MAPPING OF THE IMPACT OF GREAT GIANT SEA WALL
CONSTRUCTION TOWARDS THE FLOW PATTERN AT
Undergraduate Thesis Proposal
Proposed as a requirement for thesis research
Nurul Sandy Putri
GEODESY AND GEOMATICS ENGINEERING STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF EARTH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Jayakarta or currently named as Jakarta is one of the world’s largest city with 661
square kilometres area. As the Capital of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta is an autonomous
province consisting of five municipalities, Central Jakarta, North Jakarta, East Jakarta, West
Jakarta, and the District of Kepulauan Seribu. Jakarta surrounded by some regions, usually
called as metropolitan area, we call as JABODETABEK. It is covering an area of
approximately 7.500 square kilometres which consist of 10 administrative units at
multicipalities of Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi.
As the Capital of Republic of Indonesia since 17 August 1945, Jakarta continuously
grew as the country’s important roles on economic, cultural, and political center. Supported
by geography condition, located on the northwest coast of Java with large and modern port in
North Jakarta and other facilities attract many investors to come and built various industries
with huge capital investments in Jakarta. Of course it gives some advantages for Indonesia
especially for Jakarta region, and so do problems. It cause another problem, one of them is
Large industries and capital investments invites migrant to work and live in Jakarta.
Now, the urbanization becomes uncontrollable. The speed of growth increased complexity of
cities can go far beyond the capacity of the government to handle the problems such as public
transportation, health condition, waste management, water supply, and another environmental
risk. This city has been at risk to several natural hazard impacts, especially flood. Two large
floods happened in 2007 and early 2013, those floods caused direct economic losses and
health problems. The regular floods also come to several regions of Jakarta in rainy season.
Therefore, the mitigation and preparedness of Jakarta flood will be very important for city
and maintain the sustainability of economy of Indonesia. But, what actually cause flood in
Jakarta? First, Jakarta traversed by 13 rivers. On the rainy season, heavy rainfall may increase
the water level of some rivers and cause flood in some region. Commonly the regular flood
cause by this problem. The condition of drainage system and the habit of throwing garbage
into the river also exacerbating. Second, the rate of land subsidence of Jakarta is about 7.5-17
centimetres per year. Third, sea level rise problems potentially threat the city (Measey 2010).
In 2007, an unusual flood attacked North Jakarta. High sea wave passed through the
sea wall in certain location. Sea water flooded the affected area about 1.5 meters in few days.
Some experts believe that the flood caused by land subsidence in North Jakarta. They also
predict that if that condition is not addressed, in 50 years the sea water level will reach 3-5
metres above the road surface, and in 2025 most rivers and canals in Jakarta cannot discharge
the water to Jakarta Bay by gravity.
To prevent it, there are several options of long-term action. The appropriate one is
protect the city with water front city around 1.5 kilometres wide on the sea wall, and also
make a huge reservoir at Jakarta Bay. This option has been selected because it affects less in
town, safer, and more powerful. In order to execute this option, Indonesian government build
the Jakarta Coastal Defence Strategy (JCDS) to make a blueprint of sea defines that will do
for next 20-30 years. The work was followed up by established an organization called
National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD). This organization is a
cooperation of various ministries and relevant agencies, and also supported by Netherlands
government. One of the things that will be done by NCICD to save Jakarta from flooding is
to build a giant sea wall around 35 kilometres throughout Jakarta Bay. This system adopts the
Netherlands system used to protect their area from similar flooding threat. Another thing that
should be noted in this great project is to improve the quality of urban water drainage, as well
as reducing water pollution that will flow into the Jakarta Bay.
The existence of this giant sea wall of course will cause certain effects to environment
and socio-economic aspects, and also for the physical aspect of the sea water around the
Jakarta Bay. The giant sea wall will cover inner part of the Jakarta Bay and turn it into a giant
water reservoir. The water from rivers that pass through Jakarta will lead to that reservoir. If
the maintenance of water quality is not going well, the reservoir in Jakarta Bay will just
become a huge septic tank. Then, the coastal area will be relocated and expanded.
Approximately 4,000 hectare areas of new land will be formed as reclamation land and
development of real estates. For area that has a complex society, of course that is not an easy
This research aims to understand the flow pattern before and after giant sea wall
construction in Jakarta Bay. The differences in the pattern of flow will be observed by using a
flow model. The model derived based on numerical function. Data that required in this model
in process are bathymetry data of Jakarta Bay, coastline data, and meteorological data.
Modelling result will be used to analyse any parameter that can affect model outcome.
Moreover, this modelling result also can be further developed to analyse the impact of flow
changing to the vulnerability of coastal areas around the Jakarta Bay and the island in South
of Kepulauan Seribu District.
This research topics proposed by Dr.rer.nat. Wiwin Windupranata. ST,M.Si.
The objective of this research is to identify the differences of flow pattern at Jakarta
Bay, before and after giant sea wall construction. The differences will be detect by make a
flow models. The result can be used to analyse the parameter that affect model and also it can
be used to analyse the vulnerability of coastal area around giant sea wall.
1.3 Research Scope
This research is quite extensive and can involve some scientific fields. So, it is
necessary to define the boundary of the research. The scope of this research is:
a. Study area is around Jakarta Bay.
b. Data that might be used are bathymetry and coastline data from Jakarta Bay
Nautical Chart (DISHIDROS) and wind data from National Centers for
Environmental Prediction, NOAA.
c. The hydrodynamic model will use Delft3D open source flow module.
d. Simulation will be made for average north west and south east monsoon period.
e. Identify, compare, and analyse the result of the flow before and after giant sea
This research carried out in several stages and a number of methods:
a. Literature study to find the concept from books, websites, articles, and journals.
b. Collecting data from relevant agencies, website, direct observation, and other
c. Making a flow model at Jakarta Bay before giant sea wall construction.
d. Making a flow model at Jakarta Bay after giant sea wall construction.
e. Analyse the differences among two flow model.
Structure and Contents
This undergraduate thesis is organized in four chapters, which are:
This chapter explains background, objectives, research scope, research method, and
structure and contents of the research.
Materials and Methods
This chapter explains the concept of flow modelling, modelling process, and explains
how writer can get the result of modelling and also the measurements based on the
methodology that has been determined.
Result and Discussion
This chapter explains the result of models in pictures, flow maps, and other
explanation about the result of this research.
Conclusions and Suggestions
This chapter presents the conclusions of the research result and suggestions that might
be useful for further research.