isible hands that helped me throu$hout m# trainin$ period.



Dated : 07-04-12 This is to certify that Mr.MOHIT TYAGI, student of B.TECH (Mechanica En!ineerin!"#

D.S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT GHAZIABAD successfully completed his six week training
in BHA$AT E%ECT$O&IC' %IMITED# GHA(IABAD from 27th Feb 2012 to 7th April 2012 A )r*+ect !"T#$% &F '(' )A'*+(," +( )A'*+(, "*&- . ,a- a--i!ned t* hi.. In thi- )eri*d he ,*r/ed hard and .ade 0a 1a2 e c*ntri21ti*n in de0e *)in! the )r*+ect. A hi- ,*r/ i- !en1ine and *ri!ina and ,a- ti.e 3 c*.) eted.


This is to certif# that !r&!OHIT T%AGI' student of B&TECH& (!ECHANICAL) +r,- "& IN TIT'TE OF TECHNOLOG% ( !ANAGE!ENT GHA$IABA" has successfull# completed his summer trainin$ in BHARAT ELECTRONIC LI!ITE". GHA$IABA" from 45th 2012t, 7th April 200/& A pro6ect !as assi$ned to him. In this period he !or"ed hard and made +aluable contribution in de+elopin$ the pro6ect. All his !or" is $enuine and ori$inal and !as timel# completed.

)r R&N&T%AGI (HR")


THE IN"' TR% BE, !as established in 0789 as a %ublic Sector Enterprise under the administrati+e control of Ministr# of (efence as the fountainhead to manufacture and suppl# electronics components and e:uipment. BE,' !ith a note!orth# histor# of pioneerin$ achie+ements' has met the re:uirements of state1of ;art professional electronic e:uipment for (efense' broadcastin$' 3i+il (efense and telecommunications as !ell as the component re:uirement of entertainment and medical <1ra# industr# . +er the #ears' BE, has $ro!n to a multi1 product' multi1unit and technolo$# dri+en compan# !ith trac" record of a profit earnin$ %S=. BE, !as born to meet the $ro!in$ needs of Indian (efense ser+ices for electronic s#stems. Emplo#in$ the best en$ineerin$ talent a+ailable in the countr#' BE, has pro$ressed manufacturin$ state1of1the1art products in the field of (efense Electronics li"e 3ommunications includin$ encr#ption' *adars and strate$ic components. +er the #ears' BE, has di+ersified to meet the needs of ci+ilian customers as !ell and has pro+ided products and net!or" solutions on turn"e# basis to customers in India and abroad. >ith the *esearch . (e+elopment efforts' its en$ineers ha+e fructified it into a !orld class or$ani?ation. The compan# has a uni:ue position in India of ha+in$ dealt !ith all the $enerations of electronic component and e:uipment. &a+in$ started !ith a &F recei+er in collaboration !ith T13SF of France' the compan#@s e:uipment desi$ns ha+e had a lon$ +o#a$e throu$h the h#brid' solid1state discrete component to the state1of1art inte$rated circuit technolo$#. In the component arena also' the compan# established its o!n electron +al+e manufacturin$ facilit#. It mo+ed on to semiconductors !ith the manufacture of $ermanium and silicon de+ices and then to manufacture of Inte$rated circuits. To "eep in pace !ith the component and e:uipment technolo$#' its manufacturin$ and product assurance facilities ha+e also

under$one sea chan$e. The desi$n $roups ha+e 3ad@s facilit#' the manufacturin$ has 3A3 machines and a Mass Manufacture Facilit#' and B3 chec"s are performed !ith multi1dimensional profile measurement machines. Automatic testin$ machines' en+ironmental labs to chec" extreme !eather and other operational conditions are there. All these facilities ha+e been established to meet the strin$ent re:uirements of MI, $rade s#stems. Toda# BE,@s infrastructure is spread o+er nine locations !ith 47 production di+isions ha+in$ IS 17CC007CC4 accreditation. %roduct mix of the compan# are spread o+er the entire electroma$netic(EM) spectrum ran$in$ from tin# audio fre:uenc# semiconductor to hu$e radar s#stems and <1ra# tubes on the upper ed$e of the spectrum. Its manufacturin$ units ha+e special focus to!ards the product ran$es li"e (efense 3ommunications' *adars' ptical . pto1electronics' Telecommunications' Sound and Vision broadcastin$' Electronic components' etc. Besides manufacturin$ and suppl# of a !ide +ariet# of products' BE, offers a +ariet# of ser+ices li"e Telecom and *adar S#stems 3onsultanc#' 3ontract Manufacturin$' 3alibration of test . measurin$ instruments' etc. At the moment' the compan# is installin$ MSS* radar at important airports under the moderni?ation of airports plan of Aational Airport Authorit# (AAA). BE, has nurtured and built a stron$ in1house *.( base b# absorbin$ technolo$ies from more than 8C leadin$ companies !orld!ide and (*( labs for a !ide ran$e of products. A team of more than DCC en$ineers is !or"in$ in *.( .Each unit has its o!n *.( (i+ision to brin$ out ne! products to the production lines. 3entral *esearch ,aborator# (3*,) at Ban$alore and )ha?iabad !or"s as independent a$enc# to underta"e contemporar# desi$n !or" on state1of1art and futuristic technolo$ies. About 5CE of BE,Fs products are of in1house desi$n. BE, !as amon$st the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arran$ement !ith International 3omputers India ,imited (I3I,) in 075C@s. BE, assembled a limited number of 07C0 s#stems under the arran$ement !ith I3I,. &o!e+er' follo!in$ )o+ernment@s

decision to restrict the computer manufacture to E3I,' BE, could not pro$ress in its computer manufacturin$ plans. As man# of its e:uipment !ere microprocessor based' the compan# continued to de+elop computers based application' both hard!are and soft!are. Most of its soft!are re:uirements are in real time. EM33A' soft!are intensi+e na+al ships control and command s#stem is probabl# one of the first pro6ects of its nature in India and Asia. BE, has !on a number of national and international a!ards for Import Substitution' %roducti+it#' Bualit#' Safet# etc. 0ARIO' 'NIT 1 Its corporate office is at Ban$alore. Ban$alore complex is the BE,@s first and lar$est unit and it accounts for t!o1thirds of both the 3ompan#@s turno+er and manpo!er. This unit@s product ran$e co+ers o+er 2CC (efence and 3i+ilian products. )ha?iabad is the second lar$est unit of BE, and it speciali?es in *A(A*S' 3 MM=AI3ATI A EB=I%MEATS .MI3* >AVE3 M% AEATS. In total BE, has $ot 7 units. These are distributed in all o+er the India asG 0. BAA)A, *E (3orporate ffice) 4. )&AHIABA( 2. %AA3&-=,A 9. MA3&I,I%ATAAM 8. %=AE I. &J(E*ABA( 5. 3&EAAAI D. - T(>A*A 7. TA, KA

The passionate pursuit of excellence at BE, is reflected in are pulsion !ith its customers that can be described in its motto' mission and ob6ecti+esG

CORPORATE !OTTO LBualit#' Technolo$# and Inno+ationM 3 *% *ATE MISSI A To be the mar"et leader in (efence Electronics and in other chosen fields and products. CORPORATE OB2ECTI0E N To become a customer1dri+en compan# suppl#in$ :ualit# products at competiti+e prices at the expected time and pro+idin$ excellent customer support. N To achie+e $ro!th in the operations commensurate !ith the $ro!th of professional electronics industr# in the countr#. N To $enerate internal resources for financin$ the in+estments re:uired for moderni?ation' expansion and $ro!th for ensurin$ a fair return to the in+estor. N In order to meet the Aation@s strate$ic needs' to stri+e for self1 reliance b# indi$eni?ation of materials and components. N To retain the technolo$ical leadership of the compan# in (efense and other chosen fields of electronics throu$h in house *esearch and (e+elopment as !ell as throu$h collaborationOco1operation !ith (efenseOAational *esearch ,aboratories' International 3ompanies' =ni+ersities and Academic institutions. N To pro$ressi+el# increase o+erseas sales of its products and ser+ices. N To create an or$ani?ational culture' !hich encoura$es members of the or$ani?ation to reali?e their full potential throu$h continuous learnin$ on the 6ob and throu$h other &*( initiati+esP

BE, is committed to consistentl# deli+er enhanced +alue to our customers' throu$h continual impro+ement of our products and processes.

0. Effecti+e and Efficient desi$n and de+elopment process' considerin$ the present and future needs of customers. 4. Enhanced customer satisfaction b# on1time deli+er# of defect free products and effecti+e life c#cle support. 2. 3ontinual up $radation and utili?ation of infrastructure and human resources. 9. Mutuall# beneficial alliances !ith suppliers. 8. 3ontinual impro+ement of processes throu$h inno+ation' technolo$# and "no!led$e mana$ement. The mana$ement of BE, is con+inced of the need for Bualit# Enhancement' on a continuous basis' in the compan#. Aeed !as felt to impart Education I Trainin$ to all the officers on the +arious facets of :ualit# mana$ement. Accordin$l#' an institute called Bharat Electronics Bualit# Institute (BEBI) !as established in0777. *e$ular trainin$ pro$rams are conducted for all emplo#ees !or"in$ in different units of the compan#. Business Excellence models bein$ follo!ed b# different or$ani?ations are studied and efforts are bein$ made to implement the best possible practices in the functionin$ of the or$ani?ation. Bharat Electronics ,td.' (BE,)' a premier %rofessional Electronics 3ompan# of India' has established and nurtured a stron$ in1house *.( base o+er the #ears to emer$e and remain as a mar"et leader in the chosen areas of business in professional electronics. Each of the nine manufacturin$ units of BE, is ha+in$ its o!n in1 house *.( (i+ision to de+elop ne! products in its field of operations. Besides' there are t!o 3entral *esearch ,aboratories (3*,) located at Ban$alore and )ha?iabad' to address futuristic technolo$ies of interest to BE,. Main areas of *.( acti+ities at BE, include de+elopment of Militar# *adars' Aa+al S#stems' Militar# 3ommunication %roducts' Electronic >arfare S#stems' Telecommunication products' Sound and Vision Broadcastin$ E:uipment and S#stems' pto1Electronic %roducts' and Electronic 3omponents. 3*, performs the dual role of carr#in$ out blue s"# research for the de+elopment of future technolo$ies and supportin$ the (.E

(i+isions of BE,@s nine units !ith state1of1the1art core technolo$# solutions in areas li"e Embedded 3omputers and applications' *adar Si$nal %rocessin$' V,SI desi$ns' *E . Micro!a+e 3ommunication Technolo$ies' Soft!are modules etc. BE,@s *.( =nits ha+e state1of1the1art *.( infrastructure' facilities' and manpo!er !ith rele+ant technical expertise for product de+elopment. There are about 0CCC en$ineers !or"in$ in BE, on +arious (.E pro6ects. BE, spends around 8 E of compan# turno+er for the #ear on *.( e+er# #ear. &*( (i+isions of BE, ta"e ade:uate initiati+es for the all round de+elopment and expertise up $radation of *.( human resources. State of the art infrastructures' test e:uipment' computers . !or"stations' Soft!are pac"a$es etc. are au$mented e+er# #ear for the *.( di+isions. BE, *.( =nits are reco$ni?ed b# the (epartment of Scientific . Industrial *esearch under the Ministr# of Science . Technolo$#' )o+ernment of India. *.( =nits of BE, ha+e close interactions !ith other Aational (esi$n A$encies li"e (*( ' 3SI*' 31( T and a number of Technical Institutes. BE, 6ointl# !or"s !ith them to tap suitable indi$enous desi$ns for commerciali?ation. Technolo$ical collaborations !ith some of the Multinational companies and subse:uent absorption of these technolo$ies also ha+e enhanced the technolo$ical base at BE,. n an a+era$e' about I5E of BE,@s turno+er is from indi$enous desi$n' and 22 E of it is throu$h forei$n technolo$# transfers. ,ist of !orld class companies !ith !hom BE, has technolo$ical collaborations for different state1of1the1art products are as $i+en belo!G 3ompan# %roduct erli"on 3ontra+es' S!it?erland Aa+al F3 S#stems


*.( (i+isions of BE, ha+e been recei+in$ number of Aational *.( a!ards. A list sho!in$ the +arious *.( a!ards recei+ed b# BE, since 077C is as $i+en belo!. 0. FI33I A!ard for *esearch in Science . Technolo$# 077C (For the corporate initiati+e of *.() 4. (SI* Aational *.( A!ard 0774 (For successful commerciali?ation of %ublic Funded *.() (For (.E pro6ect handled at BE,1)A() 2. (SI* Aational *.( A!ard 0772 (For in house *.( efforts under Electronics . Electrical Industries Sector) (For (.E pro6ects handled at BE,1Ban$alore' Machilipatnam . )ha?iabad) 9. (SI* Aational *.( A!ard 0778 (For in house *.( efforts under Electronics Industries Sector) (For (.E %ro6ects handled at BE,1Ban$alore . )ha?iabad) 8. (SI* Aational *.( A!ard 077D (For successful commerciali?ation of %ublic Funded *.() (For (.E pro6ects handled at BE,1Ban$alore . %anch"ula) I. (efense Technolo$# Absorption A!ard F7D 077714CCC (Sponsored b# (*( ) (For (.E pro6ects handled at BE,1&#derabad) 5. A!ard for Excellence in *.( for the #ear 077D 4CCC14CC0 (Sponsored b# Ministr# of Information Technolo$#' )ol) (For BE,1)ha?iabad@s de+elopments of +arious 0FF S#stems) D. A!ard for Excellence in %rofessional Electronics 4CCC1 4CC0 For the #ear 077D. (Sponsored b# Ministr# of Information Technolo$#' )d) (For BE,1- Ts excellent performance in %roduction'

*.( . its commitment to Bualit# . Ser+ice) 7. A!ard for 3ontribution in areas of (efense * . ( 4CC014CC4 To 3ol. *etd.) &. S. Shan"ar' (irector (* . () for The #ear 4CC014CC4 (Sponsored b# Societ# for (efense Technolo$ists ; S (ET) 0C.*a"esha mantra a!ards for import substitution' desi$n' efforts Inno+ation And best performin$ di+ision amon$ (%S=s in 4CC71 4C0C. 00. S (ET a!ards in 4CCD14CC7 for t!o en$ineers in $old and bron?e cate$or# for technolo$# inno+ation and de+elopment respecti+el#. 04. (un . brodestreet co1oprate a!ards 4CC7 in the cate$or# of electrical and electronic e:uipment sector. 02. >ins %SE excellence a!ard in 4C00. 09. Industr# excellence a!ard in 4C00. 08. India %ride a!ards ( )old) in 4C00. 0I. A!ard for best performance in export ( 4C0C100). 05. Safet# a!ard in 4C00. "E IGN AN" !AN'FACT'RING ER0ICE Bharat Electronics ,imited toda# has an inte$rated approach and s#stems capabilit#' !hich is a direct result of its commitment to pro+idin$ tailor1made solutions to the customers throu$h its philosoph# of :ualit# mana$ement. The compan# has set up impressi+e infrastructure and manufacturin$ facilities spread o+er nine IS 7CC0 I 7CC4 certified

modern production units around the countr#. The infrastructure is re$ularl# up$raded !ith the latest and state1 of1the1art facilities. Manufacturin$ infrastructure is ampl# supported b# the applicable Bualit# Assurance infrastructure and s"illed technicians. Standards (i+ision of BE, optimi?es the processes on a continuous basis. %rocess and BA standards $enerated b# BE, are used as reference b# a number of companies in India. >ith the stren$ths in infrastructure and s"illedOexperienced manpo!er' BE, offers 3ontract Manufacturin$ Ser+ices for both domestic and international customers in the follo!in$ areasG


E!BL% ( !T. thr,45h h,le. BGA) 678 Te9ti75

BE, has set up an exclusi+e Mass Manufacturin$ Facilit# and achie+ed proficienc# in assembl# of a !ide +ariet# of circuit board desi$ns includin$ Surface Mount Technolo$# (SMT)' Mixed Technolo$# and %lated I %in Throu$h &ole Technolo$# (%T&)'. BE, also offers most modern facilities for testin$ of the products manufactured.

Precision machining and Fabrication
BE, has the experience and expertise in the manufacture of hi$h %recision Machined and Fabricated %arts in its state1of1the1art facilities e:uipped !ith latest 3A3 and special purpose machines. %roducts manufactured include chassis' enclosures' panels' brac"ets' rac" mounts' card ca$e flan$es and co+ers' lar$e and medium modular frames and precision machined parts for the electronic' computer' and electrical products bein$ used in commercial' (efense' aerospace and telecommunication industries. pto Electronic 3omponents and Assemblies Bharat Electronics offers cost effecti+e ser+ices for desi$n and manufacture of optical and opto1electronic products and components operatin$ in the =V' Visible and I* spectrum. ptical components include lenses' prisms' mirrors' !indo!s' !ed$es etc.

and ptical assemblies include b6ecti+e assembl#' E#epiece assembl#' 3ollimator assembl# . Ima$in$ assembl#.

Microwave integrated irc!it Assemb"ies
BE, manufactures a +ariet# of Micro!a+e 3omponents and sub1 s#stems usin$ microchip technolo$# !hich are re:uired for !ide ran$e of applications in communication' radar s#stems includin$ airborne and space related subs#stems. The facilit# is also :ualified for the manufacture of 31Band *ecei+er for satellite s#stems. Multila#er %3B (esi$n and Manufacturin$ BE, has established an excellent infrastructure to manufacture +ariet# of %rinted 3ircuit Boards ran$in$ from sin$le sided to 0D la#ers. The facilities are e:uipped to manufacture hi$h technolo$# :uic" turn protot#pes' LBuic"1to1 Mar"et productsM and underta"e +olume production of buried and blind +ias' build1up multi la#ers (micro +ias) and ultra fine linesOspaces.

ab"e assemb"ies and Wiring #arnesses
BE, speciali?es in the manufacture of cable assemblies and builds custom !irin$ harness re:uired for its electronic e:uipment for commercial and militar# applications. (esi$n and Manufacturin$ of %rofessional )rade Transformers BE, manufactures a !ide ran$e of transformers (po!er' audio fre:uenc#' modulation' pulse' filament etc.') coils (audio fre:uenc#' radio fre:uenc#' air arc' IF' pot case' molded' etc.') 3ho"es (smoothin$' modulation' radio fre:uenc#' etc.') and Sub1 assemblies (&V =nits' E&V units' etc.). Most of these products meet the strin$ent defense specifications for use in (efence e:uipment.

Antenna Man!$act!ring
Bharat Electronics ,imited is en$a$ed in de+elopment and production of +arious t#pes of antennas for use in *adars' 3ommunications' TV1 Broadcastin$' Satellite 3ommunication etc.

The antenna production di+ision also includes a F*% shop capable of producin$ antennas !ith hand1la#1up technolo$#. The *.( and production efforts are supported b# !ell1e:uipped micro!a+e testin$ laborator# and a micro!a+e outdoor antenna test ran$e. There is also a facilit# to produce thin film MI3 components that are extensi+el# used in phased arra# antennas. Man# forei$n companies li"e AT.T1=SA' )E1Medical1=SA' Visha#1Austria' E3& STA*1=SA' EA3 A International1=SA' 3*E3 %roducts Inc13anada.' Multitone1=-' Elisra' Elta' rte"' Scitex' E, %1Israel' Technolo$# *ende?+ous Inc.' =SA' E*I3SS A'S>E(EA and man# more are usin$ our facilit# for meetin$ their outsourcin$ re:uirements. BE, has also established Koint Venture 3ompanies !ith (eIft' &olland for Ima$e Intensifier Tube and )eneral Electric Medical S#stems' =SA for <1*a# Tubes.



F,r-6ti,7 In the mid IC@s' !hile re+ie!in$ the (efence re:uirements of the countr#' the $o+ernment focused its attention to stren$then the Air (efence S#stem' in particular the $round electronics s#stem support' for the Air (efence Aet!or". This led to the formulation of a +er# ma6or plan A()ES !ith %rime Minister as the presidin$ officer of the apex re+ie! committee. At about the same time' public attention !as focused on the report of the Bhabha 3ommittee on the de+elopment and production of electronics e:uipment. The Ministr# of (efence immediatel# reali?ed the need to establish production capacit# for meetin$ the electronics e:uipment re:uirements for its plan A()ES. BE, !as then entrusted !ith the tas" of meetin$ the de+elopment and production re:uirement for the plan A()ES and in +ie! of the importance of the pro6ect it !as decided to create additional capacit# at a second unit of the compan#. In (ecember 075C the $o+ernment sanctioned an additional unit for BE,. In 0750' the industrial license for manufacture of

radar and micro!a+e e:uipments !as obtainedQ 0754 sa! the commencement of construction acti+ities and production !as launched in 0759. +er the #ears' the unit has successfull# manufactured a !ide +ariet# of e:uipment needed for (efence and ci+il use. It has also installed and commissioned a lar$e number of 0FF s#stems needed to match a +ariet# of %rimar# *adars. More than 2 +ersions of IFFs ha+e alread# been supplied tra+elin$ the path from +acuum tubes technolo$# to solid1state to latest Micro!a+e component1based s#stem.

Organi%ationa" Str!ct!re o$ BEL:
The operations of BE, )ha?iabad are headed b# )eneral Mana$er !ith AdditionalO(eput# )eneral Mana$er headin$ +arious di+isions as follo!s

Design &Engineering Divisions'
N (e+elopment and En$ineerin$1*
N (e+elopment and En$ineerin$13 N (e+elopment and En$ineerin$1Antenna

E(!i)ment Man!$act!ring Divisions1
N *adar
N 3ommunication N Antenna N S#stems N Micro!a+e 3omponents

S!))ort Divisions
N Material Mana$ement
N Mar"etin$ and 3ustomer 3o1ordination N Bualit# Assurance and Tor:ue

N 3entral ser+ices N Information S#stems N Finance and Accounts N %ersonnel and Administration N Mana$ement Ser+ices

Design and Engineering1
The pace of de+elopment and technolo$ical obsolescence in the field of electronics necessitates a stron$ *esearch and (e+elopment base. This is all the more important in the area of (efense Electronics. BE, )ha?iabad has since its inception laid a hea+# emphasis on indi$enous *esearch and (e+elopment. About 5CE of its manufacture toda# relate to items de+eloped in1house. For the de+elopment and production of the Mobile Troposcatter S#stem and the 0FF e:uipment' BE, !as a!arded the )old Shield for Import Substitution. (esi$n facilities are also constantl# bein$ moderni?ed and substantial computer1aided desi$n facilities are bein$ introduced includin$ installation of mini and micro1computers and dedicated desi$n application. About 05C $raduate and post1$raduate en$ineers are !or"in$ on research and de+elopment and indication of the importance *.( has in BE,@s $ro!th. Three (esi$n and En$ineerin$ $roups are product based +i?. 3ommunication' *adar and AntennaQ these di+isions are further di+ided into different departments to loo" after products of a particular nature. Each of them has a dra!in$ office attached to them' !hich are e:uipped !ith latest draftin$ and en$ineerin$ soft!are. The %3B la#out and %3B master ma"in$ is done at 3A((@s center. A central *ecords and %rintin$ section ta"es care

of the preser+in$ the en$ineerin$ documents and distribution thereof. Most of the en$ineerin$ documents are a+ailable online.

E(!i)ment Man!$act!ring Divisions'
As a supplier to the defense ser+ices and professional user' strict adherence to specifications and tolerances has to be in1built into the desi$n and manufacturin$ process. For this. BE, )ha?iabad has !ell defined standards and process for as !ell as manufacturin$ and testin$ acti+ities. Acti+ities are di+ided into +arious departments li"e %roduction 3ontrol' >or"s assembl# and B3 !or"s. The manufacture and control of production is throu$h a central s#stem' BE,MA3' BE,@s o!n home$ro!n E*% s#stem. Apart from con+entional machines' BE, )ha?iabad has been e:uipped !ith se+eral 3omputer Aumeric 3ontrol (3A3) machines for ensurin$ repeat occurrences and increased throu$hput. A separate A3 pro$rammin$ cell has been set up to de+elop the pro$rams for execution on the 3A3 machines.

Microwave om)onent *ro!)'
Fre:uencies $reater than 0 )&? as Micro!a+es' Micro!a+e Inte$rated 3ircuits(MI3) used extensi+el# in the production of subs#stems for radar and communication e:uipment constitutes a +er# +ital part of the technolo$# for these9 s#stems and is $enerall# imported. !in$ to the crucial and buildin$ bloc" nature of the technolo$# in+ol+ed' BE, is currentl# settin$ up a modem

MI3 manufacturin$ facilit# at a planned expenditure of *s 4crores. >hen in full operation' this facilit# !ill be the main center for the MI3 re:uirements of all the units of the compan#. The manufacturin$ facilities of h#brid micro!a+e components a+ailable at BE, )ha?iabad includes facilit# for the preparation of substrates' assembl# of miniaturi?ed components +i?' directional couplers' lo! noise amplifiers' phase shifters' s#nthesi?ers etc. in+ol+es scalar as !ell as +ector measurements. For this state of the net!or" anal#sis are used.

Materia" Management'
Material Mana$ement di+ision is responsible for procurement' stora$e bindin$' issue of purchased parts as !ell as ra! materials re:uired to manufacture +arious e:uipment and spares. It also ta"es care of disposal of unused or !aste material. This di+ision is di+ided into %urchase' 3omponent store' ra! material store' 3hemical store' In!ards $ood store' 3ustom clearance cell' In+entor# mana$ement . disposal.

Mar+eting and !stomer o,ordination'
This di+ision is responsible for ac:uisition and execution of customer orders and customer ser+ices. Mar"etin$ department loo"s after the order ac:uisition' 3ommercial department loo"s after the order execution' and Shippin$ ta"es care of the pac"in$ and dispatch of material to customer Bualit# Assurance . Tor:ue. In the area of professional defense electronics' the importance of Bualit# and reliabilit# is of utmost importance. BE, has therefore established strin$ent processes and modern facilities and s#stems to ensure product :ualit#1from the ra! material to the finished product. I)BA En+ironmental labs' Test E:uipment Support and BA departments are $rouped to$ether under this di+ision.

All material for the consumption in the factor# passes throu$h strin$ent in!ard $oods screenin$ in I)BA department before bein$ accepted for use Subse:uent to manufacture and inspection' the end product is a$ain put throu$h a ri$orous c#cle of performance and en+ironmental chec"s in En+ironmental ,abs.

The testin$' calibration and repair facilit# of test instruments used in the factor# is under the control of Test E:uipment Support. All the instruments come to this department for periodic calibration Bualit# Assurance department facilitates 0SC7CCC certification of +arious di+isions. All the production di+isions of BE, )ha?iabad are 0S7CCC certified. The micro!a+e di+ision is 0SC7CC0 certified !hereas the remainin$ three di+isions +i?. *adar' 3ommunication and Antenna are also 0SC7CC4 certified.

entra" Services1
3entral Ser+ices (i+ision loo"s after plant and maintenance of the estate includin$ electrical distribution capti+e po!er $eneration' telephones' transport etc.

P B Fabrication & Magnetics'
%3B Fabrication' 3oil and Ma$netic' Technical literature' %rintin$ press and Finished $oods are the areas under this di+ision. Sin$le sided %3B blan"s1ha+in$ circuit pattern onl# on one side of the board and double1sided1ha+in$ circuit pattern on both sides of the board are manufactured in house. &o!e+er' Multila#ered %3Bs' ha+in$ man# la#ers of circuit are obtained from other sources. Ma$netic department ma"es all t#pes of transformers . coils that are used in different e:uipment. 3oils and transformers are

manufactured as per +arious specifications laid do!n in the documents released b# the (.E department.

-n$ormation S.stems'
IS department is responsible for BE,@s o!n home$ro!n manufacturin$ and control s#stem called BE,MA3. It comprise of almost all modules a modern E*% s#stem but is host and dumb terminal based.

Finance &Acco!nts'
The F.A di+ision are di+ided into Bud$et . 3ompilation' 3ost and Material Accounts' Bills pa#able' %a#rolls' %F section' 3ash sections.

Personne" & Administration'
There are at present about 42CC emplo#ees at BE, )ha?iabad' of !hich more than 9CC are $raduate and post $raduate en$ineers. %.A (i+ision is di+ided into +arious departments li"e *ecruitment' Establishment' &*(' >elfare' Industrial *elations' Securit# and Ml *oom.

Management Services'
This department deals !ith the flo! of information or from the compan#. It is broadl# classifies into three ma6or sub1sections1

Mana$ement Information S#stem' Industrial En$ineerin$ (epartment and Safet#.



The main $oals of the production control areG 0. To impro+e the profit of the compan# b# better resource mana$ement. 4. To ensure o!n time deli+er# product to customer 2. To impro+e :ualit# of the products 9. To reduce the capital in+estment

8. To reduce the !or"in$ capital needs b# better in+entor# mana$ement. %roduction control is responsible for producin$ the product' ri$ht from the sta$e en$ineerin$ dra!in$ are recei+ed to the sta$e !here it is store credit as finished products. Its basic function is to identif# the parts Ooperations to be made the best !a# of ma"in$ them' and the time !hen the# ha+e to ma"e and to arran$e the production resources to the optimum. The commercial department obtains order for e:uipment throu$h :uotations. The e:uipment stop order (ES ) is released b# commercial department. The mana$ement ser+ice department' issue the !or" order for the :ualit# of the e:uipment to be made. This is for the calculation of the cost of the pro6ect. Then (.B department de+elops the e:uipment and releases the follo!in$ en$ineerin$ documentsG • ) 1 -e# sheet • GA 1 )eneral assembl# dia$ram • *" 1 >irin$ dia$ram • PL 1 %art list • CL 1 3onnection list Ao! the production control ta"es the responsibilit# of manufacturin$ the e:uipment. %c decides for items to be purchased from outside' for items to be manufactured b# other companies and prepares documents for items to be made inside the compan#. ",:4-e7t9 i994e8 b; PC 0. Pr,:e99 9heet (F6bri:6ti,7)1 this process sheet indicates the process and the se:uence of operation to be follo!ed in +arious !or" cells and !or" centres. E+er# item timed b# producti+it# ser+ices

4. Pr,:e99 9heet (A99e-bl;)1 This is similar to %S (fabrication) except that' it is used in electronic assembl#' %3B assemblies' cable from the cable assemblies. 2. Pr,:e99 9heet (C,il9)1 This indicates operational anal#sis for transformer and coils. 9. :he84le +,r R!. +69te7er9 678 PP<91 This $i+es the $ross re:uirement for ra! materials' purchased parts' fasteners etc. Based on this material control department initiates procurement action and store re:uisitions are released !ith reference to this schedule.

TOOL PLANNING Some of the items !hile under fabrication re:uire the use of some 6i$s and fixtures or some special purpose tools. This department arran$es all these items' because the 6obs can e made fast and accurate b# usin$ an# 6i$ or fixture. The !or"in$ format of this department is as follo!sG 0. %rocurement of %%S 4. %rocurement of ra! material. 2. >ritin$ of process sheet for machines shop • Sheet metal !or"in$

9. 8. I. 5.

• Turnin$ shop • >eldin$ shop • %rocess sheet for assembl# ,aunchin$ of manufactured parts in +arious shops Assembl# acti+it# Testin$ (ispatch.

This department deals !ith the flo! of information to or from the compan#. It is broadl# classified into the ma6or sectionsG 1& Pr,84:ti=it; 9er=i:e 2& E"P 9e:ti,7 Pr,84:ti=it; 9er=i:e The basic !or" of this department can be summari?ed asG

0. To prepare plans for next fi+e #ears called L*oll1onM plan and e+aluate the current Lroll onM plan that has been dra!n 8#rs a$e. 4. The cost estimation' re+enue and bud$et plans are $ot appro+ed b# the board of mana$ement 2. Standard hour is appro+ed b# the department. 9. *eport on production +alue is e+aluated for each unit. !6teri6l -6765e-e7t The responsibilit# $i+en to this section is to obtain ra! materials and items essential to!ards dail# usa$e of the factor#. The di+ision further consists of t!o departmentsG /0 P!rchase 10 om)onents store BEL as a frontrunner has installed three automatic components holdin$ machine in its component store. The s#stem is -A*(E< s#stem installed in 4CC4. This s#stems aims atQ 0. =tili?in$ +ertical space for storin$ 4. Ma"in$ the process of searchin$ components' fati$ue' less as !ell as time sa+in$ (components to man instead of man ) 2. Also pro+ide facilit# of in+entor# control.

-ts s)eci$ications are',
0. 4. 2. 9. 8. I. 5. Vertical hei$ht of Imtrs. Tra# len$th if 0.4mtrs &ori?ontal depth of 4.8mtrs. 2 motors Ei$ht sensors Sproc"et chain dri+e mechanism 89 components housin$ tra#s ad6usted to some hei$ht (chan$eable)

Various antennas t#pes are bein$ fabricated and assembled in this shopG a. *adar or communication antennas consists ofG i. Main panel fixture or reflector ii. Feed fixture assembl# iii. Bac"up frame i+. *otar# 6oint assembl# +. Transportation frame assembl# b. Satellite antennae of different diameter consist ofG • *eflectorG a. F*% sand!ich t#pe

b. %anel fixture t#pe • FeedG a. 31Band b. Ext.31Band • Feed support assembl# • Mount assembl# a. Manuall# operated or motor controlled operated b. *emote operated !ith control unit 06ri,49 9e:ti,79 i7 thi9 9h,p 6re1 a. %recision Fittin$ b. (ip bra?in$ c. >eldin$ d. %aintin$ e. Fiber reinforced pol# urethane moldin$ shop(F*%E)


$+- /0A1+(2
Di) Bra4in! i- a )r*ce-- *5 +*inin! *5 A 1.in1. a *3 )art- 23 .ean- *5 5 *,in! a 5i er .eta 2et,een the +*int inter5ace- at a te.)erat1re 2e *, the .e tin! )*int *5 the 2a-e .eta . 6)*n c** in! t* the -* id -tate it 5*r.- a -tr*n! .eta ic 2*nd thr*1!h*1t the +*ined area. Thi- )r*ce-- i- di55erent 5r*. *ther +*inin! )r*ce-e.!. ,e din!# 2ra4in!# -* derin! in 5* *,in! a-)ect: a" &* di-t*rti*n 2" C *-e di.en-i*na acc1rac3 c" M*re than -c*re- *5 +*int- can 2e di) 2ra4ed in *ne di) d" 71ic/# %ea/-)r**5

C*n-e81ent 3 the a)) icati*n ha- 2een 1-e in th*-e area-: • • • • 9here the +*2 i- intricate and c*n0enti*na .an15act1rin! )r*ce-- ieither 0er3 c*-t 3 *r ta/e- a *n!er c3c e ti.e. &* di-t*rti*n i- a *,ed in the )arent ite. a5ter +*inin! )r*ce--. %ea/ )r**5in! at +*int:*inin! *5 thin -heet t* a thic/er *ne. the 2end- and t,i-t-# 5*r $; ) 1.2in! *5 an3

The ,a0e !1ide-# ,ith a

c*..1nicati*n E81i).ent# are the idea ite.- 5*r di) 2ra4in!.

<art- t* Be Di) Bra4ed Are
 C eaned *5 *i # !rea-e and 5reed *5 e=ce-- *=ide#  A--e.2 ed and +i!!ed a *n! ,ith the nece--ar3 5i er .eta (dr3 5 1=".  Heated t* a))r*=i.ate 3 >?0 de! Ce -i1- 5*r a2*1t 4> .in1te in .* ten 5 1= at @0> de! Ce -i1- 5*r a2*1t 2-A .in1te-.  $e.*0ed 5r*. the .* ten 5 1=# c** ed and c eaned#  The a--e.2 3 i- n*, read3 5*r 1-e 5*r 51rther treat.ent. One +*int *r a h1ndred can 2e 5*r.ed d1rin! the 5e, .in1te- the a--e.2 3!ed in the .* ten -a t. It i- a ,e din! .eth*d# ,hich in0* 0e- ,e din! *5 .ateria 0ia an 1n/n*,n -a t *r a 1.in1. )*,er e=)*rted 5r*. 6.'.A. The 0ari*1- -ta!e- in0* 0ed are: 1" C eanin! *5 ra, .ateria : - It in0* 0e- the -1r5ace c eanin! *5 the .ateria )art t* 2e +*ined. 2" 'ettin! *5 ra, .ateria : - the di55erent )art- t* 2e +*ined *5 0ari*1- t3)ecan 2e -et 23 ta! ,e din! *r 23 ti!htenin! 23 ,ire-. A" C eanin!  De-ca in!  It can 2e d*ne 23 treatin! it ,ith H&* A B H; in the rati* *5 @:4 ($e.*0a *5 -ca e-".  De!rea-in!  thi- can 2e d*ne 23 treatin! it ,ith Tetra-ch *r* eth3 ene (TCE".

4" $ea--e.2 e: - G1idin! the. rea--e.2 e- the .ateria )art-. >" A)) icati*n *5 ;i er .ateria : - Thi- 5i er .ateria *5 a 1.in1. )*,der *5 -a.e c*.)*1nd i- a)) ied *n the ) ace ,here it i- t* 2e ,e ded. @" <re-heatin!: - the .ateria i- heated t* a te.)erat1re *5 >?0 *c -* that it .a3 c*.e t* ) a-tic -tate. The ti.e )eri*d de)endin! 1)*n the +*2. Then d1e t* ca)i ar3 acti*n# it -,ee)- int* the +*int-. 7" Di))in! in 'a t ,ater: - It i- )1t in -a t 2ath# ,hich i- at a te.)erat1re *5 @0>* c. It i- d*ne -* that it !et- hardened and a -* e=terna )*,der i,a-hed a,a3. ?" Air-c** in!: - The +*2 i- then air-c** ed. C" H*t ,ater c** ed: - It i- d*ne in *rder that the -tre--e- .a3 n*t de0e *) i5 -1dden c* d ,ater i- a)) ied. 10";1rther c eanin! i- d*ne

LESS DISTORTION: %ar!e and e=tre.e 3 c*.) e= -ha)e- can 2e 2ra4ed ,ith .ini.a di-t*rti*n at re ati0e 3 *,er than ,e din! te.)erat1re-. Di) Bra4in! 1ti i4e- 1ni5*r. a)) icati*n *5 heat 2*th in the )re-heatin! 51rnace E in .* ten -a t 2ath and ,*r/- in c*n+1ncti*n ,ith hi!h ther.a c*nd1cti0it3 )r*)ertie- a--*ciated ,ith A 1.in1.. Thi- 1ni5*r. a)) icati*n *5 heat red1ce- the incidence *5 di-t*rti*n. REDUCED TOOLING COST: The di) 2ra4in! )r*ce-- 1-e- itt e i5 an3 -)ecia i4ed t** in!. ;i=t1rin! i- !enera 3 acc*.) i-hed ,ith c*..*n 5i=t1re- that a *, 5*r 81ic/ and ine=)en-i0e c*n5i!1rati*n chan!e-. MATERIAL SAVINGS:

6n i/e ca-tin!- *r .achined )art-# di) 2ra4in! can 2e d*ne at near 5ina di.en-i*n. IMPROVED STRUCTURAL INTEGRIT: Di) 2ra4in! *55er- a c*ntin1*1- ea/-)r**5 and EMI -hie ded +*int e0en ,ith a 0ariet3 *5 .ateria thic/ne--e-. BETTER CONDUCTIVITY: A- the di) 2ra4ed +*int i- .ade 1) *5 a 1.in1.# c*nd1cti0it3 i- c ear 3 2etter than that achie0ed ,ith an adhe-i0e 2*nded *r .echanica 3 attached a--e.2 3. LOWER COST: The di) 2ra4ed )r*ce-- 3ie d- the *,e-t c*-t !i0en the -1)eri*r characteri-ticachie0ed.

DESIGN FREEDOM:  The de-i!n en!ineer ,i en+*3 a !reater ran!e *5 *)ti*n- 1-in! the di) 2ra4ed )r*ce--.   $ed1ced T** in! C*-t$ed1ced De-i!n Chan!e c*-t and i.) e.entati*n ti.e

FATIGUE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: The nat1ra -ha)e *5 the .eni-c1- 5*r.ed 23 the 5i er .ateria i- idea 3 -ha)ed t* re-i-t 5ati!1e. An3 -tre-- *5 the a--e.2 3 i- e0en 3 di-tri21ted ar*1nd the 5i et and di-)er-e- the -tre-- 1ni5*r. 3 *0er a ar!e -tre-- area.

2& P6i7ti75
After production the !or" comes for paintin$ !hich is the last operation on the 6ob. &e paints used areG a. Enamel paint

b. Aitro cellulose pol#urethane Enamel paintG It is used in !ritin$ !or" for example' monoR.. of BE, done b# enamel paint. Aitrocellulose and pol#urethaneG It can@t be done b# brush as it dries do!n +er# fast so it is done b# spra#. The procedure adopted isG 0. 3leanin$G cleanin$ !or" on the 6ob is done b# appl#in$ Tricloro eth#lene. 4. The I3 primer is put on it i.e. the red oxide and it is left for dr#in$ for 49 hours. 2. Then primer surR. Is put on it !hich is of $re# colour for 49 hours. It is coated such that the paint ma# ha+e stron$ catch and is left for 49 hours to dr#. 9. Then the paint is spra#ed o+er it. It ta"es D149 hours to dr#.

Antennae shop also houses Shot blastin$ machine. This machine is used for remo+in$ rust from hea+# rusted assemblies before paintin$ them. It consists of steel $rit' !hich is spra#ed under pressure to remo+e rust.

>& *el8i75
Various t#pes of !eldin$ bein$ used areG • Sil+er bra?in$ !ith brass base metal (bra?ed !ith A$ because it has lo!er M% as compared to brass.) • Tun$sten inert $as !eldin$ (TI))G It uses ar$on $as and electric arc Filler material is aluminum. • Arc !eldin$ usin$ consumable electrode' !hich I flux' coated.

>& Fiber rei7+,r:e8 p,l; 4reth67e 9e:ti,71

The transmitters and co+ers of trac" antennae are manufactured here. The redum co+ers of *A(A* are made here. It also ma"es reflectors for reporter as !ell as F,J3AT3&E* *A(A*. Fiber$lass is used as reinforcin$ material to increase mechanical stren$th as !ell as insulation properties. 3arbon fibers impro+e the electrical properties of components The constituents for ma"in$ reinforced assembl# are fiber$lass mats. The# are of 2 t#pesG • *i7,=i7 -6t • 4r+6:e -6t • $,bi9t67 -6t&

For ma"in$ antennae for *A(A*S' the procedure isG Mould !hich is used for ma"in$ antennae is co+ered !ith the separator $el !hich also doubles up to $i+e better surface finish. It is co+ered !ith pol#ester resin S0E accelerator S0E catal#st (depends upon climate' room temperature and conditions). It is then set in mould for about 49hours. After settin$ it is put in 3urin$ chamber for Thermosettin$' in sta$e 0 the temperature maintained is 48C3 and in sta$e 4 it is reduced to 0483.

)A'*+(, "*&T* .eet the re81ire.ent *5 0ari*1- )r*+ect-# their .an15act1rin! )art- are )r*ce--ed in .achine -h*). Di55erent *)erati*n- are carried *1t t* c*.) ete the +*2 a- re81ired. O)erati*n- .ain 3 c*0ered 1nder .achine -h*) are: 1. T1rnin! (c*n0enti*na " 2. Mi in! (c*n0enti*na " A. C&C t1rnin! 4. C&C .i in! >. :i! 2*rin! @. Grindin! 7. 'heet .eta ,*r/

T1rnin! i- d*ne *n a athe .achine. In t1rnin! n*r.a 3 -in! e )*int c1tter t** i1-ed# +*2 i- !enera 3 h* d in ch1c/ *r c* et (5i=t1re" that r*tate- and t** ia *,ed t* c1t the .ateria . Di55erent )r*ce-- )er5*r.ed *n athe .achine. • • • • • • • • • T1rnin! ;acin! Dri in! B*rin! Fn1r in! Ta)er t1rnin! Thread c1ttin! <artin! *55 Cha.5erin!

There are 0ari*1- t3)e- *5 athe- in thi- -ecti*n i. ii. iii. Centre athe Ca)-tan and t1rret athe En!ine athe

There .a/eGt3)e- are a- 5* *,-:

'CHA6B%I& 1A>:
It i- a 0er3 )reci-e .achine and i- 1-ed t* )er5*r. hi!h acc1rac3 +*2-. It i- centre athe. 1A> -)eci53 the hei!ht *5 center.


It i- a -* a 0er3 acc1rate .achine and can ta/e hea03 *ad a- ,e . It i!enera 3 1-ed 5*r .achinin! *5 ar!e -i4ed )reci-e +*2-. It i- *5 t3)e H22 i- the hei!ht *5 centre. It i- a -* a centre athe. :*2 dia.eter ran!e i- 1> H

440... en!th *5 the 2ed i- 1.>. and it- -)eed i- 40 H 2A00 r.)... the -)eed de)end- 1)*n the dia.eter *5 the ,*r/ )iece. A.

It i- ha0in! a t1rret a ca)acit3 *5 'II t** -# ,hich can 2e -et a- )er re81ired di.en-i*n-# ,ith an additi*na )r*0i-i*n *5 1ti i4in! t,* .*re t** - *n a1=i iar3 - ide. It i- 1-ed 5*r .an15act1rin! -.a +*2- in ar!e 81antit3. :*2 dia.eter ran!e: 2 H 2>.. and -)eed ran!e: 440 H A@00 r.)...

In ce -22# .i in! *)erati*n i- d*ne *n .i in! .achine-. On .i in! .achine*)erati*n- are )er5*r.ed 23 .1 ti)*int c1ttin! t** /n*,n a- .i in! c1tter. Genera 3# c1tter h* d in ar2*r and the +*2 h* d in the 0iceG5i=t1reG.achine 2ed and re81ired .achinin! *)erati*n- are )er5*r.ed a- )er dra,in!.

Mi in! *)erati*n i- 2a-ica 3 *5 t,* t3)e-:
i. ii. C*n0enti*na (1)" .i in! C i.2 (d*,n" .i in!

CO&DE&TIO&A% (6<" MI%%I&G
I5 the r*tati*n *5 the c1tter and 5eed *5 the +*2 i- in *))*-ite directi*n# it i- /n*,n a- 1) .i in!. In thi- )r*ce-- ,e can ta/e hea03 c1t 21t 5ini-hin! i- n*t !**d.

C%IMB (DO9&" MI%%I&G
I5 the r*tati*n *5 the c1tter and 5eed *5 the +*2 i- in -a.e directi*n# it i- /n*,n aC%IMB MI%%I&G. In thi- )r*ce-- ,e cann*t ta/e hea03 c1t 21t 5ini-hin! i- !**d.


It i- a 1ni0er-a t3)e-.i in! .achine# a- it .a3 2e ada)ted t* 0er3 ,ide ran!e *5 .i in! *)erati*n-. It- 2ed .*0e- in *n!it1dina # cr*--,i-e E 0ertica 3. There i- a D.$.O attached t* it# ,hich -tand- 5*r Di!ita $ead O1t. It i- a ',i-- .achine.

Specificatio !:
Bed .*0e.ent %*n!it1dina Cr*--,i-e Dertica ;eed ran!e ')eed ran!e 2. 700.. 200.. >00.. 12 t* 10>0..Gre0. A? t* 1>10 r.)..

It i- *ne *5 the 5e, Indian .achine- in BE%. It i- a -* a 1ni0er-a .i in! .achine. It i- *ne *5 the * de-t .achine- in Ce -22.

Specificatio !:
;eed ran!e ')eed ran!e A. 10 t* [email protected]. 40 t* 2>0 r.)..

It i- an *.ni0er-a t3)e .i in! .achine. It i- a ;rench .achine.

Specificatio !:
Bed .*0e.ent %*n!it1dina Dertica Head .*0e.ent Cr*--,i-e ')eed ran!e ;eed ran!e 700.. A0 t* 20>0..Gre0. 1100.. @00..

Bed Head


1.@ t* ?20 ..G re0. 0.? t* 410 ..G re0.


DECF%E ;< A%:
It i- 1ni0er-a t3)e .i in! .achine. It ha- a 5i=ed 2ed and ha- a D.$.O attached t* it. It i- a ;rench .achine.

Specificatio !:
Bed .*0e.ent %*n!it1dina Cr*--,i-e Dertica ;eed ran!e ')eed ran!e >. ?00.. A00.. 400.. 10 t* >00..Gre0. 40 t* 2000 r.)..

DECF%E ;<2:
It i- c*n0enti*na .i in! .achine. It ha- a head .*0e.ent *5 4>J *n 2*th -ide-. B*th 0ertica and h*ri4*nta ,*r/ can 2e d*ne *n it.

Specificatio !:
Bed .*0e.ent %*n!it1dina Cr*--,i-e Dertica ;eed ran!e ')eed ran!e 400.. 200.. 400.. ? t* 400..Gre0. 40 t* 2000 r.)..

'(' T#0(+(24
In ce -21 there are three C&C athe-# in ,hich t,* are 5r*. Inde=# (;$A&CE" and *ne 5r*. 9a-in* (:A<A&". Inde= C&C i- 2a-ed *n 'I&6ME$IC -3-te. and

1-ed 5*r -.a G.edi1. -i4e ar!e 81antit3 )reci-e +*2-. 9a-in* C&C i- 2a-ed *n ;A&6C -3-te. and i- 1-ed 5*r ar!e -i4e +*2.

Specification ( ASINO!"
Bar ca)acit3 Ch1c/ ca)acit3 ')ind e -)eed ran!e ;eed rate ran!e T** -tati*n I-a=i- t1rnin! (-a=i- t1rnin! ')ind e )*,er 77 .. (.a=." 2@0 .. (.a=." ? t* A000 r.).. 0.001 t* 400 ..Gre0. 12 (in n1.2er-" AA0 .. >00 .. 1> F9

Specification (In#e$%GU &''!"
Bar ca)acit3 Ch1c/ ca)acit3 ')ind e -)eed ran!e ;eed rate ran!e T** -tati*n I-a=i- t1rnin! (-a=i- t1rnin! ')ind e )*,er 10 t* @> .. 200 .. (.a=." 2> t* >000 r.).. 0.001 t* 400 ..Gre0. 12 (in n1.2er-" 17> .. 700 .. A2 F9

Specification (In#e$%GS &''!"
Bar ca)acit3 Ch1c/ ca)acit3 ')ind e -)eed ran!e ;eed rate ran!e T** -tati*n I-a=i(-a=i')ind e )*,er C t* A0 .. 100.. (.a=." A7.> t* 7000 r.).. 0.001 t* 400 ..Gre0. Turret 1 Turret 2 12 ? C> .. 100 .. 2A? .. 12? .. A2 F9

'(' )+33+(2
In ce -22 there are 5*1r t3)e- *5 C&C .i in! .achine. In ,hich t,* are 5r*. Fita.1ra (:A<A&" and the *ther t,* 5r*. Mit-1i 'ei/i (:A<A&". B*th are 2a-ed *n the ;A&6C @M -3-te..

Specification (Mit()i Sei*i +,-A!"
I-a=i- tra0e Y-a=i- tra0e (-a=i- tra0e ')ind e -)eed ran!e ;eed rate ran!e $a)id Tran-0er-e 7>0 .. 4>0 .. 4>0 .. @0 t* @000 r.).. 0.1 t* 4000 ..Gre0 12000 ..G .in.

Specification .M/cente0%1 (2ita3)0a!4"
I-a=i- tra0e Y-a=i- tra0e (-a=i- tra0e ')ind e -)eed ran!e ;eed rate ran!e $a)id tran-0er-e C14 .. >0? .. >71 .. @0 t* 4000 r.).. 0.1 t* >000 ..Gre0 10000 ..G .in.

Specification .5i6cente0%7 (2ita3)0a!4"
I-a=i- tra0e (-a=i- tra0e (-a=i- tra0e ')ind e -)eed ran!e ;eed rate ran!e $a)id tran-0er-e 1100 .. ?>0 .. 4@0 .. >0 t* A>00 r.).. 0.1 t* >000 ..Gre0 10000

5+2 /&0+(24
:i! 2*rin! *)erati*n- are )re5*r.ed t* !et c *-e t* erance *n di55erent t3)e- *5 h* e-G2*re and c*1nter 2*re a- )er re81ire.ent. The-e .achine- are a -* 0er3 acc1rate and !i0e re)eata2i it3 0er3 )reci-e in .icr*n-. There are t,* t3)e- *5 +i! 2*rin! .achine-# 2*th are ',i-- .ade Henri Ha1-er. The3 are 0er3 te.)erat1re -en-iti0e. The3 ,*r/ at 20JK2JC.

*enry *auser6Type +7 I-a=i- tra0e Y-a=i$a)id tran-0er-e ;eed ran!e ')eed ran!e 700 .. >00 .. 1200 ..G .in. 0 t* 4000 ..G .in. @0 t* @00 r.)..

*enry *auser6Type +7 I-a=i- tra0e Y-a=i(-a=i')eed ran!e Acc1rac3 400 .. 2>0 .. 400 .. @0 t* A000 r.).. 1)t* 0.1 .icr*n-

;a2ricati*n 'h*) i- *ne *5 the .echanica ,*r/-h*)- in the c*.)an3. There are -e0era /ind- *5 .achine 1-ed 5*r di55erent /ind *5 *)erati*n.;*r -heet .eta ,*r/ 5ir-t *5 a the ,*r/ i- d*ne *n -heerin! .achine. 'hearin! .achine c1t- the -heet. It 5ir-t 3 2end- the -heet E then 2rea/- the -heet 23 a)) icati*n *5 hea03 5*rce thr*1!h a ra.. A5ter c1ttin! the -heet the ,*r/ )iece i- -ent t* )1nchin! .achine. In thi.achine )1nch can .a/e h* e- *5 an3 -ha)e. Thi- )1nchin! .achine i- a C&C .achine# ,hich ha- t,ent3-t** -tati*n. The )r*!ra. i- 5eed int* the .achine .an1a 3# 23 5 *))3 *r 23 c*.)act di-c. A5ter )1nchin!# +*2 i- -ent 5*r,ard 5*r *ther *)erati*n-. A5ter )1nchin! i5 there i- an3 2endin! ,*r/ in that +*2 then it i-ent t* 2endin! .achine ,here 2endin! ,*r/ i- d*ne. In circ1 ar -a, the ,a-te .ateria i- c1t *5 the *ri!ina )iece. &*, a5ter )er5*! -1ch *)erati*n the e0e *5 the -heet !et ,rec/ -* 2e5*re )er5*! .*re *)erati*n-. It i- -ent t* e0e in! .achine in ,hich there are r* er-# ,hich are .*0in! in *))*-ite directi*n-. The -heet i- in-erted in the .achine and .achine e0e - the -1r5ace. In ;a2ricati*n 'h*) there are 0ari*1- /ind- *5 .achine 21t .ain 3 the ,*r/ id*ne *n -*.e .achine and the3 are: 1. 'hearin! Machine (<C-1". 2. C&C-%DD <1nchin! Machine. A. &<B- Bendin! Machine. 4. 120 T- Bendin! Machine >. %e0e in! Machine. @. Ta))in! Machine. 7. Circ1 ar 'a,. ?. $adia Dri in! Machine.

The 2rie5 de-cri)ti*n and ,*r/in! *5 the .achine i- !i0en 2e *,:


S"ea#i $ Mac"i e %PC&'(:&

'hearin! Machine i- *ne *5 the .*-t i.)*rtant .achine- *5 the 5a2ricati*n -h*)# 2eca1-e the ,*r/ -tart- 5r*. thi- .achine a- it c1t- the -heet. Thi- .achine ,*r/- *n h3dra1 ic )re--1re. The ra. i- 5i=ed and it - ide- h*ri4*nta 3 and c1t the -heet. Act1a 3 thi- .achine d* n*t c1t# it 2end- the -heet and then 2rea/- 23 the acti*n *5 ra.. A- the -heet 2end- and the ,*r/ d*ne in !reat acc1rac3 -* c earance .1-t 2e ta/en in acc*1nt 2e5*re c1ttin! the -heet .The c earance ithe AL *5 the thic/ne-- *5 the -heet. ;*r h* din! the -heet 5ir. 3# ,hen ,e )re-the 21tt*n 5ir-t the )re-- the and then the ra. )er5*r. it- ,*r/. ;*r the *n! i5e *5 the c1tter the ra. d* n*t act 5r*. 2*th -ide# in-tead *5 that it -tartc1ttin! 5r*. *ne -ide +1-t i/e -ci--*r. ')eci5icati*n:Ma=i.1. -heet thic/ne-A 1.in1. Mi d -tee 'tain e-- -tee Ma=i.1. en!th *5 the -heet &1.2er *5 -tr*/e- )er .in1te Di-tance *5 5ra.e c1ttin! - ide D* ta!e *5 .*t*r A))r*=i.ate ,ei!h 2. CNC&LVD P) c"i $ Mac"i e: & 0.> - @ .. 0.> - 4 .. 0.> - A.. A.. 1?-2? A0H< 41>D 7 t*ne-

Thi- .achine i- a C&C t1rret .achine in ,hich there are 20 H t** -tati*n- in a t1rret# ,hich act- a- there )r*!!. In thi- .achine there are 5*1r ,a3- t* 5eed the )r*!ra.# 5ir-t ,a3 i- -i.) e .an1a )r*!!# -ec*nd 23 .a!netic ta)eGree # third ,a3 i- 23 5 *))3 and 5*1rth 23 c*.)act di-c. <r*!! i2a-ed *n tri!*n*.etr3. I E Y indicate- the de-ired en!th E ,idth *5 the -heet. 9*r/in! *5 the .achine i- -i.) e the data i- 5ed int* .achine 23 an3 *ne *5 the .eth*d E the -heet i- in-erted in the .achine. The .achine a1t*.atica 3 ,*r/-

and 5ina 3 c*.) ete- the +*2. ;*r h* din! the +*2 5ir. 3 there are t,* 0ice-# ,hich are .*0a2 e and ,hich .*0e- the -heet. Their +a,- are *)erated 23 *i c*.)re--i*n. ')eci5icati*n: C*.)an3 M*de C&C c*ntr* E ectric c*n-1.)ti*n Ma=i.1. )1nch t*nna!e 9*r/in! Area Ma=i.1. -heet thic/ne-Ma=i.1. )1nch dia Ma=i.1. ,*r/ )iece ,ei!ht <*-iti*n Acc1rac3 A0era!e re)eata2i it3 &1.2er *5 t** -tati*n%DD Be !i1. De ta 1000 thic/ t1rret A inde=e;an1c 1?0i 2A.4 F9 200 F9 127> .. @ .. ??.C .. ?0 F! 0.1 .. 0.0> .. 20 7A t3)e (1) t* 12.7 .." 7B t3)e (dia 12.7 t* A1.7 .." 2C t3)e (dia A1.7 t* >0.C .." 4D t3)e (dia 1) t* ??.C .." A(D t3)e" 220 .. (I directi*n" ?0 .. (Y directi*n" 7> 5*r I E Y directi*n 10@ 5*r I E Y .*0e.ent 400 (BG- > L" 5*r IM 1.. And 3M0 (,ith*1t -heet" 200 (BG- > L" 5*r I M 2> .. And Y M 0 (,ith*1t -heet" C0 t* 100 dB

&*. O5 inde= -tati*n Inhi2ited c a.) 4*ne Ma=i.1. -)eed &i22 in! <1nchin! &*i-e e0e



NPB Be *i $ Mac"i e:&

In thi- .achine the t** i- 5i=ed 2et,een the +a,- and the die i- -e ected a- )er *1r need. It i- a -* an a1t*.atic .achine. ItN- an air c*.)re--*r *)erated .achine in ,hich a)) 3in! air )re--1re d*e- the ,*r/. The die i- -e ected and 5itted at the die h* der. The +*2# ,hich i- t* 2end# i) aced *n the die# ,hich i- 5i=ed *n the 2ed. The .*-t i.)*rtant 5eat1re *5 thi.achine i- that in thi- .achine the ra. d* n*t .*0e# in-tead 2ed .*0e 1),ard and d*,n,ard and the 2endin! ,*r/ i- d*ne. Thi- i- a /ind *5 a1t*.atic .achineO -* the )*,er *5 -tr*/e# en!th *5 -tr*/e and the di.en-i*n *5 the +*2 i- n1.erica 3 c*ntr* ,here the an!e *5 2endin! ide)endent *n the die. 4. '+,T Be *i $ Mac"i e:&

Thi- i- -i.) e /ind *5 )re--# ,*r/in! *n h3dra1 ic )rinci) e. It- t*nna!e i- 120 t*ne- and i- c*.) ete 3 .an1a *)erated .achine. It ha- t,* h3dra1 ic c3 inder-# ,hich are attached ,ith the h3dra1 ic )i-t*n-. There i- *i tan/ 2ehind the .achine# ,hich i- 5i ed ,ith *i and i- 1-ed a- a 5 1id 5*r h3dra1 ic )i-t*n. A- thi- i- a .an1a 3 *)erated .achine# -* the -tr*/e en!th# the die and 2endin! an! e a are -et .an1a 3. The 2endin! an! e i- -et 23 die and -tr*/e en!th i- -et 1) 23 -ca e# ,hich i- -it1ated *n the .achine. T* h* d the +*2 5ir. 3 there i- a -* c a.)# ,hich h* d- the +*2. In thi- .achine the 2ed i- -tati*nar3 and the ra. .*0e- 1),ard and d*,n,ard. >. Tappi $ Mac"i e:&

Ta))in! .achine in it- -i.) e-t /ind c*n-i-t- *5 AC .*t*r in ,hich the -)ind e i5itted 5r*. ,hich a 2e t i- 5itted 5r*. .*t*r -)ind e t* ch1c/ -)ind e *n the 2*th -)ind e. There are -*.e -te)- 5*r the 2e t# 23 .ean- *5 that the -)eed *5 .achine i- c*ntr* ed. An i.)*rtant 5eat1re *5 thi- .achine i- that the ch1c/ *5 thi- .achine can 2e r*tated c *c/,i-e ,hen the .*0in! ch1c/ i- )re--ed 1),ard. B3 1-in! thi.achine ,e can ta) 5r*. 2 .. t* 10 ...


Le-e.i $ Mac"i e:&

%e0e in! Machine i- 1-ed *n 3 5*r e0e in! the -1r5ace *5 -heet-# ,hen the -1r5ace *5 the -heet !et- ,rec/ed a5ter )er5*! the *)erati*n -1ch a- c1ttin!# )1nchin! etc. In thi- .achine there are r* er-# ,hich are 5itted# )ara e and .*0in! in *))*-ite directi*n# ,hen -heet i- in-erted in .achine the r* er- )re-- the -heet 23 ,hich the -heet !et- e0e ed. In thi- .achine the thic/ne-- *5 the -heet .1-t 2e )re entered and the -heet *5 r* er .1-t a -* 2e -et.


FS Ci#c).a# Sa/:&

Circ1 ar -a,# a- the na.e indicate- i- a -a,# ,hich i- circ1 ar in -ha)e. It hat,* t3)e- *5 c1ttin! -a, 1-ed a- )er need. B*th c1tter- cann*t 2e 5itted *n the .achine -i.1 tane*1- 3. The 2 ade i- e+ected and chan!ed ,hen ,e need.

The c1tter- 1-ed in the .achine are *5 t,* t3)e-: • Dia.*nd ed!e c1tterDia.*nd ed!e c1tter i- a -i.) e c1tter# in ,hich -.a )artic e- *5 dia.*nd are 5i=ed *n the ed!e *5 the c1tter. Thi- t3)e *5 c1tter i- 1-ed t* c1t acr3 ic *r n*n-.eta -heet- 0ar3in! thic/ne-- 5r*. n*n-.eta -. 0.> .. t* > ... The .*-t i.)*rtant 5eat1re *5 thi- .achine i- that it i- 1-ed *n 3 5*r c1ttin!

Meta ed!e c1tterThi- i- a t3)e *5 c1tter in ,hich the 2 ade- are .ade 1) *5 .eta -1ch a- hi!h car2*n -tee (HC'"# hi!h--)eed -tee (H''" and *ther /ind- *5

hard .eta -. Thi- c1tter i- 1-ed t* c1t the -heet- *5 0ar3in! thic/ne-- *5 > .. t* >0 ..# and it a -* c1t- n*n-.eta -.


Ra*ia. *#i..i $ 0ac"i e:&

$adia dri in! .achine in it- -i.) e-t /ind c*n-i-t- *5 .*t*r# ,hich i- attached ,ith dri ch1c/# and the ch1c/ i- han!in! *n the -ha5t# ,hich i- attached ,ith dri ch1c/# and the ch1c/ i- han!in! *n the -ha5t# ,hich can .*0e in the an! e-. Thi.achine can dri 1) t* 2C .. dia.eter. Thi- .achine i- ca ed $adia dri in! .achine 2eca1-e it can .*0e A@0 de!ree. T* -et it in an3 )*-iti*n there i- a .a!netic *c/ ,hich the -ha5t and d* n*t a *, it t* .*0e.


(#),0+'A3 '&(T0&3
&1.erica c*ntr* .achine- are th*-e ,hich are ca)a2 e *5 2ein! c*ntr* ed 23 a -erie- *5 5*r.atted data# ca ed &C )art )r*!ra.# and th1- )r*d1ce de-ired *1t)1t ,ith*1t the need *5 inter0enti*n. The &C )art )r*!ra. can 2e chan!ed at an3 ti.e t* !et di55erent de-ired *1t)1t-.

'3-te.- in ,hich acti*n are c*ntr* ed 23 direct in-erti*n *5 n1.erica data at -a.e ti.e. The -3-te. .1-t a1t*.atica 3 inter)ret at ea-t -*.e )*rti*n *5 n1.erica data. O$ 'i.) 3 a-# c*ntr* *5 .achine t** 23 .ean- *5 n1.2er-.

(,,$ &F (' 2ein! ha- a ,a3- tried t* red1ce hi- e55*rt- in carr3in! *1t 0ari*1- ta-/t* .a/e i5e .*re and .*re c*.5*rta2 e. ;*r thi- .achine- ha0e 2een de-i!ned ri!ht 5r*. -har)ened -t*ne- t* t1r2ine- and c*.)1ter-. In thi- -erie- *5 e55*rt-# .achine t** - i/e athe and .i in! .achine- etc. ,ere de-i!ned and a1t*.ated. D1rin! 9*r d 9ar II# it 2ec*.e c ear that 5i=ed t3)e *5 a1t*.ati*n# *55er 23 e=i-tin! .echanica 3 a1t*.ated .achine-# ,a- in-155icient t* hand e c*.) e= and -.a 2atch re81ire.ent *5 aircra5t )art-. In 1C4?# :*hn T <ar-*n de.*n-trated the c*nce)t- *5 &C t* 6.'. Air 5*rce. The 5ir-t )r*t*t3)e *5 &C ,ade0e *)ed and de.*n-trated at MIT in 1C>2.

<re-ent c*.)etiti0e ,*rd de.and- that a 0ariet3 *5 81a it3 )r*d1ct2e )r*d1ced at hi!h rate *5 )r*d1cti*n at a .ini.1. *5 c*-t. &C .achine ena2 e- 1- t* .eet thi- cha en!e 23 )r*0idin! a -* 1ti*n# ,hich can 2e ter.ed a- ;%EIIB%E-A6TOMATIO&.

A$8A(TA2," &F ('4
&C .achine- are t*da3 -er0in! a h*-t *5 ind1-tr3 in a 0ariet3 *5 a)) icati*n-. '*.e are indicated a- 2e *,:• • • • • • Hi!h )r*d1cti0it3# *, 9I< (,*r/ in )r*!re--". Acc1rac3 and c*n-i-tenc3. %*, *)erat*r 5ati!1e. $ed1ce err*r. In )r*ce--# .ea-1re.ent n*t re81ired. ; e=i2i it3 in .an15act1rin!.

A- i- ,ith an3 *ther -3-te. *5 techn* *!3 ar*1nd the ,*r d# &C techn* *!3 a -* -155er- 5r*. i.itati*n# -*.e *5 ,hich are en1.erated a- 2e *,O• • • • Hi!h ca)ita and re0en1e c*-t *5 .achine-. C*.) icated and c*-t 3 .aintenance. Te.)erat1re# h1.idit3 and d1-t c*ntr* ed en0ir*n.ent re81ired. Hi!h 3 -/i ed )r*! and .achine *)erat*r re81ired.

'&)-#T,0 (#),0+'A3 '&(T0&3 6'('7 )A'*+(,"
'ince 1C70# C&C 2a-ed MC6N' ha0e 2een increa-in! 3 re) acin! the hard,are MC6N' and c1rrent 3 *n 3 C&C -3-te.- are .an15act1red. The di*de ,are) aced 23 tran-i-t*r in @0N- !i0in! ri-e t* .*re re ia2 e# re ati0e 3 -.a er than MC6. A -* .icr*)r*ce--*r- re) aced ar!e -i4ed hard,are circ1itr3 in &C .achine-# ,hich .ade arith.etica and *!ica *)erati*n- ea-ier. B1t in )ractice C&C .achine- ha0e 2een c*ntin1ed t* 2e .enti*ned &C in !enera . C&C .achine- certain 3 *55er- 2etter and ea-3 .achinin!. The 2e-t thin! a2*1t C&C i- that 5*r -*.e 51rther .*di5icati*n-# ,e need n*t re81ire a ne, hard,are 21t ,e can -i.) 3 1)!rade the -*5t,are and .*di53 it a- re81ired.

$+0,'T (#),0+'A3 '&(T0&3 6$('7
D&C i- the 5ir-t -te) t*,ard- the 5act*r3 *5 51t1re. It i- a .an15act1rin! -3-te. in ,hich a centra c*.)1ter c*..1nicate- ,ith the c*ntr* er- *5 -e0era .achine t** - 23 a direct c*nnecti*n in rea ti.e. It- e--entia 51ncti*n- in additi*n t* &CGC&C are: (1" (2" (A" (4" T* 1-e .e.*r3 *5 the centra c*.)1ter 5*r -t*rin! )art )r*!ra..eant 5*r -e0era &CGC&C .achine-. T* tran-5er *r d*,n *ad direct 3 the )art )r*!ra.- 5r*. centra c*.)1ter t* indi0id1a MC6N' *5 .achine-. T* )r*0ide d*,n *adin! in rea ti.e *n -h*) 5 **r. T* -ta2 in! t,* ,a3 c*..1nicati*n i.e.# in additi*n t* d*,n *adin! centra c*.)1ter- can a -* recei0e .e--a!e- and *ther .an15act1rin! in5*r.ati*n in rea ti.e.

9&0:+(2 -0&',$#0, &F (' ',33

The &C ce ,*r/- ,ith a .*de )ractice. 1. 2. A. 4. >. @. 7. $ecei0in! *5 dra,in! ,ith )r*!! re81e-t. 6)datin! *5 .a-ter 5i e. 't1d3 *5 dra,in! and decidin! the )r*ce-- *5 .an15act1rin! *n C&C. 'e ecti*n *5 t** - (n*r.a "# -)ecia t** - (i5 re81ired". 9ritin! the )r*!ra. and t** - a3 O1t (T%O". ;eedin! the )r*!ra. int* c*.)1ter and ta/in! *1t *5 ta)e. Hand in! *0er the 2 1e )rint *5 T%O# )1nched ta)e# <re-.achinin! and )*-t .achinin! detai - and dra,in! a- and ,hen re81ired t* the C&C MACHI&I&G CE%%. ?. C. Ta/in! *1t the i-t *55 *n the .achine !ettin! it a))r*0ed 5*r the )r*d1cti*n. 6)datin! )r*!ra. i5 re81ired and i5 an3 chan!e in dra,in!.

H*,e0er it .a3 2e added that *ne -et *5 d*c1.ent- i- -ent t* )r*d1cti*n C*ntr* En!ineer in ad0ance ,hich he ) hi. in !ettin! ti.e -t1d3 d*ne in ad0anced and a -* he can /n*, a2*1t )re and )*-t .achinin! *)erati*n detai -.

9*AT +" -0&20A))+(2;
The &C .achine t** .*0e- a- directed 23 a )r*!ra. )1nched *n a &C ta)e. 9hi e .achinin! a )art 1-in! a &C .achine t** # the t** )ath and *ther .achinin! c*nditi*n- are )r*!ra..ed. Thi- )r*!ra. i- ca ed a )art )r*!ra..

The )art )r*!ra. te - the &C the t** )ath and a1=i iar3 .*ti*n- *5 the .achine t** . Thi- i- ,ritten *n the )r*ce-- -heet. The )r*!ra. *n thi- )r*ce-- -heet i)1nched *n a )a)er ta)e (*r ta/en *n an3 *ther -1ita2 e .edi1.".

A )r*!ra. i- di0ided int* a .ain )r*!ra. and a -12-)r*!ra.. &*r.a 3 the &C *)erate- acc*rdin! t* the .ain )r*!ra.# 21t ,hen a c*..and ca in! a -12)r*!ra. i- enc*1ntered in the .ain )r*!ra.# c*ntr* i- )a--ed t* the -12)r*!ra. and ,hen the c*..and in -12-)r*!ra. -a3- t* ret1rn t* the .ain )r*!ra.# c*ntr* i- ret1rn t* the .ain )r*!ra.. T*ta *5 C> .ain and -12)r*!ra.- .a3 2e -t*red in the &C .e.*r3. /3&':4 <r*!ra. i- c*.)*-ed *5 -e0era c*..and-# each c*..and i- /n*,n a- 2 *c/. 9&0$4 B *c/ i- c*.)*-ed *5 *ne *r .*re ,*rd-. 9*rd ha- an addre-- 5* *,ed 23 n1.2er. Addre-- i- the etter# ,hich )re-cri2e- the .eanin! *5 the n1.erica 0a 1e 5* *,in! the addre--. E=a.) e: I -- 100 &1.erica 0a 1e 9O$D


+(-#T F&0)AT4 In)1t 5* 1-ed 23 the -3-te. -@M i- /n*,n a- the 0aria2 e 2 *c/ 5* -ince the n1.2er *5 ,*rd- in a 2 *c/ and the n1.2er *5 character- in a ,*rd can 2e chan!ed. In)1t can 2e in inch *r .etric -3-te.. ;*r e=a.) e:

I % B0 > A A di!it- 2e *, the deci.a )*int > di!it- a2*0e deci.a )*int %eadin! 4er* -1))re--i*n 9ith -i!n A2-* 1te *r incre.enta Addre--

$,'+)A3 -&+(T -0&20,A))+(24 ;A&6C @T can ta/e the in)1t n1.erica 0a 1e- ,ith deci.a )*int.

A/"&3#T, A($ +('0),(TA3 -0&20A))+(24 The di-tance *5 t** tra0e in each a=i- .a3 2e c*..anded 23 either 23 incre.enta *r a2-* 1te c*..and. 6-in! incre.enta c*..and tra0e in! di-tance in the 2 *c/ i- direct 3 )r*!ra..ed ,hi e in a2-* 1te c*..and the end *cati*n *5 the t** ,ithin a 2 *c/ i- re)re-ented 23 c**rdinate 0a 1e- in the ,*r/ c**rdinate -3-te. and the c**rdinate 0a 1e- are a -* )r*!ra..ed.

"%"T,) '&$,"
1. <$E<A$ATO$Y CODE' (G CODE'" 2. A6II%%A$Y CODE' (a" M CODE' (2" TOO% CAMMA&D (T" (c" '6B-<$OG$AM (%" (d" T$ADE$'E I&;O$MATIO& (I# ("

(e" '<I&D%E '<EED ('" (5" ;EED I&;. (;" (!" OTHE$' (A# BB# B-# I# F# $# &" -0,-A0AT&0% '&$,"
8G'' " Thi- c*de i- 5*r )*-iti*nin! i- 5*r )*-iti*nin! the t** . ;*r each a=i- the
)*int i- )r*!ra..ed 23 the addre-- I# Y# ( *r 6# D# 9. in ;A&6C-@T *n 3 I and (-a=i- are )r*!ra..ed. G00 I--- (--an3 .*0e.ent in NIN and (*r" P(N a=i- ,i re-1 t in .*0e.ent ,ith !i0en rate *5 5eed 1nder addre-- P;N. G01 I--- (--- ;---

8G'9:'-" The-e c*de- are 5*r circ1 ar inter)* ati*nG.*0e.ent. 'tartin! )*int i)*int ,here t** )re-ent 3 -ta3ed *r it i- deter.ined 23 )re0i*1- 2 *c/. End )*int *5 arc *r circ e i- deter.ined 23 !i0en a=i- 0a 1e. The inter)* ati*n )ara.eterdeter.ine circ e center 23 1-in! PIN and PFN ,ith -i!n *0er a ran!e *5 0 t0 A@0 de!ree-. G02 G G0A I--- (--- $--- I--- F--- ;---

8G'1 " It i- 1-ed 5*r d,e # ,hen the )re0i*1- 2 *c/ i- c*.) eted and the ne=t
2 *c/ i- a2*1t t* -tart. G04 (*r <" Ti.e in -ec*nd-

8G97 : G9; : G9<"

A )*int 5i=ed *n the .achinin! ) ane i- ca ed the

re5erence )*int and 23 re5erence )*int ret1rn 51ncti*n the t** i- )*-iti*ned at thi)*int. G27 chec/- ,hether the t** i- )*-iti*ned at thi- )*int. B3 G2? the t** i)*-iti*ned at the re5erence )*int a1t*.atica 3. The end )*int *5 thi- c*..and ica ed the inter.ediate )*int. B3 G2C# the t** i- )*-iti*ned at the c*..and )*int 0ia a inter.ediate )*int. G27GG2?GG2C I--- (---

8G-=" Thi- c*de c*..and- inear inter)* ati*nO in)1t *5 -/i) -i!na d1rin!
e=ec1ti*n *5 thi- c*..and interr1)t- the re-t *5 2 *c/ and e=ec1te- the ne=t.

8G--" Thi- i- 1-ed 5*r thread c1ttin!# !i0in! -cre, end )*int (i- incre.enta
c*..and" *r -cre, end )*int (in a2-* 1te c*..and" and the thread ead are !i0en 23 4 and ; re-)ecti0e 3. GAA I--- (--- ;---

8G-1" It i- 1-ed 5*r 0aria2 e ead thread c1ttin!# c*..andin! an incre.ent *r a
decre.ent 5*r a ead )er -cre, re0* 1ti*n ena2 e- 0aria2 e thread ead c1ttin! t* 2e )er5*r.ed# F -)eci5ie- an incre.ent *r decre.ent in the 5* *,in! c*..and GA4 I---(--- ;--- F---

8G1':G1=:G19" The-e are t** n*-e radi1- c*.)en-ati*n c*de-. A- ,e
a--1.e .achinin! 2ehind the t1nin! a=i- G41 c*de i- 1-ed ,hen t** i- e5t t* ,*r/)iece and t** 2e t* tra0er-e e5t t* ri!ht a- t** carria!e tra0er-e ,hen )r*d1cin! %.H. thread-. The c*de G42 i- 1-ed ,hen t** i- e5t t* ,*r/)iece and t** i- t* tra0er-e ri!ht t* e5t a- t** carria!e tra0er-e ,hen )r*d1cin! $.H. thread-. 6-in! C$C c*de- the ,*r/)iece c*nt*1r i- )r*!ra..ed. The c*ntr* ca c1 ate the )ath 5*r t** ti) radi1- center (e81idi-tantQ ca c1 ati*n" and the inter-ecti*n )*int- *5 the-e e81idi-tant )ath- at ac1te tran-iti*n. The 2ene5it *5 1-in! C$C c*de- i- that there i- n* c*nt*1rin! err*r e5t. C$C c*de- .a3 2e 1-ed 5*r in-ide and *1t-ide c*nt*1rin! *2t1-e and ac1te an! e- and at ac1te and tan!entia tran-iti*n. The-e c*de- are e55ecti0e in a 2 *c/ and )r*!ra..ed ,ith *r ,ith*1t )ath data and ,ith c*de- G00GG01. The c*de- G41 and G42 are deacti0ated 23 1-in! G40 c*de.


the-e are c*de- 5*r deter.inin! the in)1t -3-te. that i- the data

-1)) ied are in I&CHE' *r MET$IC -3-te.. ;*r data in)1t in inch c*de i- G70 *ther,i-e it i- G71. 9e are 1-in! the .etric data in)1t -3-te..


the-e are c*de 5*r a2-* 1te *r incre.enta data in)1t. 9hen

1-in! GC0# a2-* 1te data in)1t a data re5er- t* the 5i=ed 4er* )*int *5 ,*r/)iece. A PIN 0a 1e- are rec*!ni4ed a- dia.eter. GC1 i- 1-ed 5*r incre.enta data in)1t .ean- that each di.en-i*n c*rre-)*nd- t* di-tance t* 2e tra0er-ed. Incre.enta data are )re5erred in the -12r*1tine )r*!!. A PIN 0a 1e- are rec*!ni4ed a- radi1-.

)+"',33A(,&#" F#('T+&(" <)=
.*de-. it .a/e- )*--i2 e in *rder t* .a/e a .ea-1re.ent *r -*.e *ther

-i.i ar )1r)*-e. Thi- i- 1nc*n0enti*na -t*) and *)erati*na in a a1t*.atic

8M'9" ,ith 1-e *5 thi- c*de (end *5 )r*!ra. c*de" )r*!ra. ret1rn t* )r*!ra.
-tart i- ,ritten in a-t 2 *c/.

8M'-:M'1:M'>" the-e a are -)ind e c*ntr* c*..and. M0A i- 1-ed 5*r
-)ind e 5*r -)ind e r*tati*n in c *c/,i-e directi*n. M04 i- 1-ed 5*r -)ind e r*tati*n in c*1nterc *c/,i-e directi*n. M0> i- 1-ed 5*r -)ind e r*tati*n -t*).


thi- c*de i- 5*r end *5 -12r*1tine i- ,ritten in a-t 2 *c/ *5 the


8M-'" thi- c*de i- 1-ed 5*r end *5 )r*!ra. and i- -i.i ar t* M02. 8M=<" thi- c*de i- 1-ed 5*r *riented -)ind e -t*). Orientati*n *5 -)ind e i- !i0en
1nder addre-- P'N. ')ind e a ,a3- *rient in C.C.9 directi*n. Thi- c*de i- 1-ed ,hen dri in! *r .i in! i- re81ired *n )eri)her3 *5 ,*r/)iece (thi- i- d*ne ,ith he ) *5 dri0in! attach.ent". The c*..and i- !i0en a- M1C 'C0 %;. Thi- ,i re-1 t in *rientati*n *5 -)ind e 23 C0 de!ree.


2*th *5 the-e c*de- are 1-ed t* c*ntr* c** ant. M0? i- 1-ed 5*r

t* *n c** ant a--*ciated ,ith t** . 9herea- M0C i- 1-ed 5*r t* *55 c** ant a--*ciated ,ith t** .

The addre-- 5*r the a=i- c*..and- I and (*r" ( deter.ine- the a=i- ,hich i- t* 2e tra0er-ed in acc*rdance ,ith the a--*ciated di!ita 0a 1e. B*th a=e- can .*0e -i.1 tane*1- 3 *r indi0id1a acc*rdin! t* )ath data i- 5ed. 9hen 1-in! GC0 (a2-* 1te )r*!! c*de" in)1t data treated a- dia.eter 0a 1e- 5*r =-a=i- 23 the c*ntr* . 9herea- 1-in! GC1 (incre.enta )r*!! c*de" the in)1t 0a 1e- 5*r I a=i- re5er t* the radi1-.

T 9&0$ T&&3 '&))A($
The t** c*..and deter.ine- the t** (t** n*." re81ired 5*r a )artic1 ar .achinin! -ecti*n and a -* re e0ant t** data (t** *55-et n1.2er". T** c*..and i- !i0en a- 2e *, T ..- -- -T** c*..and addre-- MT T** n1.2er 00 t* CC (1 *r 2 decade-" M ..

T** *55-et n1.2er (t* -e ect: 01 t* 1@" M n (T* cance : 00"

A- ,e /n*, that di55erent t** - (i.e. 5*r dri in!# t1rnin!# 2*rin! etc." are .ade 1nder di55erent de-i!nati*n and en!th. E0en t** 1-ed 5*r -i.i ar *)erati*n are n*t *5 -a.e en!th. '* ,hen the-e t** - are 5itted t* t1rret (t** .a!a4ine" their c1ttin! ed!e )r*+ecti*n- are di55erent. '* a !i0en )r*!ra. 4er* i- n*t -1ita2 e 5*r a t** - a- -*.e ,ere -h*rt t* ,*r/)iece and -*.e di! int* the ,*r/)iece ,ith re-)ect t* their -i4e. There5*re it i- nece--ar3 either t* -et di55erent 4er*- 5*r di55erent t** - *r t* !i0e an in-tr1cti*n initia 3 that thi- .1ch en!th t** tra0e e-- *r .*re t* a))r*ach the ,*r/)iece ,ith*1t da.a!in! *r 2ein! -h*rt t* it. The di-tance it ha- -h*rt *r .*re then (E$O -et ,ith re-)ect re5erence t** i/n*,n a- t** *55-et. Acc*rdin! t* di-tance t** *55-et are !i0en n1.2er 5r*. 01 t* 1@. it i- 5ind *1t *n .achine ,ith he ) *5 an e81i).ent (acce--*r3" )r*0ided 23 .an15act1rer. T** *55-et c*n-i-t- *5: IR. T** en!th *55-et =-a=i(R. T** en!th *55-et 4-a=i-

'*A)F,0 A($ 0A$+#" '&))A($
T* in-ert a radi1- *r a cha.5er can 2e in-erted a1t*.atica 3 23 1-in! B c*de. The in-tr1cti*n i- !i0en a-: &10 I (1". ( (1". BS.. &12 I (2". ( (2". &12 I (2". ((2". BB.. &12 I (2". ((2".. .ean- in-erti*n *5 radi1-. PBN ,ritin! i- *)ti*na Thi- c*de i- !i0en ,ith )ath data *5 -har) c*rner T I (1"# ( (1" U ,hich i- t* 2e r*1nded *r t* 2e cha.5ered ,ith B c*de and 5* *,ed 23 the )*-iti*n c*Mean- in-erti*n *5 cha.5er.

*rdinate- T I (2"# ( (2" U at ,hich t** t* reach. The in-erted radi1-Gcha.5er .1-t n*t 2e 2i!!er than the -.a er *ne *5 the 2*th di-tance-.

-0&20A) (#)/,04
Thi- c*ntr* can -t*re )r*!ra. in it- .e.*r3. The )r*!ra. n1.2er i- 1-ed t* di55erentiate *ne )r*!ra. 5r*. an*ther.

",>#,(', (#)/,0?
A -e81ence n1.2er can 2e -)eci5ied ,ith a n1.2er (1-CCCC" 5* *,in! the addre--. It i- ) aced at the head *5 the 2 *c/. The *rder *5 the n1.2er i- ar2itrar3 and need n*t 2e c*n-ec1ti0e.

&-T+&(A3 /3&': ":+-4
9ith a - a-h 5* *,ed 23 the n1.2er (Gn" (nM1 t* C" )r*!ra..ed at the 2e!innin! *5 a 2 *c/. 9ith the *)ti*na 2 *c/ -/i) -,itch n *n the .achine *)erat*rN- )ane -et O&# in5*r.ati*n *5 the 2 *c/ ,ith Gn *5 the n1.2er c*rre-)*ndin! t* -,itch n1.2er n are i!n*red.

-0&20A) 1,0& -&+(T A($ '&&0$+(AT, "%"T,)4
9hi e )r*!!# a )r*!ra. 4er* )*int and a c**rdinate )*int .1-t 2e deter.ined. 6-1a 3# )r*!ra. 4er* )*int i- ) aced at an ar2itrar3 )*-iti*n *n the ,*r/)iece and the c**rdinate -3-te. i- ca ed the ,*r/ c**rdinate -3-te..

"TA0T -&+(T A($ 0,F,0,(', -&+(T4
A t** .*0e- 5r*. the -tart )*int and the )r*!ra. a -* -tart- 5r*. the -tart )*int# 21t the &C .1-t /n*, the c**rdinate 0a 1e- *5 the -tart )*int.

The re5erence )*int i- the 5i=ed )*-iti*n *5 the .achine t** . A t** .a3 ret1rn t* thi- )*int rather than the -tart )*int t* c1t d*,n the id e ti.e.

" (&
1 2 A B C D 7 E F 10 11 12 1A 1B 1C 1D 17 1E 1F 20 21 22 2A 2B 2C 2D 27 2E 2F A0 A1 A2 AA AB AC AD A7 AE AF B0 B1 B2 BA BB

2@ '&$,
200 201 202 20A 20B 210 220 221 222 22A 227 22E 22F 2A0 2A1 2AA 2AB 2AD 2A7 2B0 2B1 2B2 2C0 2DE 2DF 270 271 272 27A 27B 27C 27D 2E0 2EA 2EB 2EC 2E7 2EE 2EF 2F0 2F2 2FB 2FD 2F7

-&"+T+&(+(2 3+(,A0 +(T,0-&3AT+&( '+0'#3A0 +(T,0-&3AT+&( 6'97 '+0'#3A0 +(T,0-&3AT+&( 6''97 $9,33 &FF",T 8A3#, ",TT+(2 +(-#T +( +('* +(-#T +( )) "T&0,$ "T0&:, 3+)+T &( "T&0,$ "T0&:, 3+)+T &FF 0,F,0,(', -&+(T 0,T#0( '*,': 0,T#0( T& 0,F,0,(', -&+(T 0,T#0( F0&) 0,F,0,(', -&+(T 0,T#0( T& 2($ 0,F,0,(', -&+(T ":+- '#TT+(2 T*0,A$ '#TT+(2 8A0+A/3, 3,A$ T*0,A$ '#TT+(2 A#T&)AT+' T&&3 '&)-,("AT+&( G@AG+" A#T&)AT+' T&&3 '&)-,("AT+&( 1@AG+" T&&3 (&", 0A$+#" '&)-,("AT+&( 'A(',3 T&&3 (&", 0A$+#" '&)-,("AT+&( 3,FT T&&3 (&", 0A$+#" '&)-,("AT+&( 0+2*T -0&20A))+(2 &F A/"&3#T, 1,0& -&+(T )AG+)#) "-+($3, "-,,$ ",TT+(2 F,,$ -,0 )+(#T, F,,$ -,0 0,8&3#T+&( F+(+"*+(2 '%'3, "T0&:, 0,)&8A3 +( T#0(+(2 "T0&:, 0,)&8A3 +( FA'+(2 -ATT,0( 0,-,AT+(2 -,,: $0+33+(2 +( 1@AG+" 20&8+(2 +( G@AG+" T*0,A$ '#TT+(2 '%'3, A 'A((,$ '%'3, F&0 $0+33+(2 'A(',3 F0&(T $0+33+(2 '%'3, F0&(T TA--+(2 '%'3, F0&(T /&0+(2 '%'3, "+$, $0+33+(2 '%'3, "+$, TA--+(2 '%'3, "+$, /&0+(2 '%'3, '#TT+(2 '%'3, A T*0,A$ '#TT+(2 '%'3, / '#TT+(2 '%'3, / '&("TA(T "#0FA', "-,,$ '&("TA(T "#0FA', "-,,$ 'A(',3



+(+T+A3 3,8,3 0,T#0( 0 -&+(T 3,8,3 0,T#0(

The practical trainin$ aims at familiari?in$ the students !ith the !or"in$ condition in a professional firm as !ell as to appl# their theoretical "no!led$e ac:uired in the institute into practice. This trainin$ !as helpful to me in +arious direct and indirect !a#s' li"e understandin$ of machines as !ell as procedure follo!ed in manufacturin$ a product. A $ood insi$ht into inspection and Bualit# chec" of products. This trainin$ has added a !hole ne! dimension to m# obser+ation and practical approach as !ell as introducin$ me to r$ani?ational &ierarch#.




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