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Justin Collier, Selected works 2009-2014

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J USTIN COLLIER
Selected Works: 2009 – 2014

Do you see a man skillful in his work? He will stand before kings; he will not stand before obscure men.
PROVERBS 22:29

CONTENTS

Academic Works

2012 – 2013

North End Cardiovascular Hospital Boston, Massachusetts Linn Park Event Center & Hotel Birmingham, Alabama

07 15 23 25 31

2011 – 2012 2010 – 2011

The Roundhouse Las Vegas, New Mexico Alabama Impact Crater Center Wetumpka, Alabama The Lakehouse Dadeville, Alabama Professional Works

Summer 2012 Summer 2013

Chambless King Office Montgomery, Alabama Nat King Cole Plaza Montgomery, Alabama Montgomery Advertiser Office Proposal Montgomery, Alabama Personal Works

37 41 43

The Architecture of Housing Graphic Design Commission

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ACADEMIC WORKS

8

N O RT H E N D C A R D I O VA S C U L A R H O S P I TA L
Fourth Year Architecture Studio: Fall 2012 Professor: Kevin Moore Type: Area: Location: Healthcare 250,000 ft2 Boston, Massachusetts

It is important to recognize that placing a hospital on this site has great influence on the urban fabric of the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway as well as the established cultural presence of the North End. There is an opportunity for the North End Cardiovascular Hospital to not only respond to these contextual relationships, but also challenge the paradigms of hospital architecture in terms of presence and experience. Hospitals are often introverted in nature, but the Greenway presents itself as a highly active and public site. So how do we reconcile these two conditions?

Here it is necessary to create a hospital which serves as a civic institution, and specifically one that compliments the site’s existing vitality. Pushing the hospital’s public functions to the street’s edge engages this vitality and creates an opportunity to compose the facade as a background to these functions.

9 | North End Cardiovascular Hospital

M A I N TA I N I N G A N A C T I V E CORNER Throughout the design process, the hospital was thoughtfully composed from a range of approaches in the city. The image above represents perhaps the most compelling and important viewpoint. It displays the family rooms holding the corner, while the facade compliments the historical context. The pattern of the facade becomes secondary in comparison to the atmosphere created by the North End. This composition maintains an active corner while honoring the existing scenography.

10

L AY E R I N G O F I N T E R I O R S PA C E The lobby of the hospital is a tall volume filled with light. Multiple spaces and functions hinge on this volume and are layered through their transparency.

11 | North End Cardiovascular Hospital

E N L A R G E D E X T E R I O R E L E VAT I O N The hospital’s presence is vast and therefore so is the user’s. The hospital is visible from multiple locations and in turn grants its occupants a privileged view of the city. A slight change in the floor’s elevation widens the field of view to present the bedridden patient with an impressive collection of vistas.

14

Typical Patient Care Floor Plan & Ground Floor Plan

Building Section through Public Functions

L I N N PA R K E V E N T C E N T E R & H O T E L
Fourth Year Interior Architecture Studio: Spring 2013 Professor: Kevin Moore Type: Area: Location: Adaptive Re-Use 30,050 ft2 Birmingham, Alabama

The Birmingham Board of Education Building sits as an under utilized structure adjacent to Linn Park. The buildings surrounding this park are introverted in nature and do little to activate or sustain a lively atmosphere. This structure has the potential to serve as a public entity and as a precedent to the surrounding buildings. The Board of Education site also contains a parking deck. We proposed removing this structure to make way for retail, residence, and hotel program. An uncanny transparency designed into the architecture increases one’s perception of these proposed activities. This combination insures an active street front which seems to be missing from the site

Existing Board of Education Building

Schematic Section of Renovation and Hotel Addition

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17 | Linn Park Event Center & Hotel

I M P R E S S I V E T R A N S PA R E N C Y This project is an experiment in creating a highly visible interior from the exterior. The purpose of this idea is to provide an architecture which serves as dynamic advertisement for the building’s functions. This uncanny transparency is achieved through strategic artificial and day lighting schemes.

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REDUCED VISUAL DEPTH The previous notion of an uncanny transparency is an interesting one, but what becomes of the building when no events are being held. A vibrant interior curtain is drawn to reduce the building’s depth while maintaining a compelling facade. These curtains also begin to alter and define interior space.

19 | Linn Park Event Center & Hotel

Ground Floor Plan

UP

Second Floor & Mezzanine Plan

20

I N T E R I O R C U R TA I N C O N F I G U R AT I O N S

ACOUSTIC AND VISUAL The ground floor is divided by two curtains: One for sound attenuation and one for visual transmission. Here both curtains are drawn to block sound between events and provide a beautiful backdrop to each event.

VISUAL In this configuration, only the sheer curtain remains. This configuration allows for a subtle transparency between spaces and events. The acoustic curtain is spooled against an interior wall as a sculptural piece.

OPEN Here, both curtains are removed. The sheer curtain is spooled as a sculptural pillar within the order of the existing column grid. This configuration creates an open plan for one large event to occupy multiple spaces.

21 | Linn Park Event Center & Hotel

I N T E R I O R C U R TA I N E L E VAT I O N

DOWNTOWN

OLD PLAZA

NEW MEXICO HIGHLANDS UNIVERSITY WEST LAS VEGAS SCHOOL DISTRICT

20 min.

10 min.

5 min.

THE ROUNDHOUSE

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THE ROUNDHOUSE
Third Year Architecture Studio: Spring 2012 Professor: Sheri Schumacher Type: Area: Location: Adaptive Re-Use 57,800 ft2 Las Vegas, New Mexico

The City of Las Vegas wishes to create community assets that are a source of pride for the city, introduce innovations that foster economic vitality, and develop facilities that provide healthy activities for the idle youth and young adults of the city. A mixed-use facility developed within the old Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Roundhouse could synthesize many of the initiatives stated in the city’s master plan into a more efficient development model. Because of its size, the roundhouse has the capability to house a multitude of programmatic elements. An organic restaurant, community art gallery, and business incubator would serve as catalysts for the economic growth of small local businesses and organizations. A coffee house, daycare, rock climbing gym, and multi-sport retail store would provide unique learning environments and promote healthy activities for the idle youth of Las Vegas. Flexible interior and exterior spaces would be developed as venues for city wide events, and would also be designed to respond to the current and future needs of the city.

A L A B A M A I M PA C T C R AT E R C E N T E R
Second Year Architecture Studio: Spring 2011 Professor: Robert Sproull Type: Area: Location: Exhibition / Research 30,100 ft2 Wetumpka, Alabama

The City of Wetumpka called for an icon that identifies the river region and helps to illuminate the geological history which defined the area. The building sits within a prominent hillside facing Highway 231 and the entry of the city limits. The building appears as a heavy stone mass jutting from the landscape, a geological remnant from the meteor’s impact. From Highway 231, the building appears to be a solid mass, hiding the interior. However as one passes through the threshold, the building opens up with expanses of glass revealing portions of the interior. Upon entering the courtyard, visitors are faced with a corten wall that is unique to the building’s material palette. Johannes Kepler’s quote, “The diversity of the phenomena of nature is so great, and the treasures hidden in the heavens so rich, that the human mind shall never be lacking in fresh nourishment.”, is comprised of stainless steel lettering that is raised slightly from the corten surface. The act of reading the text leads one’s eye into the entry of the exhibit.

Approach Perspective

Early Conceptual Sketches

26

27 | Alabama Impact Crater Center

Ground Floor Plan

Second Floor & Mezzanine Plan

28

MASSING Integration with the natural topography invites visitors to explore the landscape. The building is no longer just an object on the landscape but rather an extension of it.

S PA C I A L P R O G R E S S I O N The main gallery located on the first level. Visitors proceed around the exhibit with access to a central atrium that showcases a fossil found near the site. Visitors ascend the stairs to the temporary gallery. This gallery, oriented on a mezzanine, houses traveling installations and larger portions of the main exhibit. An observation deck is located on the third level. This level creates another vantage point from which to view the exhibits below. By relating one level to another, the entire space is activated. The experience ends at a processional stair that allows for final views of all three levels upon exiting the exhibition.

29 | Alabama Impact Crater Center

I N T E G R AT I O N W I T H E X I S T I N G T O P O G R A P H Y These sections illustrate the building’s integration with the topography, as well as the placement of the fossil within the volume of the gallery.

32

THE LAKEHOUSE
Second Year Architecture Studio: Fall 2010 Professor: Stacy Norman, AIA Type: Area: Location: Private Residence 4,000 ft2 Dadeville, Alabama

The Lakehouse represents the first complete design project I was given at Auburn. We were told to design a waterfront residence on a narrow hillside. In order to gain a better understanding of the design process, I used my father as a stand-in client. My parents live on a lake that has similar site conditions. He was able to lay out a list of priorities and needs that focused my design efforts. Because of the site’s narrow width and close proximity to other homes, it was necessary to place priorities on certain rooms.

33 | The Lakehouse

Site Plan

P R I O R I T I Z I N G S PA C E In this design, I choose to place the living room, master bedroom, and workshop nearest to the water to allow for unobstructed views of the lake. The kitchen was placed behind the living room but on a slightly higher elevation so that one could look over the living room to the lake.

Ground Floor, Mid Level & Lake Level Plans Building Section

34

PROFESSIONAL WORKS

38

CHAMBLESS KING OFFICES
Summer Internship: 2012 Project Team: Type: Area: Location: Stephen King, Mike Shows Adaptive Re-Use 3,700 ft2 Montgomery, Alabama

In the summer of 2012, I had the opportunity to work a second term under a firm led by John Chambless and Stephen King. Upon starting, I was tasked the responsibility of drafting construction documents for the firm’s new office on the third floor of the Teague Warehouse building in downtown Montgomery. Along with this responsibility, I was given the freedom to design a few key elements including the composition and details of the office’s entry.

39 | Chambless King Office

C R A F T & C O L L A B O R AT I O N The builders had a surplus of wood flooring they had reclaimed from the building. We decided to use this flooring to construct a compelling wall surface just as you exit the elevator and face the door to the office. We worked with the carpenters to create a wall that was as thin as possible and one that created a texture on a larger scale beyond the inherent texture of the wood. A 2x4 wall is turned in an unconventional manner to create a thin profile. Every other length of flooring is shimmed to create a surface that has subtle undulations. This effect is intensified by down lighting the wall.

Existing Structure 2x8 Framing

5/8” Gyp. Wall Board

4” Recessed Downlight

2 Layers of Homosote for sound attinuation Reclaimed Wood Flooring with ebony stain as finish Wall Beyond

40

Conference Room Office Floor Plan: Third Floor

N AT K I N G C O L E P L A Z A
Summer Internship: 2013 Project Team: Type: Area: Location: Mike Shows, Nick Henninger Landscape Design 2,500 ft2 Montgomery, Alabama

This plaza is immediately adjacent to the Historic Nat King Cole & Abernathy house museums located on North East Corner of Alabama State University’s Campus. The plaza will serve as a welcome point for visitors and provide necessary waiting and assembly space outside of the museums. The design is broken into two major portions. One being a more intimate seating area towards the back of the plaza that will accommodate those resting before and after the exhibit. The other is a more open area towards the front of the plaza where larger groups can gather or unfixed seating can be placed for outdoor lectures. The large expanse of the plaza’s paving is softened on the left side by allowing the concrete pavers to space out and extend into the large grass area. The result is a third more casual portion of the plaza for lounging and meandering.
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48"(h)x96"(l)x1/4" Thick Corten Steel Panel

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1-1/2"X1-1/2"X3/16" Steel Angle (Beyond) Pea Gravel - 2" Recessed 12 Gauge Steel Edge Restraint w/ 11" stakes 0' - 4" Concrete Paver

Top Soil/Growing Medium See General Note #2

0' - 4"

Typical 1/2" Mortar Joint

8' - 4"

3' - 0"

Pea Gravel By Contractor

2' - 0"

0' - 8" 0' - 8"

2' - 0"

0' - 8"

1' - 2"

1' - 2"

New sod - See General Note #2 Concrete Paver 1/2" Premolded Asphalt Expansion Joint Filler 12 Gauge Steel Edge Restraint Concrete PaverSee General Note #1 1" Mortar Bed New Concrete Sidewalk - See General Note # 3 4" Concrete Slab New 4" crushed stone aggregate compacted base course min. compaction req'd = 95% Existing Soil 1/4" thick x 2" steel tab - Slotted 7/16" x 3/4" for concrete anchor Concrete anchor bolt 1-3/4"x1-3/4"x1/4" Steel Angle Steel Expandable Tree Grate 1" Mortar Bed 4" Concrete Slab Compacted soil Concrete Paver Concrete Paver 1" Mortar Bed 4" Concrete Slab New 4" crushed stone aggregate compacted base course min. compaction req'd = 95% Compacted subgrade Min.compaction req'd = 95% Concrete Paver - On top of compacted soil

C  H  A  M  B  L  E  S  S   |   K  I  N  G
12 West Jefferson St., Suite 300 / Montgomery, AL 36104 334.272.0029 chamblessking.com

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1" Mortar Bed Concrete Slab
1' - 6" MIN.

CONSULTANTS:

9' - 0"

4" SCH 40 PVC Sleeve

12" dia. x 24" (d) concrete post footing

3' - 0"

Compacted Stone Aggregate

Weep Hole - 48" O.C. Filter Fabric
0' - 8" 1' - 2" 0' - 8" 2' - 0" 1' - 2" 0' - 8" 2' - 0"

1" Mortar Bed 4" Concrete Slab New 4" crushed stone aggregate compacted base course min. compaction req'd = 95%
3' - 0"

Civil

J.M. Garrett & Son, L.L.C.
1109 South Hull Street / Montgomery, AL 36104 Phone:334.264.2247

Structural

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Existing Undisturbed Soil Provide SCH 40 PVC caps at each end for sleeves installed for future use. Provide metal detection tag for future detection
1' - 2" 0' - 8" 2' - 0" 0' - 8" 1' - 2" 2' - 0" 0' - 8"

Grant Engineering, L.L.C.
432 Herron Street / Montgomery, AL 36104 Phone:334.265.4631

Mechanical & Plumbing

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N
3
General Notes
1/2"x1/2"x3/16" Steel angle @ 48" O.C. centered behind corten panels joint and mid-span weld to panels

Compacted soil subgrade- min. compaction req'd = 95%

Southern Engineering Consutants
109 South Court Street / Pratville, AL 36067 Phone:334.730.6020

Electrical

Gunn & Associates, PC

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1/2" = 1'-0"

Corten Planter Section

1/2" = 1'-0"

Repeated Concrete Paver Pattern

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1" = 1'-0"

Slab Edge at New Sidewalk

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1" = 1'-0"

Slab Edge at Grade

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1" = 1'-0"

Slab Edge at Planter Well

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1" = 1'-0"

Transition to Independent Pavers

3102 Highway 14 / Millbrook, AL 36054 Phone:334.285.1273

L
Corten panels joints shall be continously back welded

1. Concrete pavers equal to Concrete by Design "Perfect Pavers". Unit sizes as indicated in Pattern Detail 3/A101; Minimum thickness 1.75". Perimeter units should be field cut as required to fit existing conditions. 2. Contractor shall provide $6,000 landscape allowance for planting material, plantings, and irrigation system. 3. Concrete sidewalk shall equal min. 4" thickness with fine hair broom finish. Edge sidewalk exposed edges with 3/8" radius edgeing tool. Round edges at expansion joints to a radius of 3/8".

1/4" Thick 48"x96" corten steel panels

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1 1/2" = 1'-0"

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Corten Panel Joint Detail
Ornamental trees (3) - See General Note #2
5 A101

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Existing back of curb to remain.
2 45' - 0" +/Field Verify A101

Edge of new pavers shall align with edge of existing conc. slab

Existing Conc. Slab

New Conc. Slab

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Field Verify

Existing CMU retaining wall to remain as is.

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Existing ramp structure to remain as is.

Future lampost - Provide Conduit

8 A101

8' - 4" +/-

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Edge of planter shall align with inside face of existing CMU retaining wall.

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Existing concrete well Pour new concrete to create square well. New shade trees (2) See General Note #2
6 5' - 0" 3 A101

4 A101 6' - 0"

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A101

25' - 0"

New concrete pavers w/ 1" min. mortar bed over existing concrete slab.

New concrete pavers w/ 1" min. mortar bed over new 4" 2000 psi concrete slab w/ WWF 6x6 10/10 supported.

New lampost Provide conduit

Existing plywood ramp structure to be removed.

5' - 0"

F

6' - 0"

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Existing CMU retaining wall to remain as is. Future lampost - Provide conduit Existing CMU retaining wall to remain as is. Existing conc. ramp to be removed to accomodate an ADA transition and new pavers as req'd Existing handrail system to remain as is.

7 A101

ABERNATHY HOUSE

Existing stub-up conduits to remain for future utilities - Extend conduit as required within new concrete well.

SITE IMPROVEMENTS

New conc. base to match existing for paver installation

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Existing Conc. Slab

New Conc. Slab

Pavers independent of slab to be placed level with pavers on top of compacted soil.

New Shade Trees (3) - See General Note #2

Existing Nat King Cole House

Existing ramp structure to remain as is

Existing handrail system to remain as is.

New 6' sidewalk Control joint spacing at 6' New sidewalk elevation shall be constructed so that the existing profile is maintained between curb and the sidewalk.

Construction Documents
REVISIONS:

13017

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### Street / City, ST ##### Phone : ###.###.####
01.01.2013

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268

New 4" SCH 40 PVC sleeve to new planter - Extend sleeve 24" min. past furthest paver at 18" min. depth below concrete pad.

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SHEET TITLE:

Existing Abernathy House
7/29/2013 2:39:13 PM

Floor Plan
SHEET #:

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1/4" = 1'-0"

Architectural Paving
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A101

Construction drawings composed in Revit

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MONTGOMERY ADVERTISER OFFICE PROPOSAL
Summer Internship: 2013 Project Team: Type: Area: Location: Mike Shows, Nick Henninger Adaptive Re-Use n/a Montgomery, Alabama

The Montgomery Advertiser, a local newspaper, was interested in buying an abandoned structure comprised of tilt-up concrete panels with exposed aggregate. There wish was to renovate this structure into an office expansion. I was tasked, along with my project team, to develop an entry component to this office.

171’-0”

171’-0”

Entry compostion diagrams

PERSONAL WORKS

Demarginalizing the Architecture of Housing

Blaine Lindsey | fellow Justin Miller | mentor

THE ARCHITECTURE OF HOUSING
Meanwhile Architecture is Hurting...

25%
Architecture Billing Index (1996-2012)
70

Of Americans Are Without Adequate Housing

This statistic does not make the representation that a quarter of Americans are homeless, but the implications are no less staggering. What is does assert is that 25 percent are in housing situations that do not adequately meet their needs. Appropriate housing is financial out of their reach. One thing is clear: the American model for developing housing is in need of reform in order care for the population.

Research Infographic Commission Mentor: Fellow: Justin Miller Blaine Lindsey

Architecture Billing Index for Residential Firms (2008-2011)
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growth Decline
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

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growth Decline
2008 2009 2010 2011

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This infographic was intended to serve as documentation for a friend’s undergraduate research fellowship. I was hired to graphically represent his work in more compelling manner. Most of his research was distilled into simple graphics but larger bodies of text were required by the standards of the research forum. He placed 2nd in the research forum’s competition among 40 other students from varying disciplines. *All research presented in this infographic is owned by Auburn University and developed by Blaine Lindsey

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The Architecture Billings Index (ABI) is the most commonly accepted statistic for gauging the health of Architectural practice the United States. It depicts the rate of growth or decline in the field by a ratio comparing the number of billed projects in a period of a quarter-year to the number of billings from the previous quarter. A ratio of .5 indicates no change while a larger ratio indicates growth and a smaller one indicates decline. The ABI above shows a period of precipitous decline from 2008 to 2009, which accompanied the height of the American economic crisis. The period from 2009 to 2010 showed an abrupt improvement in the rate of decline, but it largely remained in a state of decline. The period from 2011 to 2012 resulted in signs of growth with relation to the previous period, but the growth is meager by comparison to decline experience from 2008 to 2011. The conclusion is that the practice of architecture in America is beginning to heal, but still deeply hurt.

The graph shown here is an Architecture Billings Index similar to the one shown to the left, but applies more specifically to architecture firms practicing in the residential sector. The conclusions are even more dire. In the period from early 2008 to the end of 2011, residential firms have experienced a period of near exclusive decline. In the third quarter of 2008, residential architecture experienced a decline more significant than the rest of architectural practice. The most concerning conclusion is that while the rate of decline has improved, there has not been any significant period of growth to make up the ground lost in 2008. Architecture as a complete practice is hurting and that pain is felt most keenly in the residential sector.

An Opportunity for Mutual Benefit
Construction as Percent of GDP (2005-2012)

98%

*

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2005

Residential

of Homes are Built Without An Architect's Consultation
This is a widely debated statistic. The argument stems from defining exactly what encompasses an architect’s involvement. If an architect draws a house plan that gets replicated hundreds of times – being altered and manipulated by the builder of each one – does it count as designing one home or one hundred? The statistic represented here is the most published. It delineates an architect’s involvement as direct consultation as a hired service agent of the homeowner or home builder, whom acts as the client. As the percentage shows, there is almost an entire field of construction in which the architect has no significant involvement.

non-Residential
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Construction has a long-standing history as significant contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the United States. What this graph reveals is how great a percentage of this construction is residential construction, an area with nearly no architect involvement. The potential in the residential sector is enormous. Even in leaner times like those shown in 2011, the revenues from residential construction is roughly equal to those of non-residential construction. This means there is a relatively untapped market of construction that is comparable in size to the field in which architects primarily practice. The residential market is an appetizing opportunity at a time when architecture has experience such a decline.

Architecture in Affordable Housing
There is no evidence of adequate, affordable housing model economically sustainable in contemporary American society. Currently, the most prevalent model for middle-income housing is the builder-driven or developer-driven model. In this model, an individual or business purchases a large piece of property and subdivides it into smaller pieces of property for individual sale. Then the developer accumulates a small number of home designs, either from an architect or not, to proliferate by building one on each lot. These homes have been optimized for speed of construction and profit; they offer few opportunities for adjusting to the homeowners needs. This has contributed to the large portion of Americans who lack adequate housing. Meanwhile, architects have alienated themselves from affordable residential construction by prioritizing design or artistic vision above cost when addressing a clients needs. This has resulted in a small margin of the U.S. population that has the resources to consult an architect when building a home. A new model, whereby the skills of the architect address cost as one of many needs in the careful design of a home, might supply the adequate housing so needed in the country while giving architects access to a nearly untapped field of production and revenue. After establishing the target demographic for an affordable architecture of housing, the next step is to establish a hypothetical strategy for affordable design. The first hypothesis was based on an understanding of affordability. Affordability is tethered to the other expenses of a homeowner in that it may not compromise the ability to meet those expenses. Therefore, any affordable design must consider those other expenses. The structure of financing examines these expenses by month. The monthly expenses with home ownership alone include not only mortgage payments, but also homeowner’s insurance, property taxes, utilities, and payments. The first hypothesis proposes a model of design that focuses on reducing the costs of home ownership like utilities and maintenance by improving energy performance and durability through design decisions. This would create more room in the budget for aspects of the design that address the needs of the homeowner. This hypothesis is disproven, however, by the mechanism developed by financial institutions for determining what a loan applicant can afford, known as the housing ratio. The housing ratio set a maximum percentage of monthly income that can be spent on repaying the principle of the loan plus interest, property taxes, and homeowner’s insurance. The problem is that the housing ratio does not consider utilities or maintenance, so funds cannot be diverted from those areas to swell the principle, or the budget for construction

Demarginalizing the Architecture of Housing Infographic Final Deliverable: 24” x 48”

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This research seeks to establish a process of architectural design that considers cost as a part of a building’s performance as a way of integrating the practice of architecture in the broad need for affordable middle-income housing. The first step in developing this process is to establish what it means to be affordable and to whom it is affordable. It asks this question: is there an income level that might serve as a benchmark for an architecture that serves a broader portion of the population? One understanding contributed to the consideration of this question: income and its distribution, as well as cost, are dependent on location. To proceed in this research, Birmingham, AL, was selected as a community for economic analysis and a proposed architectural solution. To establish a comprehensive income distribution for the Birmingham metropolitan area, the household income data was collected from the 2010 U.S. Census. For the purpose of this research the metropolitan area of Birmingham is defined as the municipality of Birmingham and all municipalities that share a boundary with it. Combining the economic data for these communities created the income distribution shown here. Given this data, this research highlights the median income as the benchmark demographic for targeting affordable design. The justification is that any housing design that is affordable to the median annual income, calculated as $43,850, is automatically affordable to fifty percent of the population. Also, the median falls in the income level of the second largest portion of the population, with the largest portion represented by the next highest income level. An architect designed home for this income level would reach the greatest percentage of the population. The experience with the housing ratio produced a second hypothetical model, whereby a manipulation of first costs – those costs that subtract from the construction budget – could form a logic for making design decisions. In this model, individual costs of design options would be compared and combined, almost as parameters in an algorithm; the “algorithm” would then be optimized to make design decisions and thereby reducing costs. This model requires both a budget and an understanding of cost estimating. The first costs budget for the median income level ($43,850) was calculated to be $181,346 using a common finance ratio of .3, a published interest rate of 4.43% APR, a 30 year term, and property taxes calculated for the city of Birmingham.

budget = 3x +
After establishing the budget for first costs, considerable research went into pursuing an understanding of cost estimating. Many methods of cost estimating were considered, including print resources like RS Means for Construction Data and estimating software like Timberline. Though the methods differ in terms of means, one conclusion is consistent – a detailed design, down to the number of fasteners used, is required for determining an accurate cost estimation. This convention disproves the second hypothesis, which claims that cost estimation can lead to a home design. Contemporary cost estimation methods consistently place cost as a dependent variable in relation to design decisions.

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=

Birmingham, AL Metropolitan Area
20%
Pinson

Income Distribution of Birmingham Metro
Median: $43,850

Precision estimate
of

18% 16%

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FultonDale Tarrant

Center Point

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Trussville

14% 12%

x

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Birmingham
Pleasant Grove FairField Midfield Mountain Brook homeWood Vestavia Hills

Irondale

Leeds

10% 8%

detail of design

459

6%
$150K-$200K $100K-$150K $35K-$50K $25K-$35K $75K-$100K

65
Hoover

4%
< $10K

At the conclusion of this research period, neither hypothetical method was successful in establishing a process for design that involves the architect in the business of producing affordable homes for a broader portion of the population.
> $200K

2%

Architects & affordable Housing A Timeline
American System Built Homes Frank Lloyd Wright
Used factory-cut pieces to affordably produce custom homes. Each home is unique, keeping the architect in the development of each one. 13 total homes were built.

Citrohan Housing at Pessac * Le Corbusier
One standard housing type repeated in an industrial community as worker’s housing. After completing the standard design, the architect’s role becomes that of a planner.

$15K-$25K

$10K-$15K

$50K-$75K

Stran-Steel House H. August O’Dell + Wirt C. Rowland
Sponsored by Good Housekeeping, the house included iron panels hung on a steel frame. The reproduced home cost just $100,000 in contemporary value.

Jacobs House Frank Lloyd Wright
Built using Wright’s gridded floor plan and modular insulated panels, the house’s construction cost would be the contemporary equivalent of $80,000.

Case Study House No. 8 Charles and Ray Eames
Designed to be built from off-the-shelf parts, this house prioritized volumetric spaces over expensive finished. This house cost just $8 per cubic foot in contemporary value.

Levittown, NY * William and Alfred Levitt
A handful of homes designed by an architect to be easily and quickly replicated. Levittown served as the model for contemporary suburban development and affordable housing.

Produced * mass produced Unrealized

1911

1914

1924 1922
Baukasten Walter Gropius + Adolf Meyer
Proposal included a system of interlocking parts that could create a large number of unique permutations. The architect would be involved with arranging each configuration.

1933 1936
Proposal included a system of interlocking parts that could create a large number of unique permutations. The architect would be involved with arranging each configuration.

1941

1945

1951

Maison Domino Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier proposed a housing frame that possessed proportions carefully controlled by the architect. Custom homes would be built within the frame

Packaged House Walter Gropius + Konrad Wachsmann

Oriental Masonic Gardens * Paul Rudolph
Rudolph used the standard construction of the mobile home as the unit for this housing community. The architect was involved in arranging the units.

Kim House Waro Kishi
Kishi used ready-made components such as prefabricated steel frames for structure and concrete panels for cladding to make this inexpensive home in urban Japan.

MUJI House I * Kazuhiko Namba
Developed as a prefrabricated dwelling for Japanese retailer MUJI, House 1 performs in urban and suburban contexts. It is sold exclusively in Japan for around $185,000.

Modern Modular Resolution: 4 Architecture
Modern Modular is an entire line of configurations of home modules. While the architect is responsible for each configuration, only the smallest and simplest are affordable.

1970

1986

2004

2006-2012

Demarginalizing the Architecture of Housing Demarginalizing the Architecture of Housing

Blaine Lindsey | fellow Justin Miller | mentor

48

housing situations that do not adequately meet their needs. AppropriateWhat housing is is does This statistic does not make the representation that a quarter of Americans are homeless, but the in implications are no less staggering. Meanwhile Arch itecture is Hurting... financial out of their reach. One thing is clear: the American model for developing housing

Demarginalizing the Architecture of
Architecture Bi lling I ndex (1996-2012)
70

25% 25% Housing

Blaine Lindsey | fellow Justin Miller | mentor

Of Americans Are Without Adequate Housing

This statistic does not make the representation that a quarter of Americans are homeless, but the implications are no less staggering. What is does assert is that 25 percent are in housing situations that do not adequately meet their needs. Appropriate housing is financial out of their reach. One thing is clear: the American model for developing housing is in need of reform in order care for the population.

Of Americans Are Without Adequate Housing Blaine Lindsey | fellow

Justin Miller | mentor This statistic does not make the representation that a quarter of Americans are homeless, but the implications are no less staggering. What is does assert is that 25 percent are
is in need of reform in order care for the population.

assert is that 25 percent are in housing situations that do not adequately meet their needs. Appropriate housing is financial out of their reach. One thing is clear: the American model for developing housing is in need of reform in order care for the population.
Architecture Bi lling I ndex for Residential Firms (2008-2011)
90

Meanwhile Arch itecture is Hurting...
Architecture Bi lling I ndex (1996-2012)

65

60 70 55 65 50 60

Meanwhile Arch itecture is Hurting... 45
55

Architecture Bi lling I ndex (1996-2012) 40
50

70

35 45

65

40 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
The Architecture Billings Index (ABI) is the most commonly accepted statistic for gauging the health of Architectural practice the United 60 States. It depicts the rate of growth or decline in the field by a ratio comparing the number of billed projects in a period of a quarter-year 35 to the number of billings from the previous quarter. A ratio of .5 indicates no change while a larger ratio indicates growth and a smaller one indicates decline. The ABI above shows a period of precipitous decline from 2008 to 2009, which accompanied the height of the American economic crisis. The period from 2009 to 2010 showed an abrupt improvement in the rate of decline, but it largely remained in 55 a state of decline. The period from 2011 to 2012 resulted in signs of growth with relation to the previous period, but the growth is meager by comparison to decline experience from 2008 to 2011. The conclusion is that the practice of architecture in America is beginning to 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 heal, 1996 but still 1997 deeply hurt. The Architecture Billings Index (ABI) is the most commonly accepted statistic for gauging the health of Architectural practice the United 50

growth growth Decline Decline growth

Of Americans Are Without 80 Adequate Housing Architecture Bi lling I ndex for Residential Firms (2008-2011)
60 80 50 70

70 90

40 60 30 50 20 40

Architecture Bi lling I ndex for Residential Firms (2008-2011)
90

80
30 2008

The graph shown here is an Architecture Billings Index similar to the one shown to the left, but applies more specifically to architecture 70 in the residential sector. The conclusions are even more dire. In the period from early 2008 to the end of 2011, residential firms practicing 20 have experienced a period of near exclusive decline. In the third quarter of 2008, residential architecture experienced a decline firms more significant than the rest of architectural practice. The most concerning conclusion is that while the rate of decline has improved, there has not been any significant period of growth to make up the ground lost in 2008. Architecture as a complete practice is hurting and that pain is60 felt most keenly in the residential sector.

2008

growth growth Decline Decline growth
2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011

25%

This statistic does not make the representation that a quarter of Americans are homeless, but the implications are no less staggering. What is does assert is that 25 percent are in housing situations that do not adequately meet their needs. Appropriate housing is financial out of their reach. One thing is clear: the American model for developing housing is in need of reform in order care for the population.

There is no evidence of adequate, affordable housing model economically sustainable in contemporary American society. Currently, the most prevalent model for middle-income housing is the builder-driven or developer-driven model. In this model, an individual or business purchases 10 30 40 a large piece of property and subdivides it into smaller pieces of property for individual sale. 9 Then the developer accumulates a small number
35 An Opportunity for Mutual Benefit of home designs, either from an architect or not, to proliferate by building one20 on each lot. These homes have been optimized for speed of
8 7

An Opportunity for Mutual Benefit 45

construction and profit; they offer few opportunities for adjusting to the homeowners needs.6 This has contributed to the large portion of 10 Residential 2008 2009 2010 2011 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 5 Americans who lack adequate housing. Meanwhile, architects have alienated themselves from 9 affordable residential construction by prioritizing
The Architecture Billings Index (ABI) is the most commonly accepted statistic for gauging the health of Architectural practice the United one indicates decline. The ABI above shows a period of precipitous decline from 2008 to 2009, which accompanied the height of the

8 States. It depicts the rate of growth or decline in the field by a ratio comparing the number of billed projects in a period of a quarter-year firms practicing in the residential sector. The conclusions are even more dire. In the period from early 2008 to the end of 2011, residential design or artistic vision above cost when addressing a clients needs. This has resulted in a small margin of the U.S. population that has the of Homes 3 of near exclusive decline. In the third quarter of 2008, residential architecture experienced a decline to the number of billings from the are previous quarter. A ratio of .5 indicates no change while a larger ratio indicates growth and a smaller firms have experienced a period
The graph shown here is an4 Architecture Billings Index similar to the one shown to the left, but applies more specifically to architecture

2 American economic crisis. The period from to 2010 showed an abruptbuilding improvement in the of decline, butnew it largelymodel, remained in whereby there has not been any significant period of growth to make up the ground 2008. Architecture as a complete practice hurting and resources to consult an2009 architect when a rate home. A the skills of the architect address costlost asin one of many needs in isthe a state of decline. The period from 2011 to 2012 resulted in signs of growth with relation to the previous period, but the growth is meager that pain is felt most keenly 6 in the residential sector. Built Without An non-Residential 1 by comparison to decline experience from 2008 to 2011. The conclusion is that the practice of architecture in America is beginning to Residential careful design of a home, might supply the adequate housing so needed in the country while 5giving architects access to a nearly untapped field of
heal, but still deeply hurt.

production and revenue.

98%
t cos
EE

Arch itect's Consul tation of Homes are An Opportunity for Mutual Benefit Built Without An Arch itect's Consul tation
This is a widely debated statistic. The argument stems from defining exactly what encompasses an architect’s involvement. If an architect draws a house plan that gets replicated hundreds of times – being altered and manipulated by the builder of each one – does it count as designing one home or one hundred? The statistic represented here is the most published. It delineates an architect’s involvement as direct consultation as a hired service agent of the homeowner or home builder, whom acts as the client. As the percentage shows, there is almost an entire field of construction in which the architect has no significant involvement.

98% 98%

States. It depicts the rate of growth or decline in the field by a ratio comparing the number of billed projects in a period of a quarter-year to the number of billings from the previous quarter. A ratio of .5 indicates no change while a larger ratio indicates growth and a smaller one indicates decline. The ABI above shows a period of precipitous decline from 2008 to 2009, which accompanied the height of the American economic crisis. The period from 2009 to 2010 showed an abrupt improvement in the rate of decline, but it largely remained in a state of decline. The period from 2011 to 2012 resulted in signs of growth with relation to the previous period, but the growth is meager by comparison to decline experience from 2008 to 2011. The conclusion is that the practice of architecture in America is beginning to heal, but still deeply hurt.

Decline
* *

The graph 50 shown here is an Architecture Billings Index similar to the one shown to the left, but applies more specifically to architecture firms practicing in the residential sector. The conclusions are even more dire. In the period from early 2008 to the end of 2011, residential firms have experienced a period of near exclusive decline. In the third quarter of 2008, residential architecture experienced a decline more significant than the rest of architectural practice. The most concerning conclusion is that while the rate of decline has improved, there has not been any significant period of growth to make up the ground lost in 2008. Architecture as a complete practice is hurting and 40 that pain is felt most keenly in the residential sector.

Decline
Construction as Percent of GDP (2005-2012) Construction as Percent of GDP (2005-2012)
2005 4 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Construction has a long-standing history as significant contributor to the Gross 3 a percentage of this construction is residential construction, an area with nearly no 2 Domestic Product (GDP) of the United States. What this graph reveals is how great architect involvement. The potential in the residential sector is enormous. Even in

7 of architectural practice. The most concerning conclusion is that while the rate of decline has improved, more significant than the rest

Architecture in Affordable Housing

This is a widely debated statistic. The argument stems from defining exactly what encompasses an architect’s involvement. If an architect draws a house plan that gets replicated hundreds of times – being altered and manipulated by the builder of each one – does it count as designing one home or one hundred? The statistic represented here is the most published. It delineates an architect’s involvement as direct consultation as a hired service agent of the homeowner or home builder, whom acts as the client. As the percentage shows, there is almost an entire field of construction in which the architect has no significant involvement.

*

of Homes are Architecture in Affordable Housing Built Without An OST C cost Arch itect's Consul tation N
IG DES
O

There is no evidence of adequate, affordable housing model economically sustainable in contemporary American society. Currently, the most prevalent model for middle-income housing is the builder-driven or developer-driven model. In this model, an individual or business purchases a large piece of property and subdivides it into smaller pieces of property for individual sale. Then the developer accumulates a small number of home designs, either from an architect or not, to proliferate by building one on each lot. These homes have been optimized for speed of construction and profit; they offer few opportunities for adjusting to the homeowners needs. This has contributed to the large portion of Americans who lack adequate housing. Meanwhile, architects have alienated themselves from affordable residential construction by prioritizing design or artistic vision above cost when addressing a clients needs. This has resulted in a small margin of the U.S. population that has the resources to consult an architect when building a home. A new model, whereby the skills of the architect address cost as one of many needs in the careful design of a home, might supply the adequate housing so needed in the country while giving access a nearly affordable untapped field of production and revenue. Therearchitects is no evidence ofto adequate, housing model economically sustainable in contemporary American society. Currently, the most prevalent model for middle-income housing is the builder-driven or developer-driven model. In this model, an individual or business purchases a large piece of property and subdivides it into smaller pieces of property for individual sale. Then the developer accumulates S a small number of home designs, either from an architect or not, to proliferate by building one on each lot. These homes have been D NEE and profit; they offer few opportunities for adjusting to the homeowners needs. This has contributed optimized for speed of construction n eeds from affordable residential to the large portion of Americans who lack adequate housing. Meanwhile, architects have alienated themselves construction by prioritizing design or artistic vision above cost when addressing a clients needs. This has resulted in a small margin of the This is a widelythat debated statistic. Theto argument stems from defining exactly what an architect’s U.S. population has the resources consult an architect when building a home. A encompasses new model, whereby the skills of the architect involvement. If an architect draws a house plan that gets replicated hundreds of times – being altered and in the country while address cost as one of many needs in the careful design of a home, might supply the adequate housing so needed manipulated by the builder of each one – does it count as designing one home or one hundred? The statistic giving architects access to a nearly untapped field of production and revenue. Proposed MOdel Builder-Driven Model Architect-Driven MOdel

is roughly equal to those of non-residential construction. This means there is a relatively untapped market of construction that is comparable in size to the(2005-2012) field in which architects The residential is an appetizing 2005 2006 primarily 2007 practice. 2008 2009 market 2010 2011 2012 opportunity at a time when architecture has experience such a decline. 10 Construction has a long-standing history as significant contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the United States. What this graph reveals is how great 9 a percentage of this construction is residential construction, an area with nearly no architect involvement. The potential in the residential sector is enormous. Even in 8 leaner times like those shown in 2011, the revenues from residential construction is roughly equal to those of non-residential construction. This means there is a 7 relatively untapped market of construction that is comparable in size to the field in which architects primarily practice. The residential market is an appetizing 6at a time After establishing the target demographic for an affordable architecture of housing, the next step is to establish opportunity when architecture has experience such a decline.a hypothetical strategy for affordable design. The first hypothesis was based on an understanding of affordability. Affordability is tethered to the other expenses of a 5 to meet those expenses. Therefore, any affordable design must consider those other homeowner in that it may not compromise the ability expenses. The structure of financing examines these expenses by month. The monthly expenses with home ownership alone include not only mortgage payments, but also homeowner’s insurance, property taxes, utilities, and payments. 4

1leaner times like those shown in 2011, the revenues from residential construction

non-Residential

Construction as Percent of GDP

Residential

design

The first hypothesis proposes a model of design that3 focuses on reducing the costs of home ownership like utilities and maintenance by improving energy performance and durability through design decisions. This would create more room in the budget for aspects of the design that address the needs of the homeowner. 2This hypothesis is disproven, however, by the mechanism developed by financial institutions for determining a loan applicant can afford, known as the The step housing ratio set a a maximum percentage After establishing the targetwhat demographic for an affordable architecture of housing housing,ratio. the next is to establish hypothetical strategy for of monthlydesign. income that can be spent on repaying the principle of the loan plus interest, property taxes, and homeowner’s affordable The first hypothesis was based on an understanding of affordability. Affordability is tethered to the otherinsurance. expenses The of a 1 problem is that the housing ratio does not consider utilities or those maintenance, so Therefore, funds cannot diverted design from those to swell the homeowner in that it may not compromise the ability to meet expenses. anybe affordable must areas consider those other principle, the budget for construction expenses.or The structure of financing examines these expenses by month. The monthly expenses with home ownership alone include not only mortgage payments, but also homeowner’s insurance, property taxes, utilities, and payments.

non-Residential
2006 2007 2008

2005

2009

2010

2011

2012

represented here is the most published. It delineates an architect’s involvement as direct consultation as a hired serviceseeks agent the homeowner home builder, acts ascost theas client. As percentage shows,as a way of integrating the This research toof establish a process of or architectural designwhom that considers a part ofthe a building’s performance there is of almost an entire field of construction in which the architect has noS significant involvement. S for affordable T practice architecture in the broad need middle-income housing. D

The first hypothesis proposes a model of design that focuses on reducing the costs of home ownership like utilities and maintenance Construction has a This long-standing history as significant to the Gross by improving energy performance and durability through design decisions. would create more room in the contributor budget for aspects of Product (GDP) of the United States. What this graph reveals is how great the design that address the needs of the homeowner.Domestic This hypothesis is disproven, however, by the mechanism developed by financial percentage construction is residential construction, an area with nearly no institutions for determining what a loan applicant canaafford, knownof as this the housing ratio. The housing ratio set a maximum percentage involvement. The potential in the residential sector is enormous. Even in of monthly income that can be spent on repaying the architect principle of the loan plus interest, property taxes, and homeowner’s insurance. The leaner or times like thoseso shown 2011, the revenues from residential construction problem is that the housing ratio does not consider utilities maintenance, funds in cannot be diverted from those areas to swell the is roughly equal to those of non-residential construction. This means there is a principle, or the budget for construction

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