US Income, Expenditures, Poverty, Wealth Census 2012

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Section 13

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth
This section presents data on gross
domestic product (GDP), gross national
product (GNP), national and personal
income, saving and investment, money
income, poverty, and national and
personal wealth. The data on income and
expenditures measure two aspects of the
U.S. economy. One aspect relates to the
National Income and Product Accounts
(NIPA), a summation reflecting the entire
complex of the nation’s economic income
and output and the interaction of its
major components; the other relates to
the distribution of money income to
families and individuals or consumer
income.
The primary source for data on GDP, GNP,
national and personal income, gross
saving and investment, and fixed assets
and consumer durables is the Survey of
Current Business, published monthly by
the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).
A comprehensive revision to the NIPA
was released beginning in July 2009.
Discussions of the revision appeared in
the March, August, September, October,
and November 2009 issues of the Survey
of Current Business. Summary historical
estimates appeared in the August 2009
issue of the Survey of Current Business.
Detailed historical data can be found on
BEA’s Web site at <http://www.bea.gov/>.
Sources of income distribution data are
the decennial censuses of population,
the Current Population Survey (CPS),
and the American Community Survey, all
products of the U.S. Census Bureau (see
text, Section 1 and Section 4). Annual
data on income of families, individuals,
and households are presented in Current
Population Reports, Consumer Income,
P60 Series, in print. Many data series are
also found on the Census Web site at
<http://www.census.gov/hhes
/www/income/income.html>. Data on
the household sector’s saving and assets
are published by the Board of Governors
of the Federal Reserve System in the
quarterly statistical release Flow of Funds
Accounts. The Federal Reserve Board also

periodically conducts the Survey of
Consumer Finances, which presents financial information on family assets and net
worth. The most recent survey is available
at <http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs
/oss/oss2/scfindex.html>. Detailed information on personal wealth is published
periodically by the Internal Revenue
Service (IRS) in SOI Bulletin.
National income and product—
GDP is the total output of goods and
services produced by labor and property located in the United States, valued
at market prices. GDP can be viewed in
terms of the expenditure categories that
comprise its major components:
personal consumption expenditures,
gross private domestic investment, net
exports of goods and services, and government consumption expenditures and
gross investment. The goods and services
included are largely those bought for final
use (excluding illegal transactions) in the
market economy. A number of inclusions,
however, represent imputed values, the
most important of which is the rental
value of owner–occupied housing. GDP, in
this broad context, measures the output
attributable to the factors of production
located in the United States. GDP by state
is the gross market value of the goods
and services attributable to labor and
property located in a state. It is the state
counterpart of the nation’s GDP.
The featured measure of real GDP is
an index based on chain-type annual
weights. Changes in this measure of
real output and prices are calculated
as the average of changes based on
weights for the current and preceding
years. (Components of real output are
weighted by price, and components of
prices are weighted by output.) These
annual changes are “chained” (multiplied)
together to form a time series that allows
for the effects of changes in relative
prices and changes in the composition of
output over time. Quarterly and monthly
changes are based on quarterly and
monthly weights, respectively.
Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 431

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

The output indexes are expressed as
2005 = 100, and for recent years, in 2005
dollars; the price indexes are also based
to 2005 = 100. For more information on
chained–dollar indexes, see the article on
this subject in the November 2003 issue
of the Survey of Current Business.

historical costs and reflect changes over
time in service lives and depreciation
patterns as permitted by tax regulations.
Inventory valuation adjustment represents
the difference between the book value of
inventories used up in production and the
cost of replacing them.

Chained (2005) dollar estimates of most
components of GDP are not published
for periods prior to 1990, because
during periods far from the base period,
the levels of the components may provide misleading information about their
contributions to an aggregate. Values are
published in index form (2005 = 100) for
1929 to the present to allow users to
calculate the percent changes for all
components, which are accurate for all
periods. In addition, BEA publishes
estimates of contributions of major
components to the percent change in
GDP for all periods.

Personal income is the current income
received by persons from all sources
minus their personal contributions
for government social insurance.
Classified as “persons” are individuals
(including owners of unincorporated
firms), nonprofit institutions that primarily
serve individuals, private trust funds, and
private noninsured welfare funds.
Personal income includes personal
current transfer receipts (payments not
resulting from current production) from
government and business such as social
security benefits, public assistance, etc.,
but excludes transfers among persons.
Also included are certain nonmonetary
types of income chiefly, estimated net
rental value to owner-occupants of their
homes and the value of services furnished
without payment by financial intermediaries. Capital gains (and losses) are
excluded.

Gross national product measures the
output attributable to all labor and
property supplied by United States
residents. GNP differs from “national
income” mainly in that GNP includes
allowances for depreciation—that is,
consumption of fixed capital.
National income includes all net incomes
net of consumption of fixed capital (CFC),
earned in production. National income
is the sum of compensation of employees, proprietors’ income with inventory
valuation adjustment (IVA) and capital
consumption adjustment (CCAdj), rental
income of persons with CCAdj, corporate
profits with IVA and CCAdj, net interest
and miscellaneous payments, taxes on
production and imports, business
current transfer payments (net), and
current surplus of government enterprises, less subsidies.
Capital consumption adjustment for
corporations and for nonfarm sole
proprietorships and partnerships is the
difference between capital consumption
based on income tax returns and capital
consumption measured using empirical
evidence on prices of used equipment
and structures in resale markets, which
have shown that depreciation for most
types of assets approximates a geometric
pattern. The tax return data are valued at

Disposable personal income is personal
income less personal current taxes. It
is the income available to persons for
spending or saving. Personal current
taxes are tax payments (net of refunds)
by persons (except personal contributions
for government social insurance) that
are not chargeable to business expense.
Personal taxes include income taxes,
personal property taxes, motor vehicle
licenses, and other miscellaneous taxes.
Gross domestic product by
industry—The BEA also prepares
estimates of value added by industry.
Value added is a measure of the contribution of each private industry and of government to the nation’s GDP. It is defined
as an industry’s gross output (which
consists of sales or receipts and other
operating income, commodity taxes, and
inventory change) minus its intermediate inputs (which consists of energy,
raw materials, semi-finished goods, and
services that are purchased from domestic
industries or from foreign sources). These
estimates of value added are produced for

432 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

61 private industries and for 4 government classifications—federal general
government and government enterprises
and state and local general government
and government enterprises.

Consumer Expenditure Survey—
The Consumer Expenditure Survey
program began in 1980. The principal
objective of the survey is to collect current consumer expenditure data, which
provide a continuous flow of data on the
buying habits of American consumers.
The data are necessary for future revisions of the Consumer Price Index.

The estimates by industry are available
in current dollars and are derived from
the estimates of gross domestic income,
which consists of three components—
the compensation of employees, gross
operating surplus, and taxes on production and imports, less subsidies. Real,
or inflation-adjusted, estimates are also
prepared.
Regional Economic Accounts—
These accounts consist of estimates of
state and local area personal income and
of gross domestic product by state and
are consistent with estimates of personal
income and gross domestic product in
the Bureau’s national economic accounts.
BEA’s estimates of state and local area
personal income provide a framework
for analyzing individual state and local
economies, and they show how the
economies compare with each other.
The personal income of a state and/or
local area is the income received by, or
on behalf of, the residents of that state or
area. Estimates of labor and proprietors’
earnings by place of work indicate the
economic activity of business and
government within that area, and
estimates of personal income by place of
residence indicate the income within the
area that is available for spending. BEA
prepares estimates for states, counties,
metropolitan areas, and BEA economic
areas.
Gross domestic product by state estimates
measure the value added to the nation’s
production by the labor and property in
each state. GDP by state is often considered the state counterpart of the nation’s
GDP. The GDP by state estimates provide the basis for analyzing the regional
impacts of national economic trends. GDP
by state is measured as the sum of the
distributions by industry and state of the
components of gross domestic income;
that is, the sum of the costs incurred and
incomes earned in the production of GDP
by state. The GDP estimates are presented
in current dollars and in real (chained
dollars) for 63 industries.

The survey conducted by the Census
Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics
consists of two components:
(1) an interview panel survey in which
the expenditures of consumer units are
obtained in five interviews conducted
every 3 months, and (2) a diary or
recordkeeping survey completed by
participating households for two
consecutive 1-week periods.
Each component of the survey queries
an independent sample of consumer
units representative of the U.S. total
population. Each quarter of the year,
approximately 3,200 consumer units
are sampled for the diary survey. Each
consumer unit keeps a diary for two
1-week periods yielding approximately
6,400 diaries a year. The interview sample
is selected on a rotating panel basis, targeted at 15,000 consumer units. Data are
collected in 91 areas of the country that
are representative of the U.S. total population. The survey includes students in
student housing. Data from the two
surveys are combined; integration is
necessary to permit analysis of total
family expenditures because neither the
diary nor quarterly interview survey was
designed to collect a complete account of
consumer spending.
Distribution of money income to
families and individuals—
Money income statistics are based on
data collected in various field surveys
of income conducted since 1936. Since
1947, the Census Bureau has collected
the data on an annual basis and published
them in Current Population Reports,
P60 Series. In each of the surveys, field
representatives interview samples of
the population with respect to income
received during the previous year. Money
income as defined by the Census Bureau
differs from the BEA concept of “personal
income.” Data on consumer income

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 433

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

collected in the CPS by the Census Bureau
cover money income received (exclusive
of certain money receipts such as capital
gains) before payments for personal
income taxes, social security, union dues,
medicare deductions, etc. Therefore,
money income does not reflect the fact
that some families receive part of their
income in the form of noncash benefits
(see Section 11) such as food stamps,
health benefits, and subsidized housing;
that some farm families receive noncash
benefits in the form of rent-free housing
and goods produced and consumed on
the farm; or that noncash benefits are
also received by some nonfarm residents,
which often take the form of the use of
business transportation and facilities,
full or partial payments by business
for retirement programs, medical and
educational expenses, etc. These
elements should be considered when
comparing income levels. None of the
aggregate income concepts (GDP, national
income, or personal income) is exactly
comparable with money income, although
personal income is the closest. For a
definition of families and households, see
text, Section 1.
Poverty—Families and unrelated
individuals are classified as being above
or below poverty following the Office of
Management and Budget’s Statistical
Policy Directive 14. The Census Bureau
uses a set of thresholds that vary by
family size and composition.
The poverty calculation is based solely
on money income and does not reflect
the fact that many low-income persons
receive noncash benefits such as food

stamps, medicaid, and public housing.
The original thresholds were based on
the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s
1961 Economy Food Plan and reflected
the different consumption requirements
of families. The poverty thresholds are
updated every year to reflect changes in
the Consumer Price Index. The following technical changes to the thresholds
were made in 1981: (1) distinctions based
on sex of householder were eliminated,
(2) separate thresholds for farm families
were dropped, and (3) the matrix was
expanded to families of nine or more
persons from the old cutoff of seven or
more persons. These changes were incorporated in the calculation of poverty data
beginning with 1981. Besides the Census
Bureau Web site at <http://www.census
.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty.html>,
information on poverty guidelines and
research may be found at the
U.S. Department of Human Services
Web site at <http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty
/index.shtml>.
In the recent past, the Census Bureau has
published a number of technical papers
and reports that presented experimental
poverty estimates based on income
definitions that counted the value of
selected government noncash benefits.
The Census Bureau has also published
reports on after–tax income.
Statistical reliability—For a discussion
of statistical collection and estimation,
sampling procedures, and measures of
statistical reliability pertaining to Census
Bureau data, see Appendix III.

434 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 435

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 667. Gross Domestic Product in Current and Chained (2005) Dollars: 1970 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (1,038 represents $1,038,000,000,000). For explanation of gross domestic product and chained dollars, see text, this section. Minus sign (–) indicates decline in inventories or net imports]
Item
CURRENT DOLLARS
Gross domestic product . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross private domestic investment. . . . . . . . . .
Fixed investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change in private inventories . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net exports of goods and services . . . . . . . . . .
Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government consumption expenditures and
gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondefense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAINED (2005) DOLLARS
Gross domestic product . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross private domestic investment. . . . . . . . . .
Fixed investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change in private inventories . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net exports of goods and services . . . . . . . . . .
Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government consumption expenditures and
gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondefense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1970

1980

1990

1995

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1,038

2,788

5,801

7,415

8,794

9,354

9,952

10,286

10,642

11,142

11,868

12,638

13,399

14,062

14,369

14,119

14,660

648
90
229
330
152
150
2
4
60
56

1,756
226
573
956
479
486
–6
–13
281
294

3,836
497
994
2,344
861
846
15
–78
552
630

4,987
636
1,180
3,172
1,144
1,113
31
–91
812
903

5,919
780
1,330
3,809
1,511
1,447
64
–162
954
1,116

6,343
857
1,433
4,053
1,642
1,581
61
–262
989
1,251

6,830
916
1,543
4,371
1,772
1,718
55
–382
1,093
1,475

7,149
946
1,588
4,615
1,662
1,700
–38
–371
1,028
1,399

7,439
992
1,618
4,829
1,647
1,635
12
–427
1,003
1,430

7,804
1,015
1,713
5,077
1,730
1,713
16
–504
1,041
1,545

8,285
1,062
1,831
5,393
1,969
1,904
65
–619
1,180
1,799

8,819
1,106
1,968
5,745
2,172
2,122
50
–723
1,305
2,028

9,323
1,133
2,089
6,101
2,327
2,267
60
–769
1,471
2,240

9,806
1,159
2,198
6,449
2,295
2,266
29
–714
1,662
2,376

10,105
1,084
2,296
6,725
2,097
2,138
–41
–710
1,843
2,554

10,001
1,027
2,204
6,771
1,589
1,716
–127
–386
1,578
1,965

10,349
1,089
2,336
6,923
1,828
1,756
72
–516
1,838
2,354

234
113
88
26
120

566
244
168
76
322

1,182
508
374
134
674

1,374
519
349
170
855

1,526
531
346
185
995

1,631
555
361
194
1,076

1,731
576
371
205
1,155

1,846
612
393
219
1,235

1,983
681
438
243
1,303

2,113
757
498
259
1,356

2,233
825
551
274
1,408

2,370
876
589
287
1,494

2,518
932
625
307
1,587

2,674
976
662
314
1,698

2,878
1,080
737
343
1,799

2,915
1,140
772
368
1,775

3,000
1,214
818
397
1,786

4,270

5,839

8,034

9,094

10,284

10,780

11,226

11,347

11,553

11,841

12,264

12,638

12,976

13,229

13,229

12,881

13,248

2,740
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
475
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
176
237

3,766
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
718
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
352
345

5,316
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
994
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
600
673

6,079
512
1,438
4,208
1,259
1,236
32
–99
846
945

6,866
667
1,580
4,662
1,695
1,630
72
–253
1,049
1,301

7,241
754
1,661
4,853
1,844
1,782
69
–357
1,094
1,451

7,608
820
1,715
5,093
1,970
1,914
60
–452
1,188
1,640

7,814
864
1,746
5,219
1,832
1,878
–42
–472
1,122
1,594

8,022
930
1,780
5,318
1,807
1,798
13
–549
1,099
1,648

8,248
986
1,846
5,418
1,872
1,856
17
–604
1,117
1,721

8,533
1,051
1,905
5,578
2,058
1,993
66
–688
1,223
1,911

8,819
1,106
1,968
5,745
2,172
2,122
50
–723
1,305
2,028

9,074
1,150
2,024
5,900
2,230
2,171
59
–729
1,422
2,151

9,290
1,199
2,064
6,028
2,162
2,133
28
–655
1,554
2,209

9,265
1,136
2,041
6,082
1,957
1,997
–38
–504
1,648
2,152

9,154
1,095
2,017
6,033
1,516
1,631
–113
–363
1,491
1,854

9,314
1,178
2,073
6,065
1,775
1,695
63
–423
1,666
2,088

1,234
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
–118

1,359
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
–11

1,864
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
–67

1,889
704
477
228
1,184
–176

1,985
681
448
234
1,304
–88

2,056
695
456
239
1,362
–50

2,098
698
454
244
1,400
–24

2,178
727
471
256
1,452
–29

2,280
780
505
274
1,501
–20

2,331
831
549
282
1,500
–12

2,362
865
580
285
1,497
–4

2,370
876
589
287
1,494


2,402
895
598
297
1,507
–2

2,434
906
612
294
1,528
–1

2,503
972
658
314
1,533
16

2,543
1,028
693
335
1,519
38

2,568
1,077
720
357
1,497
11

– Represents or rounds to zero. NA Not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

Table 668. Real Gross Domestic Product, Chained (2005) Dollars—Annual
Percent Change: 1990 to 2010
[Change from immediate previous year; for example, 1990, change from 1989. Minus sign (–) indicates decrease]
Component
Gross domestic product (GDP) . . . . . . . .

1990
1.9

2000
4.1

2003
2.5

2004
3.6

2005
3.1

2006
2.7

2007
1.9

2008


2009
–2.6

2010
2.9

Personal consumption expenditures. . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.0
–0.4
1.2
3.0

5.1
8.8
3.2
5.0

2.8
6.0
3.7
1.9

3.5
6.6
3.2
2.9

3.4
5.2
3.4
3.0

2.9
4.1
2.8
2.7

2.4
4.2
2.0
2.2

–0.3
–5.2
–1.1
0.9

–1.2
–3.7
–1.2
–0.8

1.7
7.7
2.7
0.5

Gross private domestic investment. . . . . . . . .
Fixed investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

–3.4
–2.1
0.5
1.5

–8.6

6.8
7.4
9.8
7.8
10.5
1.0

3.6
3.2
0.9
–3.8
2.5
8.2

10.0
7.3
6.0
1.1
7.7
9.8

5.5
6.5
6.7
1.4
8.5
6.2

2.7
2.3
7.9
9.2
7.4
–7.3

–3.1
–1.8
6.7
14.1
3.7
–18.7

–9.5
–6.4
0.3
5.9
–2.4
–24.0

–22.6
–18.3
–17.1
–20.4
–15.3
–22.9

17.1
3.9
5.7
–13.7
15.3
–3.0

Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.0
8.4
10.5
3.6
2.9
6.5

8.6
11.1
2.7
13.0
13.4
11.0

1.6
1.8
1.2
4.4
4.9
1.9

9.5
8.5
11.9
11.0
11.0
11.2

6.7
7.5
5.0
6.1
6.8
2.8

9.0
9.4
7.9
6.1
5.9
7.1

9.3
9.8
8.3
2.7
2.9
1.4

6.0
6.3
5.3
–2.6
–3.5
2.4

–9.5
–12.0
–3.9
–13.8
–15.8
–4.2

11.7
14.7
5.7
12.6
14.8
3.5

Government consumption expenditures and
gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondefense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2
2.0

8.2
4.1

2.0
0.5
–0.5
2.4
2.8

2.2
6.6
8.7
2.8
–0.1

1.4
4.1
5.7
1.0
–0.2

0.3
1.3
1.5
0.9
–0.2

1.4
2.1
1.6
3.2
0.9

1.3
1.2
2.2
–0.8
1.4

2.8
7.3
7.5
6.7
0.3

1.6
5.7
5.4
6.5
–0.9

1.0
4.8
3.9
6.6
–1.4

– Represents or rounds to zero.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

Table 669. Gross Domestic Product in Current and Chained (2005) Dollars by
Type of Product and Sector: 1990 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (5,801 represents $5,801,000,000,000). For explanation of chained dollars, see text, this section]
Type of product and sector

1990

2000

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

CURRENT DOLLARS
Gross domestic product. . . . . .

5,801

9,952

11,868

12,638

13,399

14,062

14,369

14,119

14,660

PRODUCT
Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,923
981
942
3,344
534

3,125
1,770
1,355
5,878
949

3,334
1,785
1,549
7,319
1,215

3,473
1,891
1,582
7,802
1,363

3,661
1,977
1,683
8,286
1,453

3,837
2,069
1,768
8,792
1,433

3,764
2,006
1,758
9,251
1,355

3,687
1,802
1,886
9,321
1,111

4,067
2,070
1,997
9,570
1,024

SECTOR
Business 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Nonfarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Households and institutions. . . . . . .
General government 4 . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,454
4,377
77
624
723
259
464

7,716
7,642
74
1,157
1,079
315
764

9,085
8,966
118
1,424
1,359
412
947

9,696
9,594
102
1,506
1,437
439
998

10,284
10,191
93
1,603
1,512
461
1,051

10,771
10,657
115
1,686
1,605
486
1,119

10,864
10,732
131
1,808
1,698
517
1,181

10,521
10,417
104
1,838
1,760
552
1,209

11,018
10,894
125
1,841
1,801
579
1,222

CHAINED (2005) DOLLARS
Gross domestic product. . . . . .

8,034

11,226

12,264

12,638

12,976

13,229

13,229

12,881

13,248

PRODUCT
Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,920
(NA)
(NA)
5,269
942

3,056
1,625
1,430
6,919
1,245

3,326
1,778
1,548
7,613
1,326

3,473
1,891
1,582
7,802
1,363

3,653
1,989
1,663
7,985
1,341

3,803
2,111
1,694
8,170
1,267

3,784
2,093
1,693
8,291
1,167

3,642
1,883
1,748
8,278
974

4,047
2,201
1,845
8,345
904

SECTOR
Business 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Nonfarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Households and institutions. . . . . . .
General government 4 . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,815
5,760
56
1,010
1,266
484
789

8,501
8,418
84
1,376
1,349
411
939

9,380
9,282
98
1,457
1,427
436
991

9,696
9,594
102
1,506
1,437
439
998

9,992
9,892
99
1,540
1,445
438
1,007

10,195
10,105
90
1,572
1,463
442
1,021

10,100
9,995
102
1,630
1,497
459
1,038

9,731
9,620
109
1,622
1,521
486
1,035

10,091
9,977
111
1,625
1,529
503
1,027

NA Not available. 1 Includes government consumption expenditures, which are for services (such as education and national
defense) produced by government. In current dollars, these services are valued at their cost of production. 2 Equals gross domestic
product excluding gross value added of households and institutions and of general government. 3 Equals gross domestic business
value added excluding gross farm value added. 4 Equals compensation of general government employees plus general government
consumption of fixed capital.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

436 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 670. Gross Domestic Product in Current and Chained (2005) Dollars
by Industry: 2000 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (9,952 represents $9,952,000,000,000). Data are based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS); see text, Section 15. Data include nonfactor charges (capital consumption allowances, indirect business taxes,
etc.) as well as factor charges against gross product; corporate profits and capital consumption allowances have been shifted from
a company to an establishment basis]
Industry
Gross domestic product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agricultural services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, except oil and gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining support activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonmetallic mineral products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fabricated metal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Machinery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and electronic products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical equipment, appliances, and components . . . . . .
Motor vehicles, bodies & trailers, & parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other transportation equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture and related products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food & beverage & tobacco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile mills and textile product mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apparel and leather and allied products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing and related support activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petroleum and coal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemical products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastics and rubber products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rail transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transit & ground passenger transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pipeline transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other transportation & support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warehousing and storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing industries (includes software) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motion picture and sound recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broadcasting and telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information and data processing services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finance and insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real estate and rental and leasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional, scientific, and technical services. . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer systems design, related services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management of companies & enterprises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Admin/support waste management/remediation services. . . .
Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ambulatory health care services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospitals, nursing, residential care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arts, entertainment, and recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing arts, spectator sports, museums,
and related activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amusements, gambling, & recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodation and food services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food services and drinking places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services, except government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Current dollars
Chained (2005) dollars
2000
2005
2009
2010
2000
2005
2009
2010
9,952 12,638 14,119 14,660 11,226 12,638 12,881 13,248
8,736 11,053 12,197 12,697 9,786 11,053 11,198 11,521
96
127
133
154
104
127
136
137
74
102
104
(NA)
84
102
109
(NA)
22
25
29
(NA)
21
25
27
(NA)
109
192
241
281
233
192
263
271
68
129
142
(NA)
155
129
200
(NA)
28
36
49
(NA)
45
36
36
(NA)
14
27
50
(NA)
29
27
35
(NA)
174
206
268
276
223
206
207
209
467
612
538
506
655
612
447
431
1,416 1,568 1,585 1,718 1,397 1,568 1,470 1,554
839
878
867
961
748
878
857
943
28
33
21
(NA)
33
33
28
(NA)
42
45
38
(NA)
45
45
32
(NA)
46
54
43
(NA)
62
54
45
(NA)
121
120
122
(NA)
130
120
94
(NA)
111
110
113
(NA)
111
110
95
(NA)
172
183
206
(NA)
82
183
294
(NA)
44
40
52
(NA)
43
40
42
(NA)
117
113
78
(NA)
94
113
77
(NA)
66
76
91
(NA)
78
76
82
(NA)
34
34
24
(NA)
35
34
20
(NA)
58
70
79
(NA)
60
70
74
(NA)
577
690
718
756
650
690
613
618
165
172
206
(NA)
176
172
175
(NA)
28
24
18
(NA)
27
24
16
(NA)
21
16
12
(NA)
20
16
12
(NA)
62
54
56
(NA)
58
54
42
(NA)
40
38
33
(NA)
38
38
32
(NA)
44
139
120
(NA)
74
139
128
(NA)
152
183
217
(NA)
170
183
164
(NA)
65
66
57
(NA)
66
66
45
(NA)
618
725
781
808
606
725
811
844
686
839
820
863
751
839
790
831
301
370
390
407
318
370
342
348
53
56
62
(NA)
43
56
50
(NA)
23
27
31
(NA)
27
27
23
(NA)
8
9
14
(NA)
7
9
22
(NA)
97
119
113
(NA)
107
119
105
(NA)
18
21
23
(NA)
21
21
20
(NA)
9
10
12
(NA)
9
10
9
(NA)
68
92
95
(NA)
76
92
80
(NA)
26
35
39
(NA)
29
35
36
(NA)
418
593
639
670
397
593
659
691
100
151
148
(NA)
102
151
141
(NA)
37
56
60
(NA)
43
56
56
(NA)
257
311
356
(NA)
227
311
380
(NA)
24
74
76
(NA)
24
74
83
(NA)
762 1,029 1,172 1,235
841 1,029 1,094 1,129
1,236 1,578 1,869 1,859 1,422 1,578 1,701 1,713
662
876 1,069 1,104
745
876
951
972
139
195
219
(NA)
176
195
177
(NA)
114
129
170
(NA)
102
129
174
(NA)
410
552
680
(NA)
467
552
604
(NA)
171
218
247
256
215
218
217
220
283
369
386
412
312
369
348
367
86
120
155
163
116
120
122
122
592
833 1,058 1,112
709
833
933
959
288
406
514
(NA)
326
406
462
(NA)
253
354
453
(NA)
322
354
392
(NA)
52
73
91
(NA)
62
73
79
(NA)
99
117
127
131
115
117
115
121
48
50
283
89
194
278
1,215
378
837

64
54
364
109
256
319
1,586
502
1,084

71
56
386
109
277
335
1,923
612
1,311

(NA)
(NA)
400
(NA)
(NA)
344
1,964
638
1,326

59
55
328
100
227
347
1,507
483
1,025

64
54
364
109
256
319
1,586
502
1,084

62
53
324
99
225
284
1,653
533
1,119

(NA)
(NA)
335
(NA)
(NA)
288
1,660
549
1,112

NA Not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, May 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov
/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/gdpindnewsrelease.htm>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 437

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 671. Gross Domestic Product by State in Current and Chained (2005)
Dollars: 2000 to 2009
[In billions of dollars (9,884.2 represents $9,884,200,000,000). For definition of gross domestic product by state or chained dollars,
see text, this section]
State
United States 1. . . . .

Current dollars
Chained (2005) dollars
2000
2005
2007
2008
2009
2000
2005
2007
2008
2009
9,884.2 12,554.5 13,969.4 14,269.8 14,027.7 11,223.1 12,554.5 13,144.1 13,101.2 12,781.2

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . .

116.0
25.9
161.9
68.1
1,317.3

151.1
37.8
223.0
88.2
1,692.0

165.8
44.5
260.4
97.2
1,881.8

170.7
49.7
261.5
100.2
1,925.5

168.4
46.7
254.1
100.8
1,884.5

132.6
34.1
179.3
77.3
1,470.4

151.1
37.8
223.0
88.2
1,692.0

155.7
40.7
245.2
91.2
1,775.1

156.6
41.1
241.6
91.8
1,779.2

152.5
44.6
230.9
91.8
1,736.9

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . .

171.9
163.9
41.0
58.3
481.1
294.5

217.4
197.1
54.7
82.8
680.3
363.2

243.9
222.1
58.5
92.4
758.0
399.9

255.2
222.2
58.4
96.8
747.8
402.1

250.9
220.4
59.3
99.2
729.5
393.4

195.2
185.3
46.9
69.8
548.8
329.7

217.4
197.1
54.7
82.8
680.3
363.2

229.6
209.9
55.6
85.8
712.6
378.3

234.0
205.3
54.0
87.8
690.0
372.7

232.1
198.4
54.2
87.8
660.9
356.3

Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.4
36.1
474.4
198.0
93.3

56.9
48.7
569.5
239.6
120.3

64.3
54.3
629.3
262.3
134.4

66.0
55.5
635.1
263.7
136.0

65.7
53.5
621.1
257.5
136.3

48.7
39.4
537.1
221.9
105.3

56.9
48.7
569.5
239.6
120.3

59.8
51.5
591.4
248.7
127.2

60.1
51.8
584.3
244.8
126.0

58.7
49.6
560.0
232.3
124.1

Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . .

85.7
113.1
131.4
36.4
183.0

105.2
139.3
197.2
45.6
248.1

121.0
151.8
204.7
49.4
273.2

124.9
155.9
211.5
50.5
280.5

123.4
154.6
208.4
50.6
283.8

97.9
128.3
168.0
41.6
209.7

105.2
139.3
197.2
45.6
248.1

113.8
142.5
184.4
46.5
256.6

114.9
143.1
181.1
46.5
258.4

112.5
138.7
192.1
45.5
256.0

Massachusetts. . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . .
Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . .

272.7
336.8
188.4
65.6
181.0

323.3
375.3
238.4
81.5
216.6

353.4
387.0
254.8
91.6
232.5

363.1
376.2
262.0
95.7
239.7

362.4
361.1
257.6
95.1
236.7

301.3
371.2
211.2
76.0
204.8

323.3
375.3
238.4
81.5
216.6

334.3
368.3
239.9
85.5
219.1

337.1
353.2
242.3
87.3
221.2

329.8
327.4
234.9
86.3
213.1

Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . .
New Jersey. . . . . . . . . .

21.6
57.2
75.9
44.1
349.3

30.1
72.5
114.8
53.7
430.0

35.1
82.2
132.3
57.9
473.6

35.8
84.6
132.1
58.8
484.3

35.6
84.6
125.1
58.9
478.4

25.8
65.2
88.1
48.7
393.3

30.1
72.5
114.8
53.7
430.0

32.2
77.1
122.6
54.9
446.1

31.9
77.5
119.8
54.8
446.2

32.0
76.5
111.9
53.7
434.0

New Mexico. . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . .
Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50.3
770.6
281.4
18.3
381.2

67.8
961.9
355.0
24.7
444.7

74.3
1,087.2
395.3
28.4
469.8

78.0
1,110.7
404.4
31.1
472.3

74.4
1,085.1
398.9
31.6
466.0

58.5
863.2
316.4
21.2
429.1

67.8
961.9
355.0
24.7
444.7

69.6
1,020.4
377.6
26.3
443.6

69.9
1,016.3
376.2
28.1
437.3

69.1
976.6
360.6
29.1
420.4

Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . .
South Carolina. . . . . . . .

91.3
113.0
395.8
33.5
115.4

120.7
143.3
482.3
44.2
141.9

139.9
167.2
533.2
47.2
157.6

151.5
169.5
546.1
47.6
159.7

154.3
165.2
547.9
47.6
158.0

110.3
121.2
452.4
38.4
130.8

120.7
143.3
482.3
44.2
141.9

129.5
162.9
499.8
44.4
148.0

133.3
164.5
500.5
43.8
146.8

147.0
158.5
492.0
42.9
140.7

South Dakota. . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.0
177.6
733.0
69.5
18.0

31.6
224.5
971.0
90.7
22.8

35.2
241.9
1,144.9
109.3
24.2

38.0
246.4
1,196.8
112.7
25.0

38.8
241.9
1,141.3
112.7
25.1

26.9
198.1
872.6
79.6
20.0

31.6
224.5
971.0
90.7
22.8

33.1
230.1
1,069.9
102.1
23.0

35.0
229.9
1,065.9
103.0
23.3

36.0
219.3
1,066.4
102.4
22.9

Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . .

261.9
227.8
41.4
177.6
17.0

356.9
279.4
52.0
218.9
26.2

389.3
325.5
57.8
238.2
33.5

400.5
336.3
61.3
241.2
38.9

406.3
336.3
62.3
239.1
37.5

298.2
259.1
49.6
199.2
23.1

356.9
279.4
52.0
218.9
26.2

367.0
306.3
53.1
225.5
29.7

369.8
311.0
54.3
224.1
31.4

367.4
305.8
54.8
215.7
35.5

For chained (2005) dollar estimates, states will not add to U.S. total.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Gross Domestic Product by State,” February 2011, <http://www.bea.gov
/regional/gsp/>.
1

438 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 672. Gross Domestic Product by Selected Industries and State: 2009
[In billions of dollars (14,027.7 represents $14,027,700,000,000). Preliminary data. For definition of gross domestic product by
state, see text, this section. Industries based on 2002 North American Industry Classification System; see text, Section 15]

State
United States. . . . . .

ManuTotal 1 facturing
14,027.7 1,584.8

Wholesale
trade
780.8

Retail
trade
819.6

Information
639.4

Finance
and
insurance
1,171.6

Real ProfesHealth
estate,
sional care and
rental,
and
social
and technical
assisleasing services
tance
1,868.7 1,068.5 1,057.9

Government 2
1,831.1

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . .

168.4
46.7
254.1
100.8
1,884.5

26.8
1.6
20.5
14.5
224.3

9.4
1.1
13.5
6.8
99.6

11.9
1.8
19.2
7.0
108.2

3.9
1.1
7.1
4.1
123.5

9.8
1.7
22.3
4.8
113.9

17.0
4.2
39.6
10.5
312.7

11.0
2.0
15.1
3.9
169.4

12.5
2.6
20.3
8.0
120.6

29.3
9.0
34.4
14.7
225.5

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . .

250.9
220.4
59.3
99.2
729.5
393.4

18.0
26.2
4.1
0.2
36.7
41.1

12.4
11.4
2.0
0.9
45.0
28.7

13.6
11.1
2.3
1.0
52.5
23.8

22.2
8.3
1.1
5.5
31.0
26.1

16.5
36.2
21.2
5.0
52.4
25.2

33.7
33.1
6.4
7.9
126.2
48.4

23.9
16.5
3.9
20.8
50.2
28.4

15.4
17.6
3.8
4.5
58.7
26.2

32.2
21.6
5.7
34.6
94.4
57.8

Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65.7
53.5
621.1
257.5
136.3

1.3
5.8
69.3
64.5
23.7

2.0
2.8
41.6
13.4
7.6

4.4
4.2
32.5
15.5
7.8

1.5
1.2
22.7
5.9
4.1

2.8
2.9
65.4
17.3
18.4

12.1
7.0
82.9
26.0
13.7

3.2
3.9
54.9
10.6
4.5

4.3
4.2
45.5
21.0
9.5

15.8
8.0
64.1
27.7
16.2

Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . .

123.4
154.6
208.4
50.6
283.8

16.9
25.1
41.8
5.3
15.4

7.8
9.6
9.3
2.5
13.3

7.7
9.6
12.7
4.2
15.3

7.1
4.2
4.3
1.3
10.5

8.0
8.7
7.9
3.8
17.0

12.3
14.5
18.4
7.2
48.7

6.5
6.9
9.8
2.7
30.6

9.5
13.3
13.2
6.0
22.5

18.8
25.4
24.3
7.3
52.6

Massachusetts. . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . .
Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . .

362.4
361.1
257.6
95.1
236.7

33.3
51.7
32.0
16.3
27.7

18.9
21.3
16.7
4.4
14.4

16.1
23.7
13.8
7.2
15.2

17.4
9.3
9.3
2.0
12.7

39.1
24.4
26.2
4.7
16.0

52.9
47.6
33.3
8.8
25.9

43.0
28.1
16.4
3.5
15.7

36.4
32.9
23.9
7.0
20.0

33.9
46.4
28.0
17.8
31.4

Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . .
New Jersey. . . . . . . . . .

35.6
84.6
125.1
58.9
478.4

2.0
9.2
5.3
6.6
38.8

1.8
4.8
4.7
3.4
35.3

2.3
4.9
7.9
4.3
27.7

0.9
2.7
2.4
2.2
22.3

2.0
7.8
13.4
5.3
42.0

4.4
8.4
17.4
9.2
83.9

1.8
4.3
6.2
4.3
44.4

3.4
6.5
6.7
5.8
36.4

5.9
11.6
14.0
6.2
54.0

New Mexico. . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . .
Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74.4
1,085.1
398.9
31.6
466.0

4.1
58.8
72.9
2.8
73.4

2.6
52.6
20.7
2.3
27.7

4.8
52.8
21.3
2.0
29.5

2.2
77.6
12.6
1.0
13.5

2.9
168.5
44.0
2.2
44.1

9.0
158.0
41.6
3.5
52.7

6.5
100.7
21.5
1.1
28.2

5.7
85.2
27.8
2.7
42.6

15.4
123.4
60.5
4.4
55.4

Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . .
South Carolina. . . . . . . .

154.3
165.2
547.9
47.6
158.0

17.6
31.6
68.5
4.0
24.2

7.0
10.0
31.3
2.3
8.5

9.0
8.1
30.4
2.5
11.5

4.3
5.4
20.5
1.9
4.3

7.4
9.2
49.9
5.7
8.7

13.9
23.5
67.6
7.2
18.8

6.3
8.6
43.9
2.7
8.0

10.0
13.5
55.1
4.8
10.2

26.4
21.4
56.4
6.4
28.6

South Dakota. . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.8
241.9
1,141.3
112.7
25.1

3.3
34.9
146.8
13.0
2.9

2.1
15.6
74.2
5.3
1.2

2.5
17.9
65.2
7.6
2.0

0.9
8.2
47.5
3.9
0.7

8.1
17.3
75.2
12.0
1.6

3.5
26.5
106.3
14.1
3.5

1.1
14.7
80.0
7.4
1.6

3.3
24.0
69.9
6.6
2.7

4.6
28.3
139.5
15.9
3.7

Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . .

406.3
336.3
62.3
239.1
37.5

30.9
38.9
5.6
42.3
2.3

15.8
18.1
2.8
13.2
1.2

20.9
22.1
4.4
14.1
1.8

19.4
28.2
1.4
7.6
0.5

29.6
17.3
3.0
21.8
1.0

56.2
49.1
6.0
30.1
3.1

52.8
22.7
2.5
11.1
1.0

23.9
22.5
6.0
22.1
1.4

76.6
50.6
12.4
27.5
5.0

Includes industries not shown separately. 2 Includes federal civilian and military and state and local government.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Gross Domestic Product by State,” February 2011, <http://www.bea.gov
/regional/gsp/>.
1

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 439

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 673. Relation of GDP, GNP, Net National Product, National Income,
Personal Income, Disposable Personal Income, and Personal Saving:
1990 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (5,801 represents $5,801,000,000,000). For definitions, see text, this section. Minus sign (–) indicates deficit or
net disbursement]
Item
Gross domestic product (GDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plus: Income receipts from the rest of the world. . . . . . . .
Less: Income payments to the rest of the world . . . . . . . .
Equals: Gross national product (GNP) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Consumption of fixed capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equals: Net national product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Statistical discrepancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equals: National income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Corporate profits 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Taxes on production and imports less subsidies. . . . . . .
Contributions for government social insurance. . . . . . . .
Net interest and miscellaneous payments on assets . . .
Business current transfer payments (net). . . . . . . . . . . .
Current surplus of government enterprises. . . . . . . . . . .
Wage accruals less disbursements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plus: Personal income receipts on assets. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal current transfer receipts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equals: Personal income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Personal current taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equals: Disposable personal income . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Personal outlays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equals: Personal saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990
5,801
189
154
5,835
691
5,144
84
5,060
434
398
410
444
40
2

921
595
4,847
593
4,254
3,977
277

2000
9,952
381
343
9,989
1,184
8,805
–134
8,939
819
663
706
539
87
9

1,361
1,083
8,559
1,232
7,327
7,114
213

2005
12,638
573
476
12,736
1,541
11,194
–80
11,274
1,456
869
873
543
96
–4
5
1,542
1,509
10,486
1,209
9,277
9,150
128

2006
13,399
721
649
13,471
1,661
11,811
–221
12,031
1,608
936
922
652
83
–4
1
1,830
1,605
11,268
1,352
9,916
9,681
235

2007
14,062
871
748
14,185
1,768
12,418
21
12,396
1,511
973
960
732
103
–12
–6
2,057
1,719
11,912
1,489
10,424
10,209
215

2008
14,369
839
665
14,544
1,849
12,694
137
12,558
1,263
992
987
813
122
–17
–5
2,109
1,879
12,391
1,438
10,953
10,505
448

2009
14,119
630
484
14,265
1,861
12,404
179
12,225
1,258
964
970
784
134
–13
5
1,920
2,133
12,175
1,140
11,035
10,380
655

2010
14,660
706
518
14,849
1,869
12,980
152
12,828
1,625
1,000
1,004
738
132
–13

1,908
2,296
12,547
1,167
11,380
10,721
659

– Represents or rounds to zero. 1 Corporate profits with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

Table 674. Gross Saving and Investment: 1990 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (918 represents $918,000,000,000)]
Item
Gross saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net private saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undistributed corporate profits with IVA and
CCA 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage accruals less disbursements. . . . . . . . .
Net government saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption of fixed capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Domestic business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Households and institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross domestic investment, capital acct.
transactions, and net lending. . . . . . . . . . .
Gross domestic investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross private domestic investment. . . . . . . . . .
Gross government investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capital account transactions (net) 2. . . . . . . . . . .
Net lending or net borrowing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Statistical discrepancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Addenda:
Gross private saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross government saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net domestic investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross saving as a percentage of gross
national income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net saving as a percentage of gross
national income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990
918
226
397
277

2000
1,800
616
389
213

2005
1,903
362
619
128

2006
2,174
514
667
235

2007
2,014
246
479
215

2008
1,785
–64
600
448

2009
1,534
–327
945
655

2010
1,704
–165
1,135
659

120

–170
–176
6
691
560
470
91
131
68
63

176

227
185
41
1,184
987
824
163
198
88
110

486
5
–257
–283
26
1,541
1,291
1,046
245
251
100
150

430
1
–153
–204
51
1,661
1,391
1,123
268
269
107
163

271
–6
–233
–245
12
1,768
1,476
1,191
286
291
113
179

157
–5
–664
–616
–47
1,849
1,537
1,245
292
312
120
193

284
5
–1,272
–1,252
–20
1,861
1,536
1,245
291
325
124
201

476

–1,299
–1,332
33
1,869
1,534
1,242
293
335
130
205

1,002
1,077
861
216
7
–82
84

1,666
2,077
1,772
304

–411
–134

1,824
2,564
2,172
392
–13
–728
–80

1,954
2,752
2,327
425
2
–801
–221

2,035
2,752
2,295
457

–717
21

1,922
2,592
2,097
496
–5
–665
137

1,713
2,093
1,589
503
1
–380
179

1,856
2,337
1,828
510
1
–482
152

957
–40
–109
69
386

1,376
424
273
151
892

1,910
–7
–183
176
1,023

2,058
117
–97
214
1,092

1,955
58
–133
191
984

2,137
–351
–497
145
743

2,480
–947
–1,127
181
232

2,669
–964
–1,203
238
468

16.0

17.8

14.9

15.9

14.2

12.4

10.9

11.6

3.9

6.1

2.8

3.8

1.7

–0.4

–2.3

–1.1

– Represents or rounds to zero. 1 IVA and CCA = Inventory valuation adjustment and capital consumption adjustment.
2
Consists of capital transfers and the acquisition and disposal of nonproduced nonfinancial assets.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

440 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 675. Flow of Funds Accounts—Composition of Individuals’ Savings:
1990 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (518.6 represents $518,600,000,000). Combined statement for households, farm business, and nonfarm
noncorporate business. Minus sign (–) indicates decrease]
Composition of savings
Net acquisition of financial assets. . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checkable deposits and currency. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time and savings deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Money market fund shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Securities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open market paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. savings bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Treasury securities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agency and GSE-backed securities 1 . . . . . . . .
Municipal securities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corporate and foreign bonds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corporate equities 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mutual fund shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Life insurance reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pension fund reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous and other assets . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross investment in tangible assets. . . . . . . . .
Minus: Consumption of fixed capital . . . . . . . . . . .
Equals: Net investment in tangible assets. . . .
Net increase in liabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mortgage debt on nonfarm homes . . . . . . . . . . .
Other mortgage debt 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Policy loans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security credit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other liabilities 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal saving with consumer durables 4 . . . . . .
Personal saving without consumer durables 4. . . .
Personal saving (NIPA, excludes consumer
durables) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990
518.6
1.4
–8.5
33.1
39.2
200.9
5.8
8.5
88.8
35.3
34.7
47.1
–50.8
31.5
26.5
191.8
34.1
797.3
571.2
226.1
229.9
207.1
–1.9
15.1
4.1
–3.7
9.3
530.5
450.8

2000
371.0
7.6
–74.2
348.8
152.4
–633.3
12.4
–1.7
–205.8
34.1
4.5
84.3
–637.5
76.3
50.2
263.0
256.5
1,492.4
913.5
578.9
929.5
422.8
108.8
176.5
2.8
7.2
211.3
56.0
–181.8

2005
1,209.1
2.4
–50.5
510.5
47.6
14.4
14.7
0.7
–97.3
97.0
78.7
119.6
–372.5
173.5
16.1
275.4
393.2
2,037.9
1,208.9
829.0
1,701.0
1,106.5
118.1
100.4
0.8
–31.6
406.8
302.1
62.5

2006
1,232.5
5.2
30.9
506.8
168.4
–309.3
19.0
–2.7
–90.2
–65.0
52.1
197.0
–585.0
165.4
65.6
250.6
514.3
2,067.3
1,281.0
786.3
1,847.1
1,064.9
235.8
95.4
3.3
59.7
387.9
188.5
–39.2

2007
1,528.7
15.4
–5.0
492.1
235.4
–112.6
–10.2
–6.0
–34.5
335.5
23.5
218.4
–847.9
208.5
34.2
200.8
668.5
2,010.0
1,352.4
657.6
1,511.4
708.8
299.0
139.3
3.6
33.4
327.3
677.9
458.9

2008
723.4
–24.1
240.5
193.0
235.1
–159.4
–101.3
–2.4
151.8
95.6
7.0
–213.3
–111.9
15.2
67.0
112.7
58.6
1,801.5
1,393.9
407.5
302.0
–96.3
204.3
38.8
5.9
–160.7
310.0
817.0
689.2

2009
–115.9
–10.3
33.5
61.9
–274.6
209.1
28.7
–2.8
383.4
–624.6
106.7
–150.3
104.4
363.7
26.5
111.6
–273.8
1,576.4
1,404.0
172.3
–412.6
–197.6
–57.7
–115.3
0.7
38.1
–80.9
457.0
393.9

2010
460.3
4.9
–58.5
233.4
–185.0
330.3
28.8
–3.3
270.2
–5.1
85.2
–228.7
–103.2
286.4
62.6
118.6
–46.0
1,639.0
1,388.3
250.8
–320.2
–304.8
–104.8
–44.2
3.5
75.2
55.0
1,006.4
870.5

276.7

213.1

127.7

235.0

214.7

447.9

655.3

655.7

GSE = government-sponsored enterprises. 2 Only directly held and those in closed-end and exchange-traded funds. Other
equities are included in mutual funds and life insurance and pension reserves. 3 Includes corporate farms. 4 Flow of Funds measure.
5
National Income and Product Accounts measure.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, “Federal Reserve Statistical Release, Z.1, Flow of Funds
Accounts of the United States,” March, 2011, <http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/z1/20100311/>.
1

Table 676. Government Consumption Expenditures and Gross Investment by
Level of Government and Type: 2000 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (1,731.0 represents $1,731,000,000,000). Government consumption expenditures are services (such as
education and national defense) produced by government that are valued at their cost of production. Excludes government sales
to other sectors and government own-account investment (construction and software). Gross government investment consists
of general government and government enterprise expenditures for fixed assets; inventory investment is included in government
consumption expenditures. For explanation of national income and chained dollars, see text, Section 13]
Item
Government consumption expenditures
and gross investment, total . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . . . .
Gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondefense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gross investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2000
1,731.0
1,426.6
304.3
189.6
114.7
576.1
496.0
80.1
13.7
66.4
371.0
321.8
49.2
5.4
43.8
205.0
174.2
30.9
8.3
22.6
1,154.9
930.6
224.3
176.0
48.3

Current Dollars
2005
2009
2,369.9
1,977.9
392.0
246.5
145.5
876.3
765.8
110.5
15.7
94.7
589.0
514.8
74.2
7.5
66.8
287.3
251.0
36.3
8.3
28.0
1,493.6
1,212.0
281.6
230.8
50.8

2,914.9
2,411.5
503.4
316.6
186.8
1,139.6
987.1
152.4
28.0
124.4
771.6
664.1
107.5
15.9
91.5
368.0
323.0
45.0
12.1
32.9
1,775.3
1,424.4
351.0
288.5
62.4

2010
3,000.2
2,490.6
509.6
309.2
200.5
1,214.3
1,043.4
170.9
34.2
136.7
817.7
698.2
119.5
19.0
100.4
396.6
345.2
51.4
15.2
36.2
1,786.0
1,447.2
338.7
275.0
63.8

Chained (2005) dollars
2000
2005
2009
2,097.8
1,750.6
347.5
239.4
109.8
698.1
616.4
82.0
17.2
65.2
453.5
403.9
50.3
6.9
43.6
244.4
212.4
31.6
10.4
21.5
1,400.1
1,133.7
266.6
222.2
44.3

2,369.9
1,977.9
392.0
246.5
145.5
876.3
765.8
110.5
15.7
94.7
589.0
514.8
74.2
7.5
66.8
287.3
251.0
36.3
8.3
28.0
1,493.6
1,212.0
281.6
230.8
50.8

2,542.6
2,112.3
430.3
248.6
184.5
1,027.6
882.3
145.9
23.6
121.9
693.0
591.7
101.9
13.5
87.9
334.6
290.6
44.0
10.1
33.9
1,518.8
1,232.1
286.8
225.4
62.5

2010
2,568.3
2,132.2
436.1
243.5
197.6
1,076.9
915.2
163.1
29.1
133.1
720.2
608.7
112.6
16.2
95.7
356.7
306.6
50.4
12.9
37.3
1,497.4
1,220.0
277.6
215.2
64.3

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 441

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 677. Personal Consumption Expenditures by Function: 2000 to 2009
[In billions of dollars (6,830.4 represents $6,830,400,000,000). For definition of “chained” dollars, see text, this section]
Function
Personal consumption expenditures 1. . . . . .
Food and nonalcoholic beverages purchased for
off-premises consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alcoholic beverages purchased for off-premises
consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clothing, footwear, and related services. . . . . . . . .
Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Footwear 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Housing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rental of tenant-occupied nonfarm housing 3. . . .
Imputed rental of owner-occupied nonfarm
housing 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Household utilities and fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water supply and sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electricity, gas, and other fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furnishings, household equipment, and routine
household maintenance 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture, furnishings, and floor coverings 5 . . . . .
Household appliances 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools and equipment for house and garden . . . . .
Medical products, appliances, and equipment . . . .
Pharmaceutical and other medical products 7. . . .
Therapeutic appliances and equipment. . . . . . . . .
Outpatient services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physician services 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dental services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paramedical services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospital and nursing home services. . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New motor vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net purchases of used motor vehicles . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle operation 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle parts and accessories. . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle fuels, lubricants, and fluids . . . . . .
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair . . . . . . . .
Public transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telephone and facsimile equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .
Postal and delivery services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recreation 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video and audio equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information processing equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services related to video and audio goods and
computers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sports and recreational goods and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Membership clubs, sports centers, parks,
theaters, and museums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magazines, newspapers, books, and stationery. .
Pets, pet products, and related services. . . . . . . .
Education 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Higher education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodations 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal care 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal items 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social services and religious activities 12. . . . . . . . .
Legal services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Funeral and burial services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tobacco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net foreign travel and expenditures abroad by
U.S. residents 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign travel by U.S. residents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Expenditures in the United States
by nonresidents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2000
6,830.4

Current dollars
2005
2008
2009
8,819.0 10,104.5 10,001.3

Chained (2005) dollars
2000
2005
2008
2009
7,608.1 8,819.0 9,265.0 9,153.9

463.1

569.5

662.6

664.0

519.1

569.5

586.6

581.9

74.0
297.3
250.4
46.9
1,010.5
227.9

95.1
331.8
280.3
51.5
1,328.9
264.7

112.1
352.1
297.0
55.1
1,533.2
326.3

113.5
339.5
286.2
53.3
1,581.6
346.1

81.1
276.8
230.3
46.6
1,174.2
267.9

95.1
331.8
280.3
51.5
1,328.9
264.7

104.6
357.6
303.2
54.4
1,389.8
291.8

102.7
341.4
290.0
51.4
1,407.8
302.7

768.9
204.0
50.4
153.5

1,044.5
275.0
63.6
211.4

1,184.5
328.1
76.5
251.5

1,211.9
317.6
80.0
237.6

890.7
265.4
61.9
203.4

1,044.5
275.0
63.6
211.4

1,080.1
265.6
65.5
200.1

1,087.1
269.7
64.5
205.3

342.5
114.4
37.6
17.1
191.2
159.0
32.2
436.6
229.2
63.6
143.8
481.8
798.4
321.4
210.7
110.7
404.0
41.8
172.9
127.4
73.0
5.5
9.9
639.9
83.1
44.1

423.9
143.0
47.6
22.3
285.5
247.3
38.2
636.5
332.4
89.0
215.1
679.5
979.3
361.6
248.9
112.7
541.0
48.0
283.8
154.9
76.8
7.5
9.3
807.4
107.8
55.9

445.2
141.1
49.3
22.6
335.5
291.2
44.3
745.4
382.5
104.5
258.4
801.9
1,033.5
291.0
184.9
106.1
658.0
52.2
383.3
159.7
84.5
9.0
9.8
916.0
115.6
65.8

419.5
130.0
46.4
20.8
349.8
305.9
43.9
772.4
396.2
105.0
271.1
850.9
890.7
269.4
165.3
104.1
544.3
50.3
280.8
154.4
77.0
9.7
9.0
897.1
107.1
64.7

332.4
106.2
36.7
17.1
224.0
189.6
34.1
490.2
248.7
79.7
162.6
592.8
901.0
311.4
202.8
108.5
524.9
45.2
261.3
148.7
72.7
3.3
11.9
600.6
59.1
(NA)

423.9
143.0
47.6
22.3
285.5
247.3
38.2
636.5
332.4
89.0
215.1
679.5
979.3
361.6
248.9
112.7
541.0
48.0
283.8
154.9
76.8
7.5
9.3
807.4
107.8
(NA)

441.9
147.2
45.8
22.5
311.9
269.8
42.2
690.1
360.2
89.8
240.5
720.0
890.6
301.5
191.0
110.4
511.6
46.1
265.3
141.4
72.9
11.1
8.5
937.0
156.4
(NA)

414.3
136.3
42.6
20.6
316.0
274.5
41.4
699.2
364.3
87.6
247.9
741.2
846.1
280.7
169.1
111.9
491.3
42.8
265.3
131.3
68.5
12.6
7.6
929.3
163.7
(NA)

57.2

75.7

92.0

93.4

66.9

75.7

85.4

85.1

147.9

188.4

203.0

196.9

135.6

188.4

207.3

202.3

91.9
81.0
39.7
134.3
76.8
354.9
55.2
370.0
199.9
132.2
63.7
85.0
65.4
15.8
68.5

110.6
93.1
53.1
180.7
108.8
455.3
70.0
427.2
285.4
169.1
72.6
118.7
89.7
19.0
71.1

129.3
104.9
65.7
220.5
135.1
527.3
84.0
534.0
314.1
193.9
79.1
141.7
104.0
19.0
75.7

126.5
105.1
67.1
232.9
145.5
527.7
75.9
505.3
308.6
193.1
77.4
145.7
102.5
18.9
87.9

106.9
84.8
45.8
188.2
109.9
408.0
62.4
405.0
259.6
142.8
57.3
98.7
81.7
19.2
80.3

110.6
93.1
53.1
180.7
108.8
455.3
70.0
427.2
285.4
169.1
72.6
118.7
89.7
19.0
71.1

117.7
100.9
56.3
185.1
112.1
472.1
75.4
486.2
284.9
179.5
69.1
129.4
91.9
16.4
64.7

113.9
97.9
54.0
185.2
113.9
456.5
71.2
470.1
273.1
174.4
66.6
131.0
88.2
15.7
60.7

–13.3
84.3

–0.1
99.8

–12.5
119.8

–11.3
105.4

–3.0
106.8

–0.1
99.8

–17.4
99.5

–10.5
95.3

100.8

104.9

138.7

124.5

115.0

104.9

121.4

111.8

NA Not available. 1 Includes other expenditures not shown separately. 2 Consists of shoes and other footwear, and of repair
and hire of footwear. 3 Consists of space rent (see footnote 4) and rent for appliances, furnishings, and furniture. 4 Consists of rent
for space and for heating and plumbing facilities, water heaters, lighting fixtures, kitchen cabinets, linoleum, storm windows and
doors, window screens, and screen doors, but excludes rent for appliances and furniture and purchases of fuel and electricity.
5
Includes clocks, lamps, lighting fixtures, and other household decorative items; also includes repair of furniture, furnishings, and
floor coverings. 6 Consists of major household appliances, small electric household appliances, and repair of household appliances.
7
Excludes drug preparations and related products dispensed by physicians, hospitals, and other medical services. 8 Consists of
offices of physicians, health maintenance organization medical centers, and freestanding ambulatory surgical and emergency
centers. 9 Consists of transient hotels, motels, other traveler accommodations, clubs, and housing at schools. 10 Consists of
cosmetics and toiletries, electric appliances for personal care, hairdressing salons, and miscellaneous personal care services.
11
Consists of jewelry, watches, luggage, and similar personal items. 12 Consists of household purchases of goods and services
from business, government, and nonprofit institutions providing social services and religious activities. Purchases from nonprofit
establishments exclude unrelated sales, secondary sales, and sales to businesses, government, and the rest of the world, but
include membership dues and fees.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

442 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 678. Personal Income and Its Disposition: 1990 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (4,847 represents $4,847,000,000,000), except as indicated. For definition of personal income and chained
dollars, see text, this section]
Item
Personal income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compensation of employees, received. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary disbursements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplements to wages and salaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proprietors’ income 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rental income of persons 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal income receipts on assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal interest income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal dividend income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal current transfer receipts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government social benefits to persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance
benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other current transfer receipts, from business (net) . . . .
Less: Contributions for government social insurance . . . .
Less: Personal current taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990
4,847
3,326
2,741
585
365
32
333
50
921
752
169
595
573
352
22
410
593

621
42
706
1,232

845
26
873
1,209

943
21
922
1,352

Equals: Disposable personal income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less: Personal outlays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal consumption expenditures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal interest payments 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal current transfer payments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,254
3,977
3,836
111
31

7,327
7,114
6,830
200
83

9,277
9,150
8,819
211
120

9,916 10,424 10,953 11,035 11,380
9,681 10,209 10,505 10,380 10,721
9,323 9,806 10,105 10,001 10,349
230
261
246
217
199
128
142
154
161
173

Equals: Personal saving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal saving as a percentage of disposable personal
income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

277

213

128

235

215

448

655

659

6.5

2.9

1.4

2.4

2.1

4.1

5.9

5.8

5,896

8,162

9,277

9,651

Addenda:
Disposable personal income:
Total, billions of chained (2005) dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Per capita:
Current dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chained (2005) dollars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
8,559 10,486 11,268 11,912 12,391 12,175 12,547
5,789 7,060 7,476 7,862 8,066 7,807 7,991
4,828 5,701 6,069 6,422 6,559 6,274 6,405
961 1,359 1,407 1,440 1,507 1,533 1,586
818 1,070 1,133 1,090 1,102 1,012 1,055
30
44
29
38
51
31
45
788 1,026 1,104 1,053 1,051
982 1,010
215
178
147
144
222
274
301
1,361 1,542 1,830 2,057 2,109 1,920 1,908
984
987 1,128 1,265 1,315 1,222 1,195
377
555
702
792
795
697
713
1,083 1,509 1,605 1,719 1,879 2,133 2,296
1,041 1,483 1,584 1,688 1,843 2,097 2,259
1,003
31
960
1,489

1,068
37
987
1,438

1,165
36
970
1,140

1,214
37
1,004
1,167

9,874 10,043 10,100 10,241

17,004 25,944 31,318 33,157 34,512 35,931 35,888 36,697
23,568 28,899 31,318 32,271 32,693 32,946 32,847 33,025

1
With inventory valuation adjustments and capital consumption adjustment. 2 Consists of nonmortgage interest paid by
households.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

Table 679. Selected Per Capita Income and Product Measures in Current and
Chained (2005) Dollars: 1960 to 2010
[In dollars. Based on U.S. Census Bureau estimated population including Armed Forces abroad; based on quarterly averages.
For explanation of chained dollars, see text, this section]
Current dollars

Chained (2005) dollars
Personal
consumption
expenditures
1,836
3,161
4,786
7,710
11,394

Gross
domestic
product
15,661
20,820
22,592
25,640
28,717

Gross
national
product
15,770
20,964
22,786
25,967
28,904

Disposable
personal
income
10,865
15,158
17,091
18,863
21,571

Personal
consumption
expenditures
9,871
13,361
14,881
16,538
19,037

1960. . . . . . . .
1970. . . . . . . .
1975. . . . . . . .
1980. . . . . . . .
1985. . . . . . . .

Gross
domestic
product
2,912
5,063
7,583
12,243
17,683

Gross
national
product
2,930
5,094
7,643
12,394
17,794

Personal
income
2,275
4,089
6,180
10,107
14,661

Disposable
personal
income
2,020
3,586
5,497
8,794
12,911

1990. . . . . . . .
1993. . . . . . . .
1994. . . . . . . .
1995. . . . . . . .

23,185
25,616
26,893
27,813

23,323
25,736
26,985
27,924

19,373
21,393
22,299
23,260

17,004
18,909
19,678
20,470

15,331
17,226
18,033
18,708

32,112
32,747
33,671
34,112

32,304
32,900
33,784
34,245

23,568
24,044
24,517
24,951

21,249
21,904
22,466
22,803

1996. . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . .
1999. . . . . . . .
2000. . . . . . . .

29,062
30,526
31,843
33,486
35,237

29,180
30,612
31,905
33,585
35,370

24,439
25,648
27,251
28,321
30,308

21,355
22,255
23,534
24,356
25,944

19,553
20,408
21,432
22,707
24,185

34,977
36,102
37,238
38,592
39,750

35,115
36,202
37,312
38,708
39,901

25,475
26,061
27,299
27,805
28,899

23,325
23,899
24,861
25,923
26,939

2001. . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . .
2004. . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . .

36,049
36,935
38,310
40,435
42,664

36,231
37,106
38,546
40,746
42,992

31,133
31,444
32,244
33,857
35,398

26,805
27,799
28,805
30,287
31,318

25,054
25,819
26,832
28,228
29,771

39,768
40,096
40,711
41,784
42,664

39,969
40,283
40,964
42,107
42,992

29,299
29,976
30,442
31,193
31,318

27,385
27,841
28,357
29,072
29,771

2006. . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . .
2009. . . . . . . .
2010. . . . . . . .

44,805
46,558
47,138
45,918
47,275

45,047
46,967
47,710
46,394
47,883

37,679
39,441
40,649
39,595
40,459

33,157
34,512
35,931
35,888
36,697

31,174
32,469
33,148
32,526
33,373

43,391
43,801
43,397
41,890
42,722

43,625
44,183
43,922
42,327
43,272

32,271
32,693
32,946
32,847
33,025

30,341
30,757
30,394
29,770
30,034

Year

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/national
/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp?Selected=N>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 443

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 680. Personal Income in Current and Constant (2005) Dollars by State:
2000 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (8,554.9 represents $8,554,900,000,000). Represents a measure of income received from all sources during
the calendar year by residents of each state. Data exclude federal employees overseas and U.S. residents employed by private
U.S. firms on temporary foreign assignment. Totals may differ from those in Tables 673, 678, and 679]
Current dollars
State

Constant (2005) dollars 1

2010,
2000
2005
2008
2009
prel.
8,554.9 10,476.7 12,380.2 12,168.2 12,530.1

2010,
2000
2005
2008
2009
prel.
9,529.0 10,476.7 11,351.7 11,137.1 11,276.5

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . .

107.2
19.2
135.7
60.5
1,135.3

135.6
24.6
188.2
77.5
1,387.7

158.7
30.6
224.0
93.5
1,604.2

157.3
30.2
219.0
93.4
1,567.0

162.2
31.4
223.7
96.7
1,605.8

119.4
21.3
151.1
67.4
1,264.6

135.6
24.6
188.2
77.5
1,387.7

145.5
28.0
205.4
85.7
1,470.9

144.0
27.6
200.5
85.5
1,434.2

146.0
28.2
201.3
87.0
1,445.1

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147.1
143.0
24.4
23.1
466.6

179.7
168.7
31.1
32.2
633.2

215.0
200.4
35.6
40.6
739.4

210.5
194.5
35.0
41.3
722.3

215.3
200.2
35.9
42.7
738.4

163.8
159.3
27.2
25.8
519.8

179.7
168.8
31.1
32.0
633.2

197.1
183.7
32.7
37.3
678.0

192.7
178.1
32.1
37.8
661.1

193.7
180.1
32.3
38.5
664.5

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234.8
35.2
32.1
405.9
167.3

292.6
45.3
42.2
472.2
195.6

342.9
54.7
50.5
554.8
223.7

335.5
54.6
49.2
540.4
218.5

343.8
55.8
50.6
553.8
226.6

261.6
39.2
35.7
452.1
186.3

292.5
45.3
42.2
472.1
195.5

314.4
50.2
46.3
508.7
205.1

307.0
50.0
45.1
494.6
200.0

309.4
50.2
45.5
498.4
203.9

Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79.9
76.7
100.4
105.3
34.1

95.4
90.9
119.0
135.3
42.0

114.4
112.0
138.5
169.8
48.3

113.2
110.4
139.2
169.0
48.2

116.6
113.4
144.7
174.3
49.5

89.0
85.4
111.8
117.3
38.0

95.5
90.9
119.2
135.3
42.0

104.9
102.7
127.0
155.7
44.3

103.6
101.1
127.4
154.7
44.1

104.9
102.0
130.2
156.9
44.6

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . .

184.2
243.1
292.6
160.8
61.4

237.5
282.4
325.7
193.9
77.8

274.3
333.8
353.1
226.1
90.3

275.0
327.4
342.1
220.4
89.7

283.0
337.5
351.8
227.2
92.5

205.1
270.8
325.9
179.1
68.4

237.1
282.4
325.7
194.0
77.7

251.5
306.1
323.8
207.4
82.8

251.7
299.7
313.1
201.7
82.1

254.7
303.8
316.6
204.5
83.3

Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . .

156.4
21.2
49.0
62.5
42.3

186.7
28.2
60.1
91.8
50.0

219.7
34.1
71.6
104.7
57.8

216.6
34.0
70.7
99.6
56.5

221.5
34.9
72.2
99.9
58.0

174.2
23.6
54.6
69.7
47.1

186.8
28.2
60.1
91.8
50.0

201.4
31.3
65.6
96.0
53.0

198.3
31.1
64.7
91.1
51.7

199.3
31.4
65.0
89.9
52.2

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . .

326.0
41.4
657.9
225.5
16.4

379.9
55.3
786.6
277.7
20.6

448.0
66.8
937.2
330.0
26.6

435.2
66.9
909.0
327.2
26.4

446.5
69.7
946.1
339.8
27.3

363.1
46.1
732.8
251.2
18.3

379.7
55.3
786.5
277.7
20.5

410.8
61.2
859.3
302.6
24.4

398.3
61.2
832.0
299.5
24.2

401.8
62.7
851.4
305.8
24.6

Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . .

326.1
85.0
98.5
369.9
31.0

372.1
107.6
117.7
432.0
38.6

414.5
134.5
139.3
508.2
44.1

408.7
132.1
138.5
506.4
43.6

419.9
136.6
142.1
522.7
44.8

363.2
94.7
109.7
412.0
34.5

371.9
107.6
117.6
432.2
38.6

380.0
123.3
127.7
466.0
40.4

374.1
120.9
126.7
463.5
39.9

377.9
123.0
127.9
470.4
40.3

South Carolina. . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100.9
20.0
152.2
597.0
55.0

124.4
25.8
187.6
756.7
71.5

148.9
31.7
219.2
968.2
88.8

148.3
31.2
215.8
956.8
87.9

153.4
31.6
224.1
993.1
90.1

112.4
22.2
169.6
665.0
61.3

124.4
25.8
187.7
756.7
71.5

136.5
29.1
201.0
887.8
81.4

135.7
28.5
197.5
875.7
80.5

138.0
28.5
201.6
893.7
81.1

Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . .

17.2
224.8
191.6
40.1
156.6
14.5

20.7
294.2
230.0
48.1
186.6
20.0

24.5
348.3
287.0
57.2
213.3
27.0

24.4
347.3
285.7
58.4
211.3
26.3

25.2
358.1
293.0
60.5
218.6
27.0

19.1
250.4
213.4
44.6
174.4
16.1

20.7
294.7
230.1
48.1
186.5
20.0

22.4
319.3
263.2
52.5
195.6
24.8

22.3
317.9
261.5
53.4
193.4
24.1

22.7
322.3
263.6
54.4
196.7
24.3

United States. . . . . . .

1
Constant dollar estimates are computed by the U.S. Census Bureau using the national implicit price deflator for personal
consumption expenditures from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Any regional differences in the rate of inflation are not reflected
in these constant dollar estimates.
Source: Except as noted, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011, and unpublished data.
See also <http://www.bea.gov/regional/spi>.

444 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 681. Personal Income Per Capita in Current and Constant (2005)
Dollars by State: 1980 to 2010
[In dollars, except as indicated. 2010 preliminary. See headnote, Table 680]
Current dollars
State

Constant (2005) dollars 1
1980
21,635

1990
26,826

2000
33,770

2010,
prel
36,524

Income rank
2000
2010
(X)
(X)

United States. . . . . . .

1980
10,091

1990
19,354

2000
30,318

2010,
prel.
40,584

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . .

7,825
14,975
9,484
7,521
11,928

15,618
22,594
16,806
14,402
21,380

24,069
30,531
26,262
22,577
33,398

33,945
44,174
34,999
33,150
43,104

16,777
32,107
20,334
16,125
25,574

21,647
31,317
23,294
19,962
29,634

26,810
34,008
29,252
25,148
37,201

30,549
39,754
31,497
29,833
38,792

44
15
37
48
8

42
8
40
46
12

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10,714
12,321
10,756
12,218
9,921

19,377
26,198
21,209
26,015
19,437

33,977
41,920
31,007
40,484
29,080

42,802
56,001
39,962
71,044
39,272

22,971
26,417
23,061
26,196
21,271

26,858
36,312
29,397
36,058
26,941

37,846
46,693
34,538
45,094
32,391

38,520
50,398
35,964
63,936
35,343

7
1
13
(X)
21

14
1
20
(X)
24

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,408
11,394
8,637
10,980
9,353

17,563
21,818
15,603
20,835
17,454

28,531
29,071
24,683
32,636
27,460

35,490
41,021
32,257
43,159
34,943

18,027
24,429
18,518
23,542
20,053

24,343
30,241
21,627
28,879
24,192

31,780
32,381
27,494
36,352
30,587

31,939
36,917
29,030
38,841
31,447

26
22
41
9
32

37
17
49
11
41

Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9,573
9,939
8,113
8,767
8,333

17,350
18,034
15,360
15,171
17,211

27,293
28,477
24,786
23,570
26,696

38,281
39,737
33,348
38,446
37,300

20,525
21,310
17,395
18,797
17,866

24,048
24,996
21,290
21,028
23,855

30,401
31,720
27,608
26,254
29,736

34,451
35,761
30,012
34,600
33,568

33
28
40
45
34

28
21
44
26
29

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . .

11,164
10,570
10,291
10,229
7,005

22,681
22,797
18,719
19,710
13,117

34,681
38,210
29,392
32,597
21,555

49,025
51,552
35,597
42,843
31,186

23,936
22,662
22,064
21,931
15,019

31,437
31,598
25,946
27,319
18,181

38,630
42,561
32,739
36,309
24,009

44,120
46,394
32,036
38,557
28,066

4
3
18
10
50

4
2
36
13
50

Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . .

9,306
9,038
9,155
11,679
9,816

17,582
15,346
17,948
20,042
20,236

27,891
23,470
28,598
30,986
34,087

36,979
35,317
39,557
36,997
44,084

19,952
19,378
19,629
25,040
21,046

24,370
21,270
24,877
27,779
28,048

31,067
26,143
31,854
34,514
37,969

33,279
31,784
35,599
33,296
39,673

31
46
25
14
6

32
38
22
31
9

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . .

11,676
8,331
10,985
8,183
7,894

24,354
14,823
23,710
17,194
15,866

38,666
22,751
34,630
27,914
25,624

50,781
33,837
48,821
35,638
40,596

25,034
17,862
23,552
17,545
16,925

33,756
20,546
32,863
23,832
21,991

43,069
25,342
38,573
31,093
28,542

45,700
30,452
43,937
32,073
36,534

2
47
5
30
38

3
43
5
35
18

Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . .

10,022
9,487
10,086
10,040
9,645

18,638
16,077
17,895
19,433
19,821

28,694
24,605
28,718
30,110
29,484

36,395
36,421
37,095
41,152
42,579

21,488
20,340
21,625
21,526
20,679

25,833
22,284
24,804
26,935
27,473

31,961
27,407
31,988
33,539
32,841

32,754
32,777
33,384
37,035
38,319

24
42
23
16
17

34
33
30
16
15

South Carolina. . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,736
8,054
8,227
9,870
8,492

15,844
16,075
16,574
17,260
14,847

25,081
26,427
26,691
28,504
24,517

33,163
38,865
35,307
39,493
32,595

16,586
17,268
17,639
21,162
18,207

21,961
22,281
22,973
23,923
20,579

27,937
29,436
29,730
31,750
27,309

29,845
34,977
31,775
35,542
29,334

39
36
35
27
43

45
25
39
23
48

Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . .

8,599
10,107
10,810
8,066
10,085
11,668

17,643
20,312
19,637
14,436
17,986
17,910

28,183
31,640
32,407
22,174
29,139
29,281

40,283
44,762
43,564
32,641
38,432
47,851

18,437
21,670
23,177
17,294
21,623
25,017

24,454
28,154
27,218
20,009
24,930
24,824

31,392
35,243
36,097
24,699
32,457
32,615

36,253
40,284
39,206
29,375
34,587
43,064

29
12
11
49
20
19

19
7
10
47
27
6

X Not applicable. 1 Constant dollar estimates are computed by the U.S. Census Bureau using the national implicit price deflator
for personal consumption expenditures from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Any regional differences in the rate of inflation are
not reflected in these constant dollar estimates.
Source: Except as noted, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011, and unpublished data.
See also <http://www.bea.gov/bea/regional/spi>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 445

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 682. Disposable Personal Income Per Capita in Current and Constant
(2005) Dollars by State: 1980 to 2010
[In dollars, except percent. 2010 preliminary. Disposable personal income is the income available to persons for spending or saving;
it is calculated as personal income less personal tax and nontax payments. See headnote, Table 680]

United States. . . . . . . .

1980
8,779

1990
16,985

2000
25,955

2010,
prel.
36,808

1980
18,822

1990
23,542

2000
28,911

2010,
prel.
33,125

Index,
compared to
U.S. average
2010,
2000
prel.
100.0
100.0

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,955
13,057
8,418
6,701
10,420

13,943
19,937
14,932
12,928
18,614

21,357
27,101
22,939
20,034
27,664

31,363
40,530
32,443
30,567
38,674

14,912
27,995
18,048
14,367
22,341

19,326
27,634
20,697
17,919
25,800

23,789
30,187
25,551
22,315
30,814

28,225
36,475
29,197
27,509
34,805

82.3
104.4
88.4
77.2
106.6

85.2
110.1
88.1
83.0
105.1

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9,288
10,551
8,977
10,378
8,752

17,003
22,815
18,262
22,400
17,398

28,857
33,837
26,427
33,459
25,392

38,810
48,596
36,171
63,619
36,413

19,914
22,622
19,247
22,251
18,765

23,567
31,623
25,312
31,048
24,115

32,143
37,690
29,436
37,269
28,283

34,927
43,734
32,552
57,254
32,770

111.2
130.4
101.8
128.9
97.8

105.4
132.0
98.3
172.8
98.9

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,397
9,959
7,708
9,439
8,168

15,424
18,901
13,868
18,180
15,331

24,606
25,495
21,575
27,877
23,983

32,519
37,625
29,804
39,097
31,949

15,859
21,352
16,526
20,238
17,512

21,379
26,198
19,222
25,199
21,250

27,408
28,398
24,032
31,051
26,714

29,266
33,861
26,822
35,185
28,753

94.8
98.2
83.1
107.4
92.4

88.3
102.2
81.0
106.2
86.8

Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,307
8,616
7,173
7,669
7,450

15,330
15,921
13,544
13,687
15,222

24,136
24,841
21,726
21,073
23,227

35,010
36,215
30,526
35,271
34,169

17,811
18,473
15,379
16,443
15,973

21,248
22,067
18,773
18,971
21,099

26,884
27,670
24,200
23,473
25,872

31,507
32,592
27,472
31,742
30,750

93.0
95.7
83.7
81.2
89.5

95.1
98.4
82.9
95.8
92.8

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . .

9,488
9,021
8,961
8,810
6,303

19,420
19,549
16,368
17,123
11,938

29,231
30,786
25,285
27,780
19,491

43,753
45,511
32,728
38,411
29,155

20,343
19,341
19,213
18,889
13,514

26,917
27,096
22,687
23,733
16,547

32,560
34,292
28,164
30,943
21,710

39,376
40,958
29,454
34,568
26,238

112.6
118.6
97.4
107.0
75.1

118.9
123.6
88.9
104.4
79.2

Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . . .

8,124
7,936
8,010
10,279
8,664

15,492
13,693
15,996
17,562
18,016

24,335
20,781
25,070
26,882
29,273

33,813
32,395
36,166
34,313
40,532

17,418
17,015
17,174
22,039
18,576

21,473
18,979
22,171
24,342
24,971

27,106
23,147
27,925
29,943
32,606

30,430
29,154
32,548
30,880
36,477

93.8
80.1
96.6
103.6
112.8

91.9
88.0
98.3
93.2
110.1

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . . .

10,053
7,467
9,395
7,160
6,920

21,163
13,313
20,371
15,145
14,380

32,333
20,200
28,623
24,253
23,121

45,197
31,410
42,492
32,567
36,997

21,554
16,010
20,143
15,351
14,837

29,333
18,453
28,235
20,992
19,932

36,015
22,500
31,882
27,015
25,754

40,675
28,268
38,241
29,309
33,296

124.6
77.8
110.3
93.4
89.1

122.8
85.3
115.4
88.5
100.5

Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . .

8,746
8,260
8,705
8,725
8,445

16,341
14,170
15,709
17,091
17,453

24,757
21,723
24,536
25,999
25,340

33,182
33,497
33,592
37,164
38,873

18,752
17,710
18,664
18,707
18,106

22,650
19,640
21,774
23,689
24,191

27,576
24,197
27,330
28,960
28,225

29,862
30,146
30,231
33,446
34,984

95.4
83.7
94.5
100.2
97.6

90.1
91.0
91.3
101.0
105.6

South Carolina. . . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,840
7,298
7,374
8,553
7,575

14,044
14,725
15,004
15,463
13,131

22,165
23,881
24,011
25,166
21,454

30,713
36,236
33,146
36,354
29,823

14,665
15,647
15,810
18,338
16,241

19,466
20,410
20,796
21,433
18,200

24,689
26,600
26,745
28,032
23,897

27,640
32,611
29,830
32,717
26,839

85.4
92.0
92.5
97.0
82.7

83.4
98.4
90.1
98.8
81.0

Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,593
8,732
9,464
7,077
8,764
10,167

15,527
17,735
17,449
12,908
15,716
16,056

24,523
26,780
27,951
19,815
25,078
25,330

36,920
40,186
40,312
29,977
34,855
43,602

16,280
18,722
20,291
15,173
18,790
21,798

21,521
24,582
24,185
17,891
21,783
22,255

27,315
29,829
31,134
22,071
27,934
28,214

33,226
36,165
36,279
26,978
31,368
39,240

94.5
103.2
107.7
76.3
96.6
97.6

100.3
109.2
109.5
81.4
94.7
118.5

Current dollars

Constant (2005) dollars 1

State

1
Constant dollar estimates are computed by the Census Bureau using the national implicit price deflator for personal
consumption expenditures from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Any regional differences in the rate of inflation are not reflected
in these constant dollar estimates.
Source: Except as noted, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011, earlier reports and
unpublished data. See also <http://www.bea.gov/regional/spi>.

446 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 683. Personal Income by Selected Large Metropolitan Area:
2005 to 2009
[10,476,669 represents $10,476,669,000,000. Metropolitan areas as defined December 2009. MSA = Metropolitan Statistical Area.
See Appendix II. Minus sign (–) indicates decrease]
Personal income
Metropolitan areas ranked by
2009 population

United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island,
NY-NJ-PA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana,
CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI MSA . . .
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MSA. . . . . .
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington,
PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA. . . .
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach,
FL MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria,
DC-VA-MD-WV MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta,
GA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH MSA. . .
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI MSA. . . . . . . . . .
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ MSA. . . . . . . . .
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA MSA. .
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario,
CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA MSA. . . . . . . .
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington,
MN-WI MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos,
CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA. .
Baltimore-Towson, MD MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO MSA. . . . . . .
Pittsburgh, PA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford,
ME MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN MSA. . . . .
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Roseville,
CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH MSA . . . . . . . .
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA . . . . .
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX MSA. . . . . .
Kansas City, MO-KS MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA. . . . . . . . . . . .
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara,
CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Columbus, OH MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill,
NC-SC MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indianapolis-Carmel, IN MSA . . . . . . . . . . . .
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX MSA . .
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News,
VA-NC MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River,
RI-MA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin,
TN MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI MSA. .
Jacksonville, FL MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memphis, TN-MS-AR MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN MSA . . . .
Richmond, VA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma City, OK MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford,
CT MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA MSA . . . .
Birmingham-Hoover, AL MSA. . . . . . . . . . . .
Salt Lake City, UT MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raleigh-Cary, NC MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY MSA. . . . . . . . . . .
Rochester, NY MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tucson, AZ MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tulsa, OK MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresno, CA MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Honolulu, HI MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA . . . .
Albuquerque, NM MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA . . . . . . .
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA MSA. . . . . . . .
New Haven-Milford, CT MSA. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Personal income per capita

Annual
percent
change,
2005
2008
2009 2008–
(mil. dol.)
(mil. dol.)
(mil. dol.)
2009
10,476,669 12,380,225 12,168,161
–1.7

2005
(dol.)
35,424

2008
(dol.)
40,674

2009
(dol.)
39,635

Index
(U.S.=
100),
2009
100.0

863,632

1,032,619

992,331

–3.9

45,942

54,439

52,037

131.3

496,595
375,515
220,482

567,707
438,902
275,258

550,832
425,178
269,280

–3.0
–3.1
–2.2

38,915
40,110
37,907

44,462
46,124
43,684

42,784
44,379
41,764

107.9
112.0
105.4

236,491
209,655

277,421
280,247

274,986
273,247

–0.9
–2.5

40,422
39,561

46,700
48,937

46,075
46,570

116.2
117.5

210,605

244,913

237,215

–3.1

38,692

44,515

42,764

107.9

262,193

310,761

312,059

0.4

50,140

57,784

56,984

143.8

179,145
212,251
164,087
131,597
227,850

209,581
251,777
175,014
155,067
265,954

203,138
245,736
167,009
150,352
259,043

–3.1
–2.4
–4.6
–3.0
–2.6

36,213
47,602
36,509
33,877
54,909

38,915
55,400
39,562
36,169
62,427

37,101
53,553
37,927
34,452
59,993

93.6
135.1
95.7
86.9
151.4

108,598
138,212

125,025
173,322

122,969
171,681

–1.6
–0.9

28,124
43,159

30,547
51,636

29,680
50,378

74.9
127.1

133,840

154,421

149,795

–3.0

42,723

47,696

45,811

115.6

122,030
101,082
91,393
111,453
101,788
84,956

141,971
119,122
104,955
129,323
121,505
100,276

139,577
115,220
103,386
129,704
118,961
99,611

–1.7
–3.3
–1.5
0.3
–2.1
–0.7

41,482
36,450
34,634
42,064
43,249
35,811

47,021
42,262
38,445
48,296
48,595
42,573

45,706
40,728
37,632
48,201
46,611
42,298

115.3
102.8
94.9
121.6
117.6
106.7

74,750
75,148

88,978
84,080

87,894
82,460

–1.2
–1.9

35,868
35,744

40,376
38,950

39,206
37,967

98.9
95.8

75,029
76,110
64,007
58,670
70,738
64,181

86,876
84,553
75,473
74,218
84,584
73,753

85,746
82,503
73,466
75,186
83,610
69,855

–1.3
–2.4
–2.7
1.3
–1.2
–5.3

36,985
35,931
32,997
31,239
36,118
37,558

41,347
40,378
36,620
36,548
41,340
39,249

40,306
39,451
35,279
36,285
40,438
36,711

101.7
99.5
89.0
91.5
102.0
92.6

89,629
60,968

105,652
68,777

101,495
68,469

–3.9
–0.4

51,591
35,561

58,351
38,642

55,169
37,999

139.2
95.9

57,216
60,018
51,047

68,639
68,537
64,412

66,389
67,187
64,015

–3.3
–2.0
–0.6

37,656
36,484
34,861

40,223
39,829
38,941

38,034
38,532
37,544

96.0
97.2
94.7

56,595

66,458

66,173

–0.4

34,107

39,790

39,518

99.7

57,418

65,937

65,353

–0.9

35,670

41,228

40,829

103.0

52,294
58,251
45,618
44,057
41,228
44,587
38,462

62,638
66,671
53,381
50,222
47,793
52,001
48,266

61,164
65,978
52,297
49,095
47,433
50,966
47,547

–2.4
–1.0
–2.0
–2.2
–0.8
–2.0
–1.5

36,051
37,916
36,537
34,927
34,087
37,979
33,298

40,246
43,001
40,547
38,676
38,242
42,377
39,971

38,656
42,303
39,376
37,623
37,688
41,161
38,742

97.5
106.7
99.3
94.9
95.1
103.9
97.7

51,428
43,498
39,199
35,347
35,209
36,232
35,256
28,574
30,734
24,078
34,264
61,073
25,338
30,672
31,077
33,857

61,636
51,929
44,868
42,854
43,320
41,978
40,693
34,918
38,585
28,097
41,188
71,232
30,145
36,006
36,927
40,730

60,607
50,818
43,650
42,386
42,789
42,108
40,424
34,516
37,534
28,050
41,291
67,380
30,309
36,195
36,514
40,184

–1.7
–2.1
–2.7
–1.1
–1.2
0.3
–0.7
–1.1
–2.7
–0.2
0.3
–5.4
0.5
0.5
–1.1
–1.3

43,636
33,117
35,948
33,830
36,939
31,801
34,114
30,110
34,860
27,758
38,057
68,543
31,724
36,240
38,343
40,334

51,744
44,439
39,949
38,552
39,728
37,345
39,387
34,578
42,122
31,111
45,625
79,642
35,608
42,147
43,999
48,169

50,675
42,705
38,592
37,500
38,007
37,469
39,036
33,833
40,402
30,646
45,496
74,767
35,329
42,206
42,982
47,387

127.9
107.7
97.4
94.6
95.9
94.5
98.5
85.4
101.9
77.3
114.8
188.6
89.1
106.5
108.4
119.6

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April 2011. See also <http://www.bea.gov/regional
/reis>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 447

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 684. Average Annual Expenditures of All Consumer Units by
Selected Major Types of Expenditure: 1990 to 2009
[In dollars, except as indicated (96,968 represents $96,968,000). Based on Consumer Expenditure Survey. Data are averages for
the noninstitutional population. Expenditures reported here are out-of-pocket. Consumer units include families, single persons living
alone or sharing a household with others but who are financially independent, or two or more persons living together who share
expenses]
Type of expenditure
Number of consumer units (1,000) . . . . . .

1990
96,968

1995
103,123

2000
109,367

2005
117,356

2006
118,843

2007
120,171

2008
120,770

2009
120,847

Expenditures, total 1 (dol.). . . . . . . . . .
Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food at home 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs. . . . . . . .
Dairy products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fruits and vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other food at home. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food away from home. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alcoholic beverages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Housing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shelter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities, fuels, and public services. . . . . .
Apparel and services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle purchases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gasoline and motor oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other vehicle expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tobacco products, smoking supplies. . . . .
Personal insurance and pensions. . . . . . .
Life and other personal insurance. . . . . .
Pensions and Social Security . . . . . . . . .

28,381
4,296
2,485
668
295
408
746
1,811
293
8,703
4,836
1,890
1,618
5,120
2,129
1,047
1,642
1,480
1,422
153
274
2,592
345
2,248

32,264
4,505
2,803
752
297
457
856
1,702
277
10,458
5,928
2,191
1,704
6,014
2,638
1,006
2,015
1,732
1,612
162
269
2,964
373
2,591

38,045
5,158
3,021
795
325
521
927
2,137
372
12,319
7,114
2,489
1,856
7,417
3,418
1,291
2,281
2,066
1,863
146
319
3,365
399
2,966

46,409
5,931
3,297
764
378
552
1,158
2,634
426
15,167
8,805
3,183
1,886
8,344
3,544
2,013
2,339
2,664
2,388
126
319
5,204
381
4,823

48,398
6,111
3,417
797
368
592
1,212
2,694
497
16,366
9,673
3,397
1,874
8,508
3,421
2,227
2,355
2,766
2,376
117
327
5,270
322
4,948

49,638
6,133
3,465
777
387
600
1,241
2,668
457
16,920
10,023
3,477
1,881
8,758
3,244
2,384
2,592
2,853
2,698
118
323
5,336
309
5,027

50,486
6,443
3,744
846
430
657
1,305
2,698
444
17,109
10,183
3,649
1,801
8,604
2,755
2,715
2,621
2,976
2,835
116
317
5,605
317
5,288

49,067
6,372
3,753
841
406
656
1,343
2,619
435
16,895
10,075
3,645
1,725
7,658
2,657
1,986
2,536
3,126
2,693
110
380
5,471
309
5,162

1
Includes expenditures not shown separately.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditures in 2009, News Release, USDL-10-1390, October 2010.
See also <http://stats.bls.gov/cex/home.htm>.

Table 685. Average Annual Expenditures of All Consumer Units by
Metropolitan Area: 2008 to 2009
[In dollars. Covers 2-year period, 2008–2009. Metropolitan areas defined June 30, 1983: CMSA = Consolidated Metropolitan
Statistical Area; MSA = Metropolitan Statistical Area; PMSA = Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area. See text, Section 1 and
Appendix II. See headnote, Table 684]
Housing
Metropolitan area

Total
expenditures 1
Atlanta, GA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45,941
Baltimore, MD MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52,452
Boston-Lawrence-Salem, MA-NH CMSA . . 59,227
Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL-IN-WI
CMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56,947
Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, OH CMSA . . . . . . 45,844
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CMSA . . . . . . . . . . . 53,886
Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI CMSA . . . . . . . . . . . 49,397
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX CMSA. . . 59,131
Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA PMSA . . . . . 56,529
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA . . . . . . . 47,601
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA . . . . . . . 56,340
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long
Island, NY-NJ-CT CMSA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60,273
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Trenton,
PA-NJ-DE-MD CMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56,790
Phoenix-Mesa, AZ MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,618
San Diego, CA MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,820
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA
CMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67,730
Seattle-Tacoma, WA CMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . 66,015
Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA . . . . . . . . . . 69,106

Transportation
Gasoline
Vehicle
and
purmotor
Total 1 chases
oil
6,760
1,597
2,631
1
6,621
1,452
2,444
8,591
2,818
2,125

Food
5,375
5,931
8,167

Total 1
17,072
20,795
20,802

Shelter
10,639
13,617
12,857

Utility,
fuels 2
3,899
4,209
4,248

7,037
5,737
6,734
6,412
7,009
7,531
5,803
6,887

20,620
15,483
18,198
16,344
18,866
21,811
19,016
19,164

13,116
8,820
10,253
9,635
10,776
14,938
12,592
11,852

4,052
3,837
4,275
3,791
4,505
3,257
3,740
3,513

8,840
7,010
8,689
9,463
10,843
8,784
8,427
8,833

3,101
2,098
2,877
2,793
3,874
2,513
2,921
2,911

2,364
2,049
2,616
2,624
2,980
2,667
2,680
2,350

3,485
3,315
3,032
2,672
3,267
2,620
1,565
3,314

7,420

23,624

15,482

4,309

8,495

2,321

1,943

3,027

6,460
6,402
6,541

21,135
18,698
22,207

13,597
11,185
15,146

4,444
3,892
2,989

8,202
9,330
7,171

2,037
2,887
1,941

2,240
2,658
2,412

3,036
3,326
2,249

7,952
8,082
7,835

26,064
22,029
25,622

19,096
13,829
16,842

3,139
3,554
3,977

9,535
9,380
9,563

2,748
3,395
3,028

2,235
2,454
2,465

3,319
3,684
3,239

1

Health
care
2,417
2,973
3,453

1
Includes expenditures not shown separately. 2 Includes public services.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditures in 2009, News Release, USDL-10-1390, October 2010.
See also <http://stats.bls.gov/cex/home.htm>.

448 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 686. Average Annual Expenditures of All Consumer Units by Race,
Hispanic Origin, and Age of Householder: 2009
[In dollars. See headnote, Table 684]
Type
Expenditures, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food at home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cereals and bakery products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cereals and cereal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bakery products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poultry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fish and seafood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dairy products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh milk and cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other dairy products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fruits and vegetables 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh fruits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh vegetables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Processed fruits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other food at home 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sugar and other sweets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonalcoholic beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food away from home. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alcoholic beverages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shelter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Owned dwellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mortgage interest and charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Property taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance, repair, insurance, other expenses. . .
Rented dwellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other lodging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities, fuels, and public services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel oil and other fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water and other public services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Household operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other household expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Housekeeping supplies 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laundry and cleaning supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Postage and stationery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Household furnishings and equipment 3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Household textiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major appliances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous household equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apparel and services 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men and boys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women and girls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Footwear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other apparel products and services . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle purchases (net outlay) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cars and trucks, new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cars and trucks, used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gasoline and motor oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other vehicle expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle finance charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance and repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle rental, leases, licenses, other charges . . . . .
Public transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entertainment 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal care products and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tobacco products and smoking supplies. . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cash contributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal insurance and pensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Life and other personal insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pensions and social security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All
consumer
units 1
49,067
6,372
3,753
506
173
334
841
226
168
154
135
406
144
262
656
220
209
118
1,343
141
337
2,619
435
16,895
10,075
6,543
3,594
1,811
1,138
2,860
672
3,645
483
1,377
141
1,162
481
1,011
389
622
659
156
143
1,506
124
343
194
721
1,725
383
678
323
249
7,658
2,657
1,297
1,304
1,986
2,536
281
733
1,075
447
479
3,126
2,693
596
110
1,068
380
816
1,723
5,471
309
5,162
2,104

White
and all
other
races
50,723
6,585
3,870
522
174
348
835
233
165
149
128
429
149
280
671
226
213
120
1,412
149
351
2,715
471
17,224
10,228
6,872
3,713
1,917
1,242
2,619
737
3,658
478
1,379
159
1,155
488
1,051
392
659
696
161
153
1,591
128
355
204
772
1,704
380
676
307
248
7,950
2,829
1,410
1,355
2,045
2,605
290
767
1,085
464
471
3,351
2,894
606
119
1,080
413
853
1,799
5,674
321
5,353
2,236

Asian
56,308
7,565
3,905
520
215
305
966
186
172
184
274
346
152
195
903
310
385
117
1,169
106
267
3,660
350
20,395
13,571
8,543
5,349
2,334
860
4,411
616
3,270
499
1,056
4
48
1,123
544
1,347
688
659
536
130
113
1,671
187
304
183
848
2,150
427
913
344
344
8,784
2,582
1,131
1,451
1,871
3,153
208
713
1,610
623
1,178
2,498
2,270
557
111
2,327
122
611
1,452
7,117
283
6,834
3,526

Black
or
African
American
35,311
4,524
2,880
390
149
241
845
191
193
183
144
258
105
153
484
151
136
105
903
88
253
1,645
201
13,503
7,919
3,632
2,220
912
500
4,046
241
3,668
517
1,462
50
1,224
415
633
281
352
429
124
81
854
79
271
127
319
1,755
388
629
430
231
5,302
1,489
568
910
1,618
1,876
242
504
859
270
319
1,763
1,404
536
46
591
230
626
1,280
3,550
235
3,315
743

Hispanic 2
41,981
6,094
3,784
479
184
294
955
252
202
192
141
403
171
232
734
256
240
121
1,213
109
348
2,310
267
15,983
10,043
5,298
3,454
1,368
476
4,415
330
3,532
389
1,339
47
1,272
485
714
334
380
517
194
91
1,177
101
331
146
513
2,002
432
693
472
258
7,156
2,333
1,010
1,293
2,104
2,309
278
584
1,049
398
410
1,568
1,664
532
36
707
182
544
1,015
4,230
119
4,111
745

Age of householder
Under 65 years
25 old and
years
over
28,119
37,562
4,179
4,901
2,449
3,222
307
439
124
138
183
301
571
720
146
192
130
145
120
111
75
129
281
346
110
125
171
221
398
618
116
215
130
192
86
109
891
1,100
88
127
232
264
1,731
1,679
344
292
9,735
13,196
6,306
7,173
1,245
4,838
783
1,322
324
1,793
139
1,723
4,885
1,741
176
594
1,821
3,282
188
494
696
1,261
16
186
758
858
163
483
370
876
156
194
214
681
309
682
91
137
49
167
929
1,184
43
107
336
209
79
159
427
581
1,396
1,068
256
215
545
456
278
223
163
149
5,334
5,409
2,319
1,862
542
1,210
1,760
619
1,483
1,241
1,298
1,968
180
124
447
557
465
972
206
314
234
338
676
4,846
1,233
2,062
360
531
42
145
1,910
162
330
207
243
663
349
2,226
1,988
1,856
31
320
1,957
1,537
173
807

1
Includes other races not shown separately. 2 People of Hispanic origin may be any race. 3 Includes other types, not shown
separately. 4 Data are likely to have large sampling errors. 5 For additional health care expenditures, see Table 143. 6 For additional
recreation expenditures, see Section 26.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditures in 2009, News Release, USDL-10-1390, October 2010.
See also <ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ce/standard/2009/race.txt>, <ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests
/ce/standard/2009/hispanic.txt>, and <ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ce/standard/2009/age.txt>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 449

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 687. Average Annual Expenditures of All Consumer Units by Region
and Size of Unit: 2009
[In dollars. For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover. See headnote, Table 684]
Type
Expenditures, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food at home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cereals and bakery products. . . . . . . . . . . .
Cereals and cereal products. . . . . . . . . . .
Bakery products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs 1 . . . . . . . . . .
Beef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poultry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fish and seafood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dairy products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh milk and cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other dairy products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fruits and vegetables 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh fruits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresh vegetables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Processed fruits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other food at home 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sugar and other sweets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonalcoholic beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food away from home. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alcoholic beverages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shelter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Owned dwellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mortgage interest and charges. . . . . . . . .
Property taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance, repair, insurance, other
expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rented dwellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other lodging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities, fuels, and public services. . . . . . . . .
Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel oil and other fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water and other public services . . . . . . . . .
Household operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other household expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Housekeeping supplies 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laundry and cleaning supplies. . . . . . . . . .
Postage and stationery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Household furnishings and equipment 1 . . . .
Household textiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major appliances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous household equipment . . . . .
Apparel and services 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men and boys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women and girls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Footwear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other apparel products and services . . . . . .
Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle purchases (net outlay) 1. . . . . . . . . . .
Cars and trucks, new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cars and trucks, used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gasoline and motor oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other vehicle expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle finance charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance and repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle rental, leases, licenses, other
charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Public transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entertainment 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal care products and services . . . . . . .
Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tobacco products and smoking supplies. . . . .
Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cash contributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal insurance and pensions. . . . . . . . . .
Life and other personal insurance. . . . . . . . .
Pensions and social security. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal taxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Northeast
53,868
6,975
4,043
563
188
376
919
230
165
169
176
435
152
284
751
247
247
139
1,374
140
334
2,932
468
19,343
11,944
7,513
3,434
2,865

Region
Midwest
South
46,551 45,749
6,031
5,944
3,682
3,481
510
469
176
157
334
313
762
829
207
230
171
172
121
158
103
125
419
367
140
140
279
227
616
581
210
185
186
180
114
105
1,375
1,235
157
124
323
329
2,349
2,463
418
368
15,109 15,387
8,756
8,524
6,126
5,613
2,970
3,147
1,962
1,309

West
53,005
6,903
4,023
516
182
334
875
236
163
169
150
432
148
284
740
262
249
126
1,461
152
365
2,880
530
19,127
12,378
7,667
5,084
1,599

Size of consumer unit
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
person persons persons persons or more
29,405 51,650 56,645 65,503 63,439
3,460
6,308
7,506
8,730 10,034
1,953
3,631
4,454
5,187
6,324
255
470
588
719
937
80
156
200
258
335
175
314
388
460
602
408
813
1,024
1,170
1,457
104
222
285
314
383
79
162
203
235
303
71
141
188
232
279
76
132
162
176
218
214
391
472
568
689
75
129
169
207
267
139
261
303
361
421
352
664
778
860
1,048
115
226
258
284
355
112
220
246
265
322
67
110
144
161
194
724
1,293
1,592
1,871
2,194
70
143
165
195
226
186
326
415
446
538
1,507
2,677
3,052
3,543
3,710
355
537
381
486
336
11,388 17,145 19,353 22,193 21,035
7,376 10,078 11,114 13,038 12,243
3,495
6,906
7,526
9,530
8,589
1,590
3,354
4,437
6,039
5,554
1,062
1,999
2,041
2,444
2,148

1,214
3,507
924
4,095
719
1,306
434
1,241
396
1,196
551
645
640
142
139
1,467
126
347
175
700
1,782
412
662
343
288
8,108
2,754
1,644
1,089
1,787
2,885
218
762
1,271

1,195
1,986
643
3,421
695
1,119
114
1,080
414
780
258
522
682
163
153
1,471
116
316
189
711
1,461
339
590
251
195
7,649
2,921
1,387
1,468
1,933
2,375
252
706
957

1,158
2,361
550
3,741
266
1,719
62
1,191
503
969
339
630
667
159
123
1,485
122
353
202
697
1,786
371
727
349
252
7,400
2,612
1,321
1,211
2,103
2,371
336
646
1,095

984
4,021
690
3,343
424
1,143
57
1,133
586
1,164
472
692
638
155
169
1,605
134
349
201
786
1,844
422
702
336
268
7,711
2,380
881
1,468
2,018
2,673
274
876
999

843
3,513
368
2,298
314
868
84
722
309
548
100
448
345
82
83
821
55
185
106
407
975
234
374
177
168
4,182
1,441
791
606
1,022
1,417
109
470
589

1,553
2,257
916
3,740
503
1,410
182
1,155
490
845
121
724
779
159
179
1,702
152
390
225
789
1,566
341
637
285
252
8,306
3,039
1,654
1,334
1,993
2,714
302
812
1,092

1,048
2,874
714
4,233
528
1,600
130
1,431
544
1,345
694
650
771
187
154
1,891
169
431
233
902
2,046
449
839
357
243
8,775
2,659
1,209
1,399
2,470
3,086
356
854
1,337

1,047
2,711
797
4,658
610
1,738
170
1,529
610
1,811
1,102
709
803
205
171
1,884
128
421
238
950
2,571
572
1,027
463
327
10,707
4,004
1,624
2,305
2,761
3,374
440
874
1,517

887
3,138
516
4,951
667
1,905
150
1,549
679
1,303
676
628
798
244
142
1,741
161
406
224
817
2,767
589
971
624
380
9,716
3,065
1,272
1,710
2,964
3,203
378
857
1,419

634
682
3,132
2,767
601
141
1,710
439
821
1,568
6,013
350
5,662
2,745

460
420
3,272
2,627
538
112
1,103
409
798
1,684
5,340
340
5,000
2,042

294
314
3,030
2,467
593
85
820
394
768
1,692
5,015
298
4,717
1,846

524
640
3,128
3,062
653
121
902
278
910
1,941
5,894
262
5,633
2,053

249
303
2,007
1,510
345
87
492
253
565
1,268
2,518
118
2,399
1,395

507
559
4,021
2,913
646
136
793
403
838
2,028
6,011
393
5,618
2,958

539
560
3,273
2,860
719
113
1,563
463
942
1,776
6,875
409
6,466
2,024

543
568
3,300
3,775
779
100
1,906
443
1,115
1,718
7,680
371
7,309
2,446

548
484
2,960
3,635
717
95
1,746
458
872
1,964
7,101
350
6,751
1,000

1
Includes other types not shown separately. 2 For additional health care expenditures, see Table 143. 3 For additional
recreation expenditures, see Section 26.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditures in 2009, News Release, USDL-10-1390, October 2010.
See also <ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ce/standard/2009/region.txt> and <ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ce
/standard/2009/cusize.txt>.

450 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 688. Average Annual Expenditures of All Consumer Units by
Income Level: 2009
[In dollars. See headnote, Table 684]
Housing
Income level

Transportation

Total
expenditures 1
49,067

Food
6,372

Total 1
16,895

Shelter
10,075

Utilities,
fuels 2
3,645

Consumer units
with complete reporting:
Less than $70,000. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,810
$70,000 to $79,999. . . . . . . . . . . . 57,833
$80,000 to $99,999. . . . . . . . . . . . 65,027
$100,000 and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97,576
$100,000 to $119,999. . . . . . . . . 76,140
$120,000 to $149,999. . . . . . . . . 85,806
$150,000 and over. . . . . . . . . . . . 124,306

4,798
7,818
8,359
11,088
9,622
9,886
13,234

12,509
19,127
21,666
30,831
23,907
27,923
38,824

7,377
11,393
12,815
18,736
14,190
16,872
23,941

3,089
4,188
4,470
5,226
4,618
5,100
5,837

All consumer units . . . . . . . . .

Total 1
7,658

Vehicle
purchases
2,657

Gasoline
and
motor
oil
1,986

5,373
9,880
9,929
14,674
12,378
13,028
17,799

1,679
3,410
3,386
5,835
4,800
4,713
7,506

1,573
2,470
2,669
3,105
2,942
3,090
3,257

Pensions
and
Health
social
care security
3,126
5,162

2,541
3,679
4,158
4,723
4,385
4,399
5,242

2,173
6,536
7,977
14,887
10,292
12,919
20,207

Includes expenditures not shown separately. 2 Includes public service.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditures in 2009, News Release, USDL-10-1390, October 2010.
See also <ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ce/standard/2009/higherincome.txt>.
1

Table 689. Annual Expenditure Per Child by Husband-Wife Families by
Family Income and Expenditure Type: 2010
[In dollars. Data are for a child in a two-child family. Excludes expenses for college. Expenditures based on before tax income data
from the 2005–2006 Consumer Expenditure Survey updated to 2010 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. For more on the
methodology, see report cited below]
Expenditure type

Clothing

Health
care

Child care
and
education 1

Miscellaneous 2

Family income and age of child
TransporFood
tation

Total

Housing

INCOME: LESS THAN $57,600
Less than 2 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 to 5 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 to 8 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 to 11 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 to 14 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 to 17 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,760
8,810
8,480
9,200
9,600
9,630

2,950
2,950
2,950
2,950
2,950
2,950

1,120
1,220
1,650
1,900
2,060
2,050

1,070
1,120
1,230
1,230
1,340
1,490

630
490
560
570
670
710

610
580
640
690
1,050
980

1,960
1,840
820
1,240
840
870

420
610
630
620
690
580

INCOME: $57,600 TO $99,730
Less than 2 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 to 5 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 to 8 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 to 11 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 to 14 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 to 17 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,950
11,980
11,880
12,660
13,340
13,830

3,870
3,870
3,870
3,870
3,870
3,870

1,350
1,440
2,020
2,310
2,480
2,470

1,540
1,590
1,700
1,700
1,810
1,960

740
600
670
690
820
880

820
780
910
970
1,370
1,290

2,740
2,620
1,610
2,030
1,830
2,310

890
1,080
1,100
1,090
1,160
1,050

INCOME: MORE THAN $99,730
Less than 2 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 to 5 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 to 8 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 to 11 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 to 14 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 to 17 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19,820
19,810
19,770
20,630
21,960
23,690

7,010
7,010
7,010
7,010
7,010
7,010

1,830
1,930
2,540
2,880
3,070
3,060

2,330
2,370
2,490
2,490
2,600
2,750

1,030
860
950
990
1,150
1,250

950
900
1,040
1,110
1,570
1,480

4,890
4,770
3,750
4,170
4,510
6,200

1,780
1,970
1,990
1,980
2,050
1,940

1
Includes only families with child care and education expenses. 2 Expenses include personal care items, entertainment, and
reading materials.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Expenditures on Children by Families, 2010,
1528-2010, May 2011. See also <http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/CRC/crc2010.pdf>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 451

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 690. Money Income of Households—Percent Distribution by Income
Level, Race, and Hispanic Origin, in Constant (2009) Dollars: 1990 to 2009
[Constant dollars based on CPI-U-RS deflator. Households as of March of following year. (94,312 represents 94,312,000).
Based on Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section and Section 1,
and Appendix III. For data collection changes over time, see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/histinc/hstchg.html>.
For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
Year
ALL HOUSEHOLDS 1
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 4, 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3, 4, 5. . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 4, 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3, 4, 6. . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN AND
PACIFIC ISLANDER
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 4, 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3, 4, 7. . . . . . . . . . . .
HISPANIC 8
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percent distribution
$25,000
$35,000
$50,000
to
to
to
$34,999
$49,999
$74,999

Number
of households
(1,000)

Under
$15,000

$15,000
to
$24,999

94,312
108,209
117,181
117,538

14.0
12.1
13.4
13.0

11.8
11.1
12.0
11.9

11.2
10.5
11.0
11.1

15.7
14.5
14.1
14.1

20.0
18.4
17.6
18.1

12.2
12.7
11.9
11.5

15.0
20.6
19.9
20.1

47,637
52,301
50,112
49,777

80,968
90,030
95,297
95,489

12.0
10.8
11.8
11.4

11.5
10.8
11.7
11.6

11.1
10.3
10.7
10.8

16.0
14.4
14.0
14.2

20.6
18.6
18.1
18.7

12.9
13.2
12.5
12.0

16.0
21.9
21.1
21.4

49,686
54,700
52,113
51,861

10,671
13,174
14,595
14,730

29.1
21.0
23.6
23.5

15.1
14.4
15.0
15.4

12.2
12.9
13.7
13.4

14.4
15.4
15.0
14.6

15.4
17.2
14.9
15.1

7.3
8.8
8.1
8.7

6.4
10.3
9.6
9.3

29,712
36,952
34,088
32,584

1,958
3,963
4,573
4,687

10.6
9.3
12.1
11.7

9.5
7.7
8.7
7.9

8.2
7.4
8.2
8.2

12.5
12.4
12.1
11.1

20.9
16.9
15.1
16.9

14.0
14.8
12.6
11.8

24.4
31.5
31.2
32.4

61,170
69,448
65,388
65,469

6,220
10,034
13,425
13,298

19.7
14.5
17.8
16.5

16.5
15.1
14.8
15.2

12.9
12.6
14.5
14.3

17.6
17.6
16.4
15.4

18.2
18.9
16.2
17.6

7.8
10.4
9.0
9.1

7.4
11.0
11.3
11.7

35,525
41,312
37,769
38,039

$75,000 $100,000
to
and
$99,999
over

Median
income
(dollars)

1
Includes other races not shown separately. 2 Data reflect implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and
a 28,000 household sample expansion to 78,000 households. 3 Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals.
Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000
or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval
was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. 4 Beginning with the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS), the questionnaire
allowed respondents to choose more than one race. For 2002 and later, data represent persons who selected this race group only
and exclude persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior years allowed respondents to report only one race group. See
also comments on race in the text for Section 1. 5 Data represent White alone, which refers to people who reported White and did
not report any other race category. 6 Data represent Black alone, which refers to people who reported Black and did not report any
other race category. 7 Data represent Asian alone, which refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race
category. 8 People of Hispanic origin may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table H17, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/
income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/household/index.html>.

Table 691. Money Income of Households—Median Income by Race and
Hispanic Origin, in Current and Constant (2009) Dollars: 1980 to 2009
[In dollars. See headnote, Table 690]
Year
1980. . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . .
1995 6 . . . . . .
2000 7, 8. . . . .
2005 9 . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . .
2009 10. . . . . .

All
households 1
17,710
29,943
34,076
41,990
46,326
48,201
50,233
50,303
49,777

Median income in current dollars
Asian,
Pacific
White 2
Black 3 Islander 4
18,684
10,764
(NA)
31,231
18,676
38,450
35,766
22,393
40,614
43,916
29,667
55,757
48,554
30,858
61,094
50,673
31,969
64,238
52,115
33,916
66,103
52,312
34,218
65,637
51,861
32,584
65,469

Hispanic 5
13,651
22,330
22,860
33,168
35,967
37,781
38,679
37,913
38,039

Median income in constant (2009) dollars
All
Asian,
housePacific
holds 1
White 2
Black 3 Islander 4
43,892
46,306
26,677
(NA)
47,637
49,686
29,712
61,170
47,622
49,984
31,295
56,759
52,301
54,700
36,952
69,448
50,899
53,347
33,904
67,125
51,278
53,907
34,010
68,338
51,965
53,912
35,086
68,382
50,112
52,113
34,088
65,388
49,777
51,861
32,584
65,469

Hispanic 5
33,832
35,525
31,947
41,312
39,517
40,193
40,013
37,769
38,039

NA Not available. 1 Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Beginning with 2002, data represents White alone, which
refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. 3 Beginning with 2002, data represents Black alone,
which refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 4 Beginning with 2002, data represents
Asian alone, which refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 5 People of Hispanic origin
may be any race. 6 Data reflect full implementation of the 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000
household sample reduction, and revised race edits. 7 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 8 Implementation
of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 9 See footnote 3, Table 690. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1.
10
Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the
upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000
and a plug of “$100,000.”
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and “Historical Tables—Table H-5,” September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/household/index.html>.

452 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 692. Money Income of Households—Distribution by Income Level and
Selected Characteristics: 2009
[117,538 represents 117,538,000. Households as of March of the following year. Based on Current Population Survey,
Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section and Section 1, and Appendix III. For definition of median,
see Guide to Tabular Presentation. Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data,
the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the
upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug
of “$100,000” was used]
Number of households (1,000)
Characteristic
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age of householder:
15 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years and over . . . . . . . . .
Region: 1
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of household:
One person. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two people. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three people. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four people. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five people . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Six people. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seven or more people. . . . . .
Type of household:
Family household. . . . . . . . . .
Married-couple. . . . . . . . . . .
Male householder,
spouse absent. . . . . . . . . .
Female householder,
spouse absent. . . . . . . . . .
Nonfamily household. . . . . . .
Male householder . . . . . . . .
Female householder. . . . . .
Educational attainment of
householder: 2
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less than 9th grade. . . . . . . . .
9th to 12th grade
(no diploma). . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High school graduate. . . . . . . .
Some college, no degree. . . . .
Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree or more . . .
Bachelor’s degree. . . . . . . . .
Master’s degree. . . . . . . . . . .
Professional degree. . . . . . . .
Doctoral degree. . . . . . . . . . .
Number of earners:
No earners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
One earner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two earners and more . . . . . .
Two earners . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three earners. . . . . . . . . . . .
Four earners or more. . . . . .
Work experience of
householder:
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worked at full-time jobs . . . .
50 weeks or more . . . . . . . .
27 to 49 weeks . . . . . . . . . .
26 weeks or less. . . . . . . . .
Worked at part-time jobs. . . .
50 weeks or more . . . . . . . .
27 to 49 weeks . . . . . . . . . .
26 weeks or less. . . . . . . . .
Did not work. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tenure:
Owner occupied. . . . . . . . . . .
Renter occupied . . . . . . . . . .
Occupier paid no cash rent. .

Total
households
117,538

$75,000
to $100,000
$99,999 and over
13,549
23,749

Median
household
income
(dollars)
49,777

Under
$15,000
15,329

$15,000
to
$24,999
14,023

$25,000
to
$34,999
13,003

$35,000
to
$49,999
16,607

$50,000
to
$74,999
21,280

6,233
19,257
21,519
24,871
20,387
25,270

1,532
2,216
1,866
2,528
2,435
4,751

1,035
2,060
1,805
1,985
1,916
5,222

882
2,295
1,963
1,970
2,001
3,892

1,054
3,011
2,983
3,054
2,688
3,817

956
4,115
4,239
4,733
3,649
3,586

351
2,432
3,133
3,516
2,482
1,632

422
3,130
5,526
7,083
5,215
2,371

30,733
50,199
61,083
64,235
56,973
31,354

21,479
26,390
43,611
26,058

2,733
3,273
6,235
3,086

2,244
3,326
5,657
2,796

2,264
3,056
5,038
2,644

2,807
3,767
6,476
3,557

3,699
5,044
7,730
4,804

2,486
3,183
4,813
3,066

5,246
4,742
7,660
6,104

53,073
48,877
45,615
53,833

31,399
39,487
18,638
16,122
7,367
2,784
1,740

8,716
3,293
1,511
1,030
483
189
108

6,358
4,206
1,509
1,006
520
246
177

4,478
4,583
1,695
1,251
615
242
137

4,553
6,168
2,571
1,788
922
378
230

4,053
8,078
3,622
3,197
1,408
568
353

1,509
5,016
2,840
2,433
1,096
398
257

1,733
8,145
4,892
5,418
2,323
765
479

26,080
53,676
62,472
73,071
69,680
62,745
64,667

78,833
58,410

6,031
2,313

6,968
3,743

7,795
4,943

10,881
7,515

15,633
12,011

10,983
9,204

20,544
18,680

61,265
71,830

5,580

584

651

713

951

1,246

634

799

48,084

14,843
38,705
18,263
20,442

3,133
9,298
3,462
5,835

2,574
7,054
2,766
4,288

2,138
5,208
2,483
2,724

2,414
5,726
2,959
2,766

2,376
5,646
3,053
2,594

1,143
2,567
1,535
1,033

1,063
3,206
2,002
1,201

32,597
30,444
36,611
25,269

111,305
5,091

13,796
1,753

12,988
1,131

12,120
733

15,555
599

20,322
520

13,197
190

23,327
164

50,971
21,635

8,356
32,770
19,938
10,531
34,618
22,134
9,000
1,746
1,738

2,383
4,844
2,293
862
1,662
1,232
336
51
43

1,703
5,036
2,374
1,040
1,702
1,252
349
65
36

1,275
4,508
2,337
1,100
2,168
1,610
425
90
42

1,183
5,462
3,213
1,534
3,563
2,554
780
111
118

1,046
6,151
4,041
2,262
6,304
4,321
1,573
207
201

455
3,290
2,471
1,606
5,184
3,345
1,446
172
221

313
3,482
3,210
2,125
14,034
7,817
4,094
1,051
1,076

25,604
39,647
48,413
56,789
82,722
75,518
91,660
123,784
120,873

26,172
43,712
47,654
38,302
7,023
2,330

9,911
4,825
591
554
35
2

6,178
6,397
1,446
1,320
104
23

3,784
6,725
2,494
2,255
213
27

2,989
8,321
5,297
4,614
594
88

2,059
8,374
10,847
9,139
1,377
330

609
3,733
9,207
7,274
1,519
414

638
5,336
17,772
13,147
3,180
1,445

19,514
41,133
82,165
78,473
93,835
116,673

117,538
78,888
65,214
54,135
6,520
4,558
13,674
7,618
2,836
3,220
38,650

15,329
4,583
2,379
1,043
503
834
2,203
912
473
821
10,746

14,023
6,498
4,533
3,128
743
662
1,965
1,058
449
458
7,524

13,003
7,614
5,921
4,580
765
577
1,694
1,003
342
349
5,388

16,607
11,384
9,514
7,790
1,003
721
1,871
1,073
358
440
5,223

21,280
16,522
14,249
12,072
1,387
791
2,273
1,326
483
465
4,756

13,549
11,458
10,115
8,845
821
450
1,342
805
251
287
2,092

23,749
20,828
18,503
16,681
1,301
524
2,325
1,444
481
401
2,921

49,777
62,508
66,777
71,246
53,397
38,762
41,914
46,053
40,961
34,395
26,590

78,779
37,080
1,679

6,170
8,628
531

7,462
6,291
271

7,522
5,266
215

10,585
5,797
225

15,190
5,856
233

10,981
2,469
98

20,870
2,775
105

61,588
31,463
26,199

For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover. 2 People 25 years old and over.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table HINC-01, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/hhinc/new01_000.htm>.
1

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 453

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 693. Money Income of Households—Number and Distribution by Race
and Hispanic Origin: 2009
[Households as of March of the following year. (117,538 represents 117,538,000). Based on Current Population Survey,
Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section and Section 1, and Appendix III. The 2009 CPS allowed
respondents to choose more than one race. Data represent persons who selected this race group only and excludes persons
reporting more than one race. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1]
Income interval
All households. . . . . . . . .

Number of households (1,000)
All
White
Black
Asian
races
alone
alone
alone
117,538 95,489 14,730
4,687

Hispanic 1
13,298

All
races
100.0

Percent distribution
White
Black
Asian
alone
alone
alone
100.0
100.0
100.0

Hispanic 1
100.0

Under $10,000. . . . . . . . . . . .
$10,000 to $14,999. . . . . . . .
$15,000 to $19,999. . . . . . . .
$20,000 to $24,999. . . . . . . .
$25,000 to $29,999. . . . . . . .

8,570
6,759
6,924
7,099
6,633

5,787
5,054
5,389
5,656
5,255

2,128
1,337
1,181
1,088
1,020

347
200
183
189
197

1,249
951
989
1,032
963

7.3
5.8
5.9
6.0
5.6

6.1
5.3
5.6
5.9
5.5

14.4
9.1
8.0
7.4
6.9

7.4
4.3
3.9
4.0
4.2

9.4
7.2
7.4
7.8
7.2

$30,000 to $34,999. . . . . . . .
$35,000 to $39,999. . . . . . . .
$40,000 to $44,999. . . . . . . .
$45,000 to $49,999. . . . . . . .
$50,000 to $59,999. . . . . . . .

6,370
6,033
5,680
4,894
9,444

5,052
4,886
4,660
4,006
7,840

957
822
730
594
1,068

185
192
156
172
335

945
772
663
617
1,084

5.4
5.1
4.8
4.2
8.0

5.3
5.1
4.9
4.2
8.2

6.5
5.6
5.0
4.0
7.3

3.9
4.1
3.3
3.7
7.1

7.1
5.8
5.0
4.6
8.2

$60,000 to $74,999. . . . . . . .
$75,000 to $84,999. . . . . . . .
$85,000 to $99,999. . . . . . . .
$100,000 to $149,999. . . . . .
$150,000 to $199,999. . . . . .
$200,000 to $249,999. . . . . .
$250,000 and above. . . . . . .

11,836
6,347
7,202
14,034
5,209
2,135
2,372

9,987
5,326
6,107
12,081
4,505
1,852
2,048

1,152
662
625
928
261
79
95

457
245
308
790
362
166
197

1,258
589
626
1,042
289
115
116

10.1
5.4
6.1
11.9
4.4
1.8
2.0

10.5
5.6
6.4
12.7
4.7
1.9
2.1

7.8
4.5
4.2
6.3
1.8
0.5
0.6

9.8
5.2
6.6
16.9
7.7
3.5
4.2

9.5
4.4
4.7
7.8
2.2
0.9
0.9

Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table HINC-06, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/hhinc/new06_000.htm>.
1

Table 694. Share of Aggregate Income Received by Each Fifth and Top 5
Percent of Households: 1970 to 2009
[Households as of March of the following year, (64,778 represents 64,778,000). Income in constant 2009 CPI-U-RS-adjusted
dollars. The shares method ranks households from highest to lowest on the basis of income and then divides them into groups of
equal population size, typically quintiles. The aggregate income of each group is then divided by the overall aggregate income to
derive shares. Based on the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section
and Section 1, and Appendix III. For data collection changes over time, see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data
/historical/history.html>]

Year
1970. . . . . .
1980. . . . . .
1990. . . . . .
1995 1 . . . .
2000 2, 3. . .
2002. . . . . .
2003. . . . . .
2004. . . . . .
2005 4 . . . .
2006. . . . . .
2007. . . . . .
2008. . . . . .
2009. . . . . .

Number
of
households
(1,000)
64,778
82,368
94,312
99,627
108,209
111,278
112,000
113,343
114,384
116,011
116,783
117,181
117,538

Income at selected positions in
constant (2009) dollars
Upper limit of each fifth
Lowest Second
18,180 34,827
18,533 34,757
19,886 37,644
20,124 37,613
22,320 41,103
21,361 39,795
20,974 39,652
20,992 39,375
21,071 39,554
21,314 40,185
20,991 40,448
20,633 38,852
20,453 38,550

Third
50,656
53,285
57,591
58,698
64,985
63,384
63,505
62,716
63,352
63,830
64,138
62,487
61,801

Fourth
72,273
78,019
87,826
91,012
101,844
100,170
101,307
99,930
100,757
103,226
103,448
99,860
100,000

Percent distribution of aggregate income
Top 5
percent
114,243
125,556
150,735
157,919
180,879
178,844
179,740
178,453
182,386
185,119
183,103
179,317
180,001

Lowest Second
5th
5th
4.1
10.8
4.2
10.2
3.8
9.6
3.7
9.1
3.6
8.9
3.5
8.8
3.4
8.7
3.4
8.7
3.4
8.6
3.4
8.6
3.4
8.7
3.4
8.6
3.4
8.6

Third
5th
17.4
16.8
15.9
15.2
14.8
14.8
14.8
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.8
14.7
14.6

Fourth Highest
5th
5th
24.5
43.3
24.7
44.1
24.0
46.6
23.3
48.7
23.0
49.8
23.3
49.7
23.4
49.8
23.2
50.1
23.0
50.4
22.9
50.5
23.4
49.7
23.3
50.0
23.2
50.3

Top 5
percent
16.6
16.5
18.5
21.0
22.1
21.7
21.4
21.8
22.2
22.3
21.2
21.5
21.7

1
Data reflect full implementation of the 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household
sample reduction, and revised race edits. 2 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 3 Implementation of a
28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Tables H1 and H2, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/income/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/household/index.html>.

454 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 695. Money Income of Families—Number and Distribution by Race and
Hispanic Origin: 2009
[Families as of March of the following year. (78,867 represents 78,867,000). Based on Current Population Survey, Annual Social
and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and Appendix III. The 2010 CPS allowed respondents to
choose more than one race. Data represent persons who selected this race group only and excludes persons reporting more than
one race. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1]
Income interval
All families 1. . . . . . . . .
Under $10,000. . . . . . . . . .
$10,000 to $14,999. . . . . .
$15,000 to $19,999. . . . . .
$20,000 to $24,999. . . . . .
$25,000 to $29,999. . . . . .
$30,000 to $34,999. . . . . .
$35,000 to $39,999. . . . . .
$40,000 to $44,999. . . . . .
$45,000 to $49,999. . . . . .
$50,000 to $59,999. . . . . .
$60,000 to $74,999. . . . . .
$75,000 to $84,999. . . . . .
$85,000 to $99,999. . . . . .
$100,000 to $149,999. . . .
$150,000 to $199,999. . . .
$200,000 to $249,999. . . .
$250,000 and above. . . . .

All
races
78,867
4,068
2,758
3,268
3,925
3,984
3,879
3,928
3,696
3,274
6,584
8,677
4,929
5,739
11,721
4,467
1,896
2,073

Number of families (1,000)
White
Black
Asian
alone
alone
alone
64,145
9,367
3,592
2,698
1,062
156
1,947
620
93
2,365
687
125
3,029
667
127
3,067
666
145
3,050
581
137
3,154
545
137
3,042
459
110
2,661
418
128
5,426
736
284
7,328
803
352
4,143
504
196
4,878
489
247
10,083
756
696
3,852
226
321
1,635
68
158
1,789
82
179

Hispanic 1
10,422
915
673
754
780
755
732
633
531
508
854
1,009
482
510
852
240
94
103

All
races
100.0
5.2
3.5
4.1
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
4.2
8.3
11.0
6.2
7.3
14.9
5.7
2.4
2.6

Percent distribution
White
Black
Asian
alone
alone
alone
100.0
100.0
100.0
4.2
11.3
4.3
3.0
6.6
2.6
3.7
7.3
3.5
4.7
7.1
3.5
4.8
7.1
4.0
4.8
6.2
3.8
4.9
5.8
3.8
4.7
4.9
3.1
4.1
4.5
3.6
8.5
7.9
7.9
11.4
8.6
9.8
6.5
5.4
5.5
7.6
5.2
6.9
15.7
8.1
19.4
6.0
2.4
8.9
2.5
0.7
4.4
2.8
0.9
5.0

Hispanic 1
100.0
8.8
6.5
7.2
7.5
7.2
7.0
6.1
5.1
4.9
8.2
9.7
4.6
4.9
8.2
2.3
0.9
1.0

Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table FINC-07, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/faminc/new07_000.htm>.
1

Table 696. Money Income of Families—Percent Distribution by Income Level
in Constant (2009) Dollars: 1980 to 2009
[Constant dollars based on CPI-U-RS deflator. Families as of March of following year, (66,322 represents 66,322,000). Based on
Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and Appendix III.
For data collection changes over time, see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/history.html>. For definition of
median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
Year
ALL FAMILIES 1
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 4, 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3, 4, 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 4, 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3, 4, 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN AND
PACIFIC ISLANDER
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008 4, 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3, 4, 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HISPANIC ORIGIN 8
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2000 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2009 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percent distribution
$25,000 $35,000 $50,000
to
to
to
$34,999 $49,999 $74,999

Number
of
families
(1,000)

Under
$15,000

$15,000
to
$24,999

66,322
73,778
78,874
78,867

8.7
7.0
8.4
8.7

9.4
8.6
9.2
9.1

10.3
9.3
9.9
10.0

15.6
14.3
13.7
13.8

22.5
19.8
19.3
19.4

14.6
15.1
14.2
13.5

19.1
26.2
26.0
25.6

54,369
61,083
61,521
60,088

56,803
61,330
64,183
64,145

6.6
5.7
6.9
7.2

8.7
7.9
8.5
8.4

10.0
9.0
9.5
9.5

15.8
14.2
13.4
13.8

23.3
20.1
19.8
19.9

15.4
15.8
15.0
14.1

20.4
27.7
27.5
27.0

56,771
63,849
65,000
62,545

7,471
8,731
9,359
9,367

23.9
15.7
18.2
18.0

14.7
14.0
14.4
14.5

12.5
12.8
12.8
13.3

14.4
15.8
15.3
15.2

17.5
18.7
16.6
16.4

8.8
10.3
9.8
10.6

8.2
13.0
13.4
12.1

32,946
40,547
39,879
38,409

1,536
2,982
3,494
3,592

8.1
6.2
7.7
6.9

7.8
6.4
7.2
7.0

8.2
6.4
7.6
7.9

11.6
11.7
12.8
10.4

21.2
17.3
16.0
17.7

15.0
15.5
13.0
12.3

28.5
37.0
36.6
37.7

64,969
75,393
73,578
75,027

4,981
8,017
10,503
10,422

17.0
12.8
15.5
15.2

16.3
14.6
14.6
14.7

13.6
13.0
14.1
14.3

17.3
18.1
16.8
16.0

19.1
19.4
17.2
17.9

8.5
10.5
9.6
9.5

8.2
12.0
12.5
12.4

36,034
41,469
40,466
39,730

$75,000
to $100,000
$99,999 and over

Median
income
(dollars)

1
Includes other races not shown separately. 2 Data reflect implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and
a 28,000 household sample expansion to 78,000 households. 3 Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals.
Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000
or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval
was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. 4 Beginning with the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS), the questionnaire
allowed respondents to choose more than one race. For 2002 and later, data represent persons who selected this race group only
and excludes persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior years allowed respondents to report only one race group.
See also comments on race in the text for Section 1. 5 Data represent White alone, which refers to people who reported White and
did not report any other race category. 6 Data represent Black alone, which refers to people who reported Black and did not report
any other race category. 7 Data represent Asian alone, which refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race
category. 8 People of Hispanic origin may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table F-23, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/families/index.html>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 455

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 697. Money Income of Families—Median Income by Race and Hispanic
Origin in Current and Constant (2009) Dollars: 1990 to 2009
[In dollars. See headnote, Table 696]
Year
1990. . . . . . . . . .
1995 6 . . . . . . . .
2000 7, 8 . . . . . . .
2004 9, 10. . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . .
2009 11. . . . . . . .

All
families 1
35,353
40,611
50,732
54,061
56,194
58,407
61,355
61,521
60,088

Median income in current dollars
Asian,
Pacific
White 2
Black 3 Islander 4
36,915
21,423
42,246
42,646
25,970
46,356
53,029
33,676
62,617
56,723
35,148
65,420
59,317
35,464
68,957
61,280
38,269
74,612
64,427
40,143
77,133
65,000
39,879
73,578
62,545
38,409
75,027

Hispanic 5
23,431
24,570
34,442
35,440
37,867
40,000
40,566
40,466
39,730

Median income in constant (2009) dollars
Asian,
All
Pacific
Hisfamilies 1
White 2
Black 3 Islander 4
panic 5
56,243
58,728
34,082
67,210
37,277
56,755
59,598
36,293
64,783
34,337
63,189
66,050
41,945
77,993
42,899
61,389
64,411
39,912
74,287
40,244
61,741
65,172
38,965
75,764
41,605
62,135
65,191
40,712
79,374
42,553
63,471
66,649
41,527
79,793
41,965
61,288
64,753
39,728
73,299
40,312
60,088
62,545
38,409
75,027
39,730

1
Includes other races not shown separately. 2 Beginning with 2002, data represent White alone, which refers to people who
reported White and did not report any other race category. 3 Beginning with 2002, data represent Black alone, which refers to
people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 4 Beginning with 2002, data represent Asian alone, which
refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 5 People of Hispanic origin may be any race.
6
Data reflect full implementation of the 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample
reduction, and revised race edits. 7 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 8 Implementation of 28,000
household sample expansion. 9 See footnote 4, Table 696. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1. 10 Data have been
revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 11 Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals.
Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000
or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval
was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table F-05, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/families/index.html>.

Table 698. Money Income of Families—Distribution by Family Characteristics
and Income Level: 2009
[78,867 represents 78,867,000. See headnote, Table 696. Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning
with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more.
Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was
$100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. For composition of regions, see map inside front cover]
Characteristic
All families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age of householder:
15 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region:
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type of family:
Married-couple families. . . . . . . . . . . .
Male householder, no spouse present.
Female householder, no spouse
present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unrelated subfamilies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Educational attainment of householder:
Persons 25 years old and over,
total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less than 9th grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9th to 12th grade (no diploma) . . . . . . .
High school graduate (includes
equivalency) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some college, no degree. . . . . . . . . . . .
Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree or more . . . . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master’s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doctoral degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of earners:
No earners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
One earner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two earners or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of families (1,000)
$15,000 $25,000 $35,000 $50,000 $75,000
Median
Under
to
to
to
to
to $100,000 income
Total $15,000 $24,999 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 $99,999 and over (dollars)
78,867
6,827
7,194
7,863 10,898 15,260 10,668 20,157 60,088
3,405
13,102
17,067
18,176
13,711
13,405

981
1,791
1,345
1,087
777
845

505
1,436
1,336
1,103
893
1,921

436
1,415
1,450
1,208
1,103
2,250

531
1,867
2,232
2,024
1,711
2,532

515
2,658
3,288
3,567
2,690
2,543

197
1,659
2,554
2,895
2,006
1,357

240
2,275
4,863
6,291
4,531
1,957

29,893
50,312
65,196
75,707
71,650
43,702

14,125
17,465
29,719
17,558

1,046
1,488
2,912
1,380

1,080
1,525
3,072
1,517

1,312
1,712
3,240
1,600

1,759
2,366
4,397
2,375

2,564
3,661
5,619
3,418

1,909
2,552
3,895
2,311

4,454
4,160
6,583
4,956

66,977
60,688
54,913
62,229

58,428
5,582

2,339
811

3,761
740

4,964
744

7,546
969

12,018
1,095

9,182
555

18,617
668

71,627
41,501

14,857
521

3,677
223

2,691
108

2,154
69

2,383
51

2,149
47

931
15

870
8

29,770
17,447

75,462
3,323
5,513

5,846
707
1,118

6,688
787
1,058

7,428
567
935

10,367
502
932

14,746
454
824

10,472
167
392

19,916
140
255

61,443
27,114
31,119

22,054
13,502
7,413
23,657
14,956
6,193
1,265
1,244

1,994
1,031
422
573
437
106
18
12

2,532
1,185
487
639
490
118
12
19

2,866
1,373
621
1,065
784
217
50
14

3,897
2,092
1,060
1,881
1,379
378
60
63

4,869
3,009
1,697
3,894
2,750
892
133
118

2,794
2,025
1,286
3,810
2,475
1,054
119
160

3,102 48,637
2,786 58,258
1,840 65,248
11,795 99,707
6,641 90,530
3,426 106,931
875 150,795
855 135,681

12,205
25,981
40,680

3,410
2,966
451

2,498
3,636
1,059

2,167
3,806
1,890

1,871
4,712
4,315

1,355
4,865
9,039

461
2,313
7,897

445
3,681
16,029

25,740
42,010
85,299

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table FINC-01, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/faminc/new01_000.htm>.

456 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 699. Median Income of Families by Type of Family in Current and
Constant (2009) Dollars: 1990 to 2009
[In dollars. See headnote, Table 696. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
Current dollars
Married-couple families
Year

1990. . . . . . .
1995 1 . . . . .
2000 2, 3 . . . .
2005 4 . . . . .
2006. . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . .
2009 5 . . . . .

All
families
35,353
40,611
50,732
56,194
58,407
61,355
61,521
60,088

Total
39,895
47,062
59,099
65,906
69,404
72,589
72,743
71,627

Wife Wife not
in paid in paid
labor
labor
force
force
46,777 30,265
55,823 32,375
69,235 39,982
78,755 44,457
82,788 45,757
86,435 47,329
86,621 48,502
85,948 47,649

Constant (2009) dollars
Male Female
house- householder, holder,
no
no
spouse spouse
All
present present families
29,046 16,932 56,243
30,358 19,691 56,755
37,727 25,716 63,189
41,111 27,244 61,741
41,844 28,829 62,135
44,358 30,296 63,471
43,571 30,129 61,288
41,501 29,770 60,088

Married-couple families

Total
63,469
65,770
73,611
72,412
73,834
75,092
72,467
71,627

Male
houseWife Wife not holder,
in paid in paid
no
labor
labor spouse
force
force present
74,418 48,149 46,210
78,014 45,245 42,426
86,236 49,800 46,991
86,529 48,845 45,169
88,072 48,678 44,515
89,416 48,961 45,888
86,292 48,318 43,406
85,948 47,649 41,501

Female
householder,
no
spouse
present
26,937
27,518
32,031
29,933
30,669
31,341
30,015
29,770

1
Data reflect full implementation of the 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household
sample reduction, and revised race edits. 2 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 3 Implementation of a
28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 5 Median
income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper
income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table F-7, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/families/index.html>.

Table 700. Married-Couple Families—Number and Median Income by Work
Experience of Husbands and Wives and Presence of Related Children: 2009
[58,428 represents 58,428,000. See headnote, Table 696. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]

Work experience of
husband or wife

All
marriedcouple
families
All married-couple families. .
58,428
Husband worked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44,628
Wife worked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32,368
Wife did not work. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,261
Husband year-round, full-time
worker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34,828
Wife worked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,579
Wife did not work. . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,249
Husband did not work. . . . . . . . . . 13,800
Wife worked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,569
Wife did not work. . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,231

Number (1,000)
Median income (dollars)
One or more related chilOne or more related children under 18 years old
dren under 18 years old
All
With no
Two married- With no
Two
related
One children couple related
One children
children
Total
child or more families children
Total
child or more
32,309 26,119 10,273 15,846 71,627 67,376 76,649 78,682 75,703
20,621 24,008
9,232 14,776 83,267 87,091 80,646 82,594 78,764
15,247 17,121
7,089 10,032 91,320 94,201 89,128 90,498 88,032
5,374
6,887
2,142
4,745 59,686 65,642 54,532 52,094 55,666
15,321
11,668
3,653
11,688
3,271
8,417

19,507
13,911
5,596
2,111
1,297
814

7,482
5,768
1,714
1,041
641
400

12,024
8,142
3,882
1,070
656
414

90,459 94,269
97,488 100,124
65,404 72,370
38,565 38,971
50,854 53,705
33,653 34,510

87,091
95,646
60,789
35,881
43,612
23,194

89,620
96,699
57,362
38,842
46,467
27,040

85,785
94,895
61,470
32,444
41,679
17,000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table FINC-04, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/faminc/new04_000.htm>.

Table 701. Median Income of People in Constant (2009) Dollars by Sex, Race,
and Hispanic Origin: 1990 to 2009
[In dollars. People as of March of following year. People 15 years old and over. Constant dollars based on CPI-U-RS deflator. Based
on the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section and Section 1 and
Appendix III. For data collection changes over time, see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/history.html>]
Race and Hispanic
Origin
All races 4. . . . . . . . .
White 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic 8. . . . . . . . . . . .
White non-Hispanic. . . .

1990
32,284
33,680
20,472
(NA)
21,430
34,933

2000 1
35,303
37,114
26,584
(NA)
24,286
39,245

Male
2005 2
34,362
35,355
24,889
37,592
24,269
38,834

2008
33,035
34,987
25,158
36,468
23,912
37,267

2009 3
32,184
33,748
23,738
37,330
22,256
36,785

1990
16,020
16,413
13,249
(NA)
11,983
16,833

2000 1
20,007
20,027
19,781
(NA)
15,256
20,757

Female
2005 2
20,410
20,512
19,371
23,777
16,520
21,371

2008
20,788
20,870
20,120
23,021
16,355
21,666

2009 3
20,957
21,118
19,470
24,343
16,210
21,939

NA Not available. 1 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and sample expanded by 28,000 households.
Beginning with the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS), the questionnaire allowed respondents to choose more than one race.
For 2005 and later, data represent persons who selected this race group only and excludes persons reporting more than one race.
The CPS in prior years allowed respondents to report only one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1.
3
Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded
the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was
$100,000. 4 Includes other races not shown separately. 5 Beginning with 2005, data represent White alone, which refers to people
who reported White and did not report any other race category. 6 Beginning with 2005, data represent Black alone, which refers to
people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 7 Beginning with 2005, data represent Asian alone, which
refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 8 People of Hispanic origin may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table P-2, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/people/index.html>.
2

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 457

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 702. Money Income of People—Selected Characteristics by Income
Level: 2009
[People as of March 2010 (117,728 represents 117,728,000). Covers people 15 years old and over. Median income in constant
dollars based on CPI-U-RS deflator. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. Median income is calculated
using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to
calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009,
the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. For composition of regions, see map, inside front
cover. Based on the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), see Appendix III]

Characteristic

MALE
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All
persons
Total Under
(1,000) (1,000) $5,000 1
7,467

7,483

8,994

17,278

14,085

16,106

16,571

17,041

32,184

15 to 24 years old
25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . . .

21,403
20,689
20,074
21,784
16,985
16,793

13,280
19,281
19,087
20,719
16,252
16,406

4,148
911
609
785
660
353

2,476
1,270
774
978
809
1,179

1,723
1,478
1,095
1,217
1,248
2,233

2,477
3,414
2,461
2,523
2,242
4,160

1,156
3,273
2,500
2,457
2,043
2,655

782
3,654
3,555
3,484
2,420
2,213

392
3,278
3,782
4,192
3,029
1,898

123
2,003
4,311
5,081
3,803
1,719

10,036
31,914
42,224
44,731
41,296
25,877

Region:
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21,357
25,753
42,933
27,684

19,117
23,354
37,974
24,580

1,316
1,750
2,627
1,774

1,182
1,602
3,064
1,637

1,461
1,908
3,554
2,072

3,029
3,846
6,443
3,961

2,465
3,296
5,122
3,203

2,700
3,853
5,884
3,669

3,235
3,812
5,657
3,866

3,730
3,285
5,623
4,399

35,414
32,060
31,047
33,191

96,325
5,211
7,705
30,682
15,908
7,662

91,745
4,736
6,948
28,946
15,184
7,399

3,319
260
435
1,165
564
231

5,008
819
818
1,802
735
261

7,271
1,032
1,194
2,610
1,101
394

14,801
1,363
1,889
6,033
2,292
954

12,930
631
1,137
5,223
2,448
1,023

15,324
376
793
5,560
2,924
1,531

16,177
189
471
4,433
3,124
1,751

16,916
65
207
2,118
1,996
1,253

36,801
16,473
19,720
30,303
36,693
42,163

29,158
18,674
6,859
1,861
1,763

28,532
18,205
6,728
1,844
1,755

663
502
120
26
16

574
421
111
17
26

940
696
176
41
27

2,268
1,642
428
106
90

2,464
1,867
441
77
80

4,140
2,947
853
166
175

6,207
4,114
1,553
236
303

83,038
33,150

74,848
28,837

5,080
2,258

4,260
3,087

5,358
3,471

10,714
6,269

9,377
4,483

11,829
4,087

13,280
3,168

14,953
2,014

37,482
23,556

1,539

1,340

129

138

165

294

224

191

123

74

22,113

124,440 106,229

Educational attainment of
householder: 2
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less than 9th grade. . . . . . .
9th to 12th grade 3. . . . . . . .
High school graduate 4 . . . .
Some college, no degree. . .
Associate’s degree . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree
or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree. . . . . . .
Master’s degree. . . . . . . . .
Professional degree. . . . . .
Doctoral degree. . . . . . . . .
Tenure:
Owner-occupied . . . . . . . .
Renter-occupied . . . . . . . .
Occupier paid
no cash rent. . . . . . . . . . .
FEMALE
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117,728 105,025

People with income
Number (1,000)
Median
$5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $25,000 $35,000 $50,000 $75,000 income
to
to
to
to
to
to
and (current
$9,999 $14,999 $24,999 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999
over dollars)

11,275 61,280
6,017 54,091
3,047 69,825
1,174 102,398
1,040 89,845

12,632

14,338

13,379

19,836

14,433

13,711

10,849

7,051

20,957

15 to 24 years old . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . . .

20,837
20,396
20,373
22,604
18,410
21,820

12,804
17,498
17,913
20,418
16,694
20,901

4,228
1,890
2,001
1,902
1,638
972

2,634
1,606
1,495
1,793
1,961
4,847

1,930
1,721
1,631
1,815
1,849
4,434

2,307
3,440
2,860
3,356
2,865
5,012

1,033
2,981
2,797
3,138
2,339
2,143

460
2,943
3,040
3,385
2,328
1,556

164
1,998
2,415
2,910
2,126
1,234

48
916
1,672
2,120
1,590
699

8,950
25,236
27,894
28,617
25,112
15,282

Region:
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23,152
27,072
45,949
28,267

20,123
23,794
38,648
23,665

2,388
2,757
4,466
3,022

2,555
3,235
5,456
3,092

2,360
2,991
5,147
2,881

3,499
4,647
7,461
4,229

2,754
3,339
5,250
3,091

2,729
3,128
4,919
2,936

2,201
2,380
3,750
2,518

1,634
1,318
2,200
1,898

22,067
20,987
20,261
21,131

93,426
4,036
6,175
28,154
16,208
9,936

8,404
530
663
2,479
1,435
801

11,703
1,358
1,652
4,464
1,819
870

11,449
1,008
1,408
4,474
1,913
963

17,531
781
1,453
6,833
3,492
1,891

13,400
232
558
4,628
2,818
1,751

13,250
56
273
3,188
2,619
1,774

10,685
54
128
1,542
1,472
1,317

7,002
17
44
544
639
571

23,159
10,516
12,278
18,340
23,107
27,027

28,917
18,844
7,945
1,142
987

2,497
1,824
553
78
41

1,541
1,182
302
23
32

1,683
1,257
336
60
30

3,083
2,265
677
99
41

3,414
2,572
681
92
72

5,340
3,736
1,340
142
122

6,170
3,604
2,121
205
241

5,188
2,405
1,933
442
407

40,766
35,972
50,576
60,259
65,587

86,992
35,923

75,755
29,240

8,923
3,509

9,321
4,798

8,653
4,519

13,204
6,379

10,125
4,142

10,487
3,131

8,974
1,818

6,069
944

22,608
17,204

1,525

1,234

201

217

206

255

167

93

56

40

14,762

Educational attainment of
householder: 2
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103,603
Less than 9th grade. . . . . . .
5,240
9th to 12th grade 3. . . . . . . .
7,555
High school graduate 4 . . . . 31,774
Some college, no degree. . . 17,753
Associate’s degree . . . . . . . 10,597
Bachelor’s degree
or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30,683
Bachelor’s degree. . . . . . . 20,110
Master’s degree. . . . . . . . .
8,344
Professional degree. . . . . .
1,213
Doctoral degree. . . . . . . . .
1,015
Tenure:
Owner-occupied . . . . . . . .
Renter-occupied . . . . . . . .
Occupier paid no cash
rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Includes persons with income deficit. 2 Persons 25 years and over. 3 No diploma attained. 4 Includes high school equivalency.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table PINC-01, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/perinc/new01_000.htm>
1

458 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 703. Average Earnings of Year-Round, Full-Time Workers by
Educational Attainment: 2009
[In dollars. For people 18 years old and over as of March 2010. See headnote, Table 701]
Sex and age
Male, total. . . . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years old . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . .
Female, total. . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years old . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . .

All
workers
62,445
29,599
49,105
66,788
71,661
71,222
67,007
44,857
24,117
40,475
47,260
48,929
48,232

Less than
9th grade
26,604
20,041
25,067
26,685
28,067
29,648
27,375
19,588
(B)
18,278
19,963
19,591
20,469

High school
9th to 12th
grade (no High school
diploma)
graduate 1
33,194
43,140
19,556
27,822
27,074
38,037
39,949
43,518
36,239
48,224
36,837
47,164
35,278
55,241
23,478
32,227
16,921
22,620
21,996
27,993
24,218
32,947
23,987
34,145
26,729
34,900

College
Some
college,
no degree
52,580
29,564
44,020
55,686
61,072
60,230
58,899
36,553
21,127
32,229
38,057
42,068
41,707

Associate
degree
55,631
33,915
48,313
58,689
62,000
58,176
45,783
42,307
26,922
36,202
42,092
47,716
45,938

Bachelor’s
degree
or more
92,815
42,299
67,555
98,045
109,163
99,572
88,853
62,198
32,103
52,102
65,881
69,698
67,683

B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of derived figure. 1 Includes equivalency.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, series P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table PINC-04, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/perinc/new04_000.htm>.

Table 704. Per Capita Money Income in Current and Constant (2009) Dollars
by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1990 to 2009
[In dollars. Constant dollars based on CPI-U-RS deflator. People as of March of following year. Based on the Current Population
Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and Appendix III. For data collection
changes over time, see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/history.html>]
Year
1990. . . . . . . .
1995 6 . . . . . .
2000 7, 8 . . . . .
2005 9, 10. . . . .
2006. . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . .
2009 11. . . . . .

All
races 1
14,387
17,227
22,346
25,036
26,352
26,804
26,964
26,530

Current dollars
Asian and
Pacific
2
3
White
Black
Islander 4
15,265
9,017
(NA)
18,304
10,982
16,567
23,582
14,796
23,350
26,496
16,874
27,331
27,821
17,902
30,474
28,325
18,428
29,901
28,502
18,406
30,292
28,034
18,135
30,653

Hispanic 5
8,424
9,300
12,651
14,483
15,421
15,603
15,674
15,063

All
races 1
22,888
24,075
27,833
27,507
28,034
27,728
26,862
26,530

Constant (2009) dollars
Asian and
Pacific
2
3
White
Black
Islander 4
24,285
14,345
(NA)
25,580
15,348
23,153
29,373
18,429
29,084
29,111
18,540
30,029
29,597
19,045
32,419
29,302
19,063
30,932
28,394
18,336
30,177
28,034
18,135
30,653

Hispanic 5
13,402
12,997
15,757
15,913
16,405
16,141
15,615
15,063

NA Not available. 1 Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Beginning with 2003, data represents White alone, which
refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. 3 Beginning with 2003, data represents Black
alone, which refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 4 Beginning with 2003, data
represents Asian alone, which refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 5 People of
Hispanic origin may be any race. 6 Data reflect full implementation of the 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan
definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised race edits. 7 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
8
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 9 See footnote 4, Table 696. See also comments on race in the text for
Section 1. 10 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 11 Median income is calculated using
$2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to
calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table P-1, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/income.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/people/index.html>.

Table 705. Money Income of People—Number by Income Level and by Sex,
Race, and Hispanic Origin: 2009
[In thousands (117,728 represents 117,728,000). People as of March of the following year. Based on Current Population Survey,
Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and Appendix III]
Income interval
All households. . . . . . . . . .
Under $10,000 3. . . . . . . . . . . .
$10,000 to $19,999. . . . . . . . .
$20,000 to $29,999. . . . . . . . .
$30,000 to $39,999. . . . . . . . .
$40,000 to $49,999. . . . . . . . .
$50,000 to $59,999. . . . . . . . .
$60,000 to $74,999. . . . . . . . .
$75,000 to $84,999. . . . . . . . .
$85,000 to $99,999. . . . . . . . .
$100,000 to $149,999. . . . . . .
$150,000 to $199,999. . . . . . .
$200,000 to $249,999. . . . . . .
$250,000 and above. . . . . . . .

All
races 1
117,728
27,653
17,803
15,585
12,835
10,240
8,249
8,322
3,743
3,456
5,863
1,924
875
1,181

White
alone
96,190
20,216
14,453
12,913
10,721
8,717
7,077
7,147
3,256
3,020
5,127
1,713
791
1,037

Male
Black
alone
13,314
5,020
2,241
1,686
1,295
943
696
632
239
182
226
69
22
62

Asian
alone
5,287
1,377
638
557
522
390
341
389
196
208
438
113
52
69

HisAll
panic 2 races 1
17,679 124,440
5,488 45,180
3,749 23,958
2,887 16,924
1,948 12,326
1,184
8,151
796
5,748
666
5,101
259
1,915
213
1,710
315
2,382
83
572
34
193
57
279

White
alone
99,380
35,137
19,263
13,609
9,968
6,654
4,779
4,187
1,568
1,399
1,912
495
165
244

Female
Black
alone
16,054
6,167
3,358
2,246
1,612
970
608
530
182
134
204
30
6
10

Asian
alone
5,916
2,494
785
671
469
356
257
301
124
156
222
43
19
20

Hispanic 2
16,609
8,339
3,318
2,013
1,206
620
377
329
124
77
149
27
9
22

1
Includes races not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 3 Includes persons without income.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table PINC-11, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/perinc/new11_000.htm>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 459

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 706. Household Income—Distribution by Income Level and State: 2009
[In thousands (113,616 represents 113,616,000), except as indicated. The American Community Survey universe includes
the household population and the population living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters. Based on a sample
and subject to sampling variability; see text, Section 1 and Appendix III. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
State

Number of households (1,000)
$25,000
$50,000
$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 $200,000
to
to
to
to
to
or
$49,999
$74,999
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999
more
28,510
20,841
13,687
13,332
4,712
4,468

Median
income
(dollars)
50,221

United States. . . . . . .

Total
113,616

Under
$25,000
28,066

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,848
237
2,277
1,125
12,215

592
35
562
381
2,530

503
51
604
322
2,733

314
46
435
197
2,155

192
38
274
101
1,548

161
41
256
83
1,780

46
14
76
21
748

39
11
69
20
722

40,489
66,953
48,745
37,823
58,931

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,910
1,326
327
249
6,988

409
243
66
60
1,867

455
259
77
48
1,993

361
230
66
38
1,289

252
176
44
27
748

261
221
46
32
661

94
92
16
18
214

79
104
13
25
215

55,430
67,034
56,860
59,290
44,736

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,469
446
558
4,757
2,478

933
78
143
1,095
642

888
97
166
1,118
708

632
83
115
886
488

403
67
66
619
287

367
73
48
614
239

128
28
12
214
66

119
20
10
213
48

47,590
64,098
44,926
53,966
45,424

Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,227
1,105
1,694
1,688
545

304
277
547
519
146

336
300
466
442
150

244
214
294
282
110

158
134
175
184
64

127
111
143
167
49

31
36
37
50
14

27
32
32
43
11

48,044
47,817
40,072
42,492
45,734

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . .

2,095
2,475
3,820
2,086
1,095

335
507
1,046
437
395

416
487
1,033
504
294

377
423
710
417
182

289
326
435
296
107

363
407
389
269
80

167
164
111
86
21

147
162
96
78
17

69,272
64,081
45,255
55,616
36,646

Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . . .

2,340
375
711
966
506

635
108
177
199
94

643
108
198
251
116

445
71
145
201
98

270
44
86
128
72

226
31
71
122
78

65
7
18
36
28

55
6
16
27
21

45,229
42,322
47,357
53,341
60,567

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . . .

3,155
742
7,188
3,646
279

562
220
1,733
1,036
71

617
201
1,588
1,005
75

528
134
1,234
659
55

428
81
858
403
36

535
69
946
341
28

239
21
387
104
7

247
17
442
99
7

68,342
43,028
54,659
43,674
47,827

Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . .

4,526
1,430
1,486
4,917
406

1,240
424
372
1,224
97

1,228
403
394
1,258
91

857
265
291
932
74

519
154
181
610
54

445
120
160
540
55

134
33
46
183
19

104
32
41
170
16

45,395
41,664
48,457
49,520
54,119

South Carolina. . . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,730
317
2,447
8,528
863

519
87
741
2,223
159

471
88
680
2,188
227

314
65
446
1,523
190

188
37
261
976
121

157
25
196
956
108

43
7
64
336
33

38
7
59
326
25

42,442
45,043
41,725
48,259
55,117

Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . .

252
2,971
2,559
749
2,272
214

58
579
522
260
534
45

63
678
613
212
603
57

55
547
492
128
465
43

33
383
349
70
303
30

28
420
360
52
248
27

9
183
124
14
65
6

6
181
99
13
55
5

51,618
59,330
56,548
37,435
49,993
52,664

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 American Community Survey, B19001, “Household Income in the Past 12 Months” and
B19013, “Median Household Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2009 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars),” <http://factfinder.census.gov/>,
accessed January 2011.

460 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 707. Family Income—Distribution by Income Level and State: 2009
[In thousands (75,531 represents 75,531,000), except as indicated. The American Community Survey universe includes
the household population and the population living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters. Based on a sample
and subject to sampling variability; see text, Section 1 and Appendix III. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
Number of families (1,000)
$50,000 $75,000 $100,000 $150,000 $200,000
to
to
to
to
and
$74,999 $99,999 $149,999 $199,999
over
14,988
10,852
11,161
4,041
3,859

United States. . . . . . . . .

Total
75,531

Less
than
$25,000
12,922

$25,000
to
$49,000
17,708

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,246
160
1,514
768
8,366

278
15
272
191
1,348

336
30
378
220
1,776

244
29
316
159
1,494

165
30
217
88
1,137

144
33
208
74
1,399

43
12
64
20
611

36
9
59
18
601

50,779
79,934
57,855
46,868
67,038

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . . . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,233
891
221
109
4,542

177
97
29
22
865

246
149
48
20
1,255

248
152
45
15
924

195
135
35
11
590

216
186
38
15
547

81
79
14
10
179

70
92
11
16
182

68,943
83,069
67,582
71,208
53,509

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,370
310
397
3,120
1,658

474
37
69
475
291

585
59
120
666
435

457
59
90
612
373

328
54
57
483
245

311
60
42
515
212

112
24
10
187
60

102
17
9
183
43

56,176
75,066
51,851
66,806
56,432

Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

798
722
1,147
1,129
348

115
110
263
248
59

197
179
313
284
92

186
160
229
211
80

135
112
152
157
52

113
100
128
146
42

28
32
34
44
12

24
30
29
38
10

61,156
60,994
49,801
53,427
56,566

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,392
1,557
2,524
1,349
754

139
184
462
165
205

234
267
641
283
205

240
267
531
289
146

212
235
361
237
93

292
323
343
229
70

143
139
101
77
19

132
142
85
70
15

84,254
81,033
56,681
69,374
45,601

Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . . . . .

1,543
236
458
632
336

285
43
70
94
34

393
63
113
157
65

335
53
109
139
72

226
38
73
94
57

197
27
63
98
67

58
7
17
28
23

49
6
15
21
18

56,318
55,010
60,102
60,829
73,856

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . .

2,172
489
4,607
2,430
172

251
108
780
488
22

362
128
951
632
41

358
98
826
497
42

325
63
631
332
31

447
59
750
303
24

208
18
311
94
6

220
15
358
85
6

83,381
51,994
66,891
54,288
63,507

Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . . . .

2,947
949
957
3,196
258

527
194
161
476
38

747
257
233
767
54

637
205
211
681
47

431
130
144
490
43

394
106
132
469
45

118
30
39
159
16

93
28
36
152
14

57,360
52,403
59,174
62,185
69,350

South Carolina. . . . . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,164
205
1,639
5,956
649

252
34
356
1,202
80

302
51
441
1,445
159

238
52
343
1,118
153

160
32
218
788
108

139
23
172
819
95

39
6
56
296
30

34
7
52
289
23

52,406
57,764
51,344
56,607
62,935

Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

159
1,988
1,651
492
1,477
143

22
257
220
113
210
17

37
411
350
148
348
35

37
376
333
101
339
33

28
288
265
61
254
26

23
338
296
47
218
23

9
156
103
12
58
6

5
160
84
11
50
5

63,483
71,270
68,360
47,659
62,638
65,532

State

Median
income
(dollars)
61,082

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 American Community Survey, B19101, “Family Income in the Past 12 Months” and
B19113, “Median Family Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2009 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars),” <http://factfinder.census.gov/>,
accessed January 2011.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 461

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 708. Household, Family, and Per Capita Income and Individuals, and
Families Below Poverty Level by City: 2009
[The American Community Survey universe includes the household population and the population living in institutions, college
dormitories, and other group quarters. Based on a sample and subject to sampling variability; see text, Section 1 and Appendix III.
For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
City
Albuquerque, NM. . . . . . . . . . . .
Anaheim, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anchorage municipality, AK. . . .
Arlington, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atlanta, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aurora, CO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Austin, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bakersfield, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baltimore, MD. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boston, MA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buffalo, NY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charlotte, NC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chicago, IL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cincinnati, OH. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleveland, OH. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Colorado Springs, CO. . . . . . . .
Columbus, OH. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corpus Christi, TX. . . . . . . . . . .
Dallas, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Denver, CO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detroit, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
El Paso, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fort Wayne, IN. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fort Worth, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fresno, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Honolulu, HI 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Houston, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indianapolis, IN 3. . . . . . . . . . . .
Jacksonville, FL. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas City, MO . . . . . . . . . . . .
Las Vegas, NV. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lexington-Fayette, KY. . . . . . . .
Long Beach, CA . . . . . . . . . . . .
Los Angeles, CA. . . . . . . . . . . .
Memphis, TN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mesa, AZ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miami, FL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Milwaukee, WI. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minneapolis, MN. . . . . . . . . . . .
Nashville-Davidson, TN 3. . . . . .
New Orleans, LA. . . . . . . . . . . .
New York, NY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Newark, NJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oakland, CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma City, OK . . . . . . . . . .
Omaha, NE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Philadelphia, PA. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phoenix, AZ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh, PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plano, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portland, OR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raleigh, NC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Riverside, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sacramento, CA . . . . . . . . . . . .
San Antonio, TX. . . . . . . . . . . . .
San Diego, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
San Francisco, CA. . . . . . . . . . .
San Jose, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Santa Ana, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seattle, WA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
St. Louis, MO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
St. Paul, MN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
St. Petersburg, FL. . . . . . . . . . .
Stockton, CA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tampa, FL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toledo, OH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tucson, AZ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tulsa, OK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia Beach, VA. . . . . . . . . . .
Washington, DC. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wichita, KS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Median
household
income
(dol.)
44,594
55,154
72,832
50,938
49,981
45,904
50,132
52,677
38,772
55,979
29,285
49,779
45,734
32,754
24,687
52,984
41,370
42,157
39,829
46,410
26,098
37,030
41,038
47,634
43,223
57,601
42,945
40,278
46,312
41,999
50,935
46,385
51,379
48,617
34,203
49,446
28,999
34,868
45,538
45,540
36,468
50,033
35,963
51,473
41,411
46,595
37,045
47,085
37,461
77,140
50,203
51,969
56,552
47,107
42,513
59,901
70,770
76,495
53,211
60,843
34,801
41,636
41,210
45,730
41,605
32,325
35,565
38,426
59,298
59,290
44,405

Median
family
income
(dol.)
54,819
60,341
82,574
60,934
61,658
55,102
62,153
56,143
47,160
64,546
36,497
60,798
52,101
47,654
31,159
67,004
50,642
50,746
42,699
58,593
31,017
42,418
52,144
54,404
48,518
75,488
47,329
50,546
55,916
55,040
58,971
66,185
57,196
52,966
40,745
58,830
34,572
39,124
59,498
54,139
43,213
56,054
40,359
59,306
54,721
61,404
45,769
53,906
50,922
96,146
61,557
70,998
63,789
54,296
51,002
73,648
86,713
84,274
50,525
89,361
39,483
53,166
52,517
49,061
47,440
41,568
45,224
50,464
67,966
71,208
56,869

Per
capita
income
(dol.)
24,597
21,675
33,498
24,560
36,912
21,917
29,233
21,496
23,267
33,889
20,003
31,270
27,138
23,593
15,583
27,556
22,809
21,088
25,941
29,878
14,213
17,580
21,145
23,399
19,407
30,917
25,563
23,049
23,694
25,189
24,246
27,652
25,791
26,096
19,388
23,195
19,449
18,290
28,131
25,965
23,475
30,885
17,396
30,327
24,195
26,377
21,661
22,209
25,109
37,032
29,137
28,775
22,244
24,471
21,053
31,140
44,038
31,224
16,439
40,743
21,208
24,702
25,451
19,369
26,154
17,816
19,124
26,072
29,301
40,797
23,878

Number
below poverty level 1
Individuals
86,771
48,755
21,442
59,715
116,092
54,125
142,930
66,135
129,796
103,197
75,259
105,805
603,218
81,919
146,122
47,306
170,889
52,984
295,464
114,053
326,764
138,368
44,801
136,577
106,934
38,374
459,355
159,734
124,302
79,853
83,261
50,112
87,465
744,567
173,343
60,165
112,141
158,245
83,562
101,004
82,469
1,546,046
62,973
69,706
99,516
61,084
374,226
331,893
66,621
22,055
88,904
61,333
43,806
87,870
261,066
181,891
93,644
109,826
65,379
63,509
92,032
61,478
36,400
62,504
64,742
73,755
123,562
74,459
27,389
104,901
57,305

Families
16,149
8,963
3,691
11,270
17,208
10,450
23,020
12,309
20,348
12,937
16,482
20,325
106,138
13,583
27,344
8,680
29,592
10,639
55,029
18,235
58,853
29,396
8,958
26,492
18,123
6,668
90,940
29,901
25,210
13,480
14,349
8,564
14,862
128,660
32,299
9,914
19,157
27,867
11,127
17,095
13,468
292,822
13,103
11,679
19,529
10,011
61,971
53,616
9,322
4,456
13,781
9,446
6,749
14,284
47,047
25,241
10,741
18,094
9,541
6,498
16,983
9,963
6,883
11,480
12,037
14,521
18,256
13,641
5,092
15,965
11,358

Percent
below poverty level 1
Individuals
16.6
14.6
7.6
15.9
22.5
16.9
18.4
20.6
21.0
16.9
28.8
15.3
21.6
25.7
35.0
12.1
22.6
19.0
23.2
19.1
36.4
22.6
18.1
19.0
22.7
10.5
20.6
20.2
15.6
16.7
14.9
17.6
19.3
19.8
26.2
13.0
26.5
27.0
22.6
17.3
23.8
18.7
23.9
17.2
18.1
13.7
25.0
21.1
23.1
8.1
16.0
15.9
15.1
19.2
19.5
14.3
11.6
11.5
19.8
10.6
26.7
22.6
15.2
22.3
19.2
23.8
23.4
19.5
6.4
18.4
15.6

Families
12.3
12.0
5.3
12.2
18.6
13.7
13.5
16.5
17.0
11.9
26.9
11.5
18.0
21.5
28.8
8.8
17.3
15.5
19.5
14.7
31.3
19.3
14.4
15.2
17.6
7.5
17.5
16.0
12.6
11.9
10.8
11.8
15.8
16.1
21.5
9.1
20.5
22.4
15.2
12.7
18.7
15.8
21.2
14.5
14.2
9.6
19.9
16.0
15.5
6.5
11.2
11.0
10.3
13.7
15.6
9.1
7.4
8.4
16.1
5.1
23.9
17.3
12.1
17.7
15.3
19.6
16.5
14.6
4.7
14.6
12.2

1
See headnote, Table 709. 2 Data shown for census designated place (CDP). 3 Represents the portion of a consolidated city
that is not within one or more separately incorporated places.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 American Community Survey, B19013, B19113, B19301, B17001, and B17010,
<http://factfinder.census.gov/>, accessed January 2011.

462 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 709. Individuals and Families Below Poverty Level—Number and Rate
by State: 2000 and 2009
[In thousands (33,311 represents 33,311,000), except as indicated. Represents number and percent below poverty in the past
12 months. Prior to 2006, the American Community Survey universe was limited to the household population and excluded the
population living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters. Poverty status was determined for all people except
institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years
old. These groups were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating poverty rates. Based on a sample and
subject to sampling variability; see Appendix III]
State
United States. . . . . . . . .

Number below poverty (1,000)
Individuals
Families
2000
2009
2000
33,311
42,868
6,615

2009
7,956

Percent below poverty
Individuals
Families
2000
2009
2000
12.2
14.3
9.3

2009
10.5

Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

672
55
780
439
4,520

805
62
1,070
527
5,129

146
11
150
96
832

167
10
175
113
887

15.6
9.1
15.6
17.0
13.7

17.5
9.0
16.5
18.8
14.2

12.4
6.8
11.6
13.0
10.7

13.4
6.2
11.6
14.8
10.6

Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . . . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

363
254
70
94
1,987

634
321
93
105
2,708

64
51
14
17
387

110
59
16
16
488

8.7
7.7
9.3
17.5
12.8

12.9
9.4
10.8
18.4
14.9

5.7
5.8
6.7
15.4
9.3

8.9
6.7
7.1
14.6
10.7

Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

999
103
144
1,335
592

1,575
131
216
1,677
897

206
19
26
262
113

301
23
39
309
178

12.6
8.8
11.4
11.1
10.1

16.5
10.4
14.3
13.3
14.4

10.0
6.8
7.7
8.6
7.1

12.7
7.5
9.9
9.9
10.7

Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

281
247
640
862
124

343
365
777
755
158

53
43
148
182
22

61
65
165
150
29

10.0
9.5
16.4
20.0
10.1

11.8
13.4
18.6
17.3
12.3

7.0
6.2
13.5
16.0
6.6

7.7
9.0
14.4
13.3
8.3

Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

477
586
975
328
498

505
655
1,577
563
624

89
110
196
66
104

85
109
292
95
131

9.3
9.6
10.1
6.9
18.2

9.1
10.3
16.2
11.0
21.9

6.6
7.1
7.7
5.1
14.2

6.1
7.0
11.6
7.0
17.3

Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . . . . .

606
117
158
194
63

849
143
215
322
109

118
23
28
34
11

168
23
39
57
19

11.2
13.4
9.6
9.9
5.3

14.6
15.1
12.3
12.4
8.5

7.7
9.5
6.5
6.9
3.5

10.9
9.9
8.4
9.0
5.5

New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . .

651
320
2,391
1,018
71

799
354
2,692
1,478
72

126
64
491
203
14

151
66
498
289
11

7.9
18.0
13.1
13.1
11.6

9.4
18.0
14.2
16.3
11.7

6.0
14.2
10.7
9.6
8.1

7.0
13.6
10.8
11.9
6.6

Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . . . .

1,216
459
439
1,240
108

1,710
578
535
1,517
116

246
100
84
247
23

328
115
94
275
22

11.1
13.8
13.2
10.5
10.7

15.2
16.2
14.3
12.5
11.5

8.4
11.0
9.5
7.8
8.5

11.1
12.1
9.8
8.6
8.6

South Carolina. . . . . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

557
83
745
3,056
192

754
111
1,052
4,150
316

123
16
158
639
40

150
18
215
800
51

14.4
11.5
13.5
15.1
8.8

17.1
14.2
17.1
17.2
11.5

11.7
8.4
10.5
12.3
7.2

12.9
9.0
13.1
13.4
7.8

Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63
630
667
327
461
55

68
803
804
313
683
52

12
124
127
72
75
10

12
148
133
68
121
9

10.7
9.2
11.6
18.6
8.9
11.4

11.4
10.5
12.3
17.7
12.4
9.8

7.5
6.8
8.6
14.7
5.6
7.9

7.3
7.5
8.1
13.9
8.2
6.3

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 American Community Survey, B17001, “Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months by Sex and
Age” and B17010, “Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months of Families by Family Type by Presence of Related Children under
18 Years by Age of Related Children,” <http://factfinder.census.gov/>, accessed January 2011.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 463

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 710. Poverty Thresholds by Size of Family Unit: 1980 to 2009
[In dollars per year. For information on the official poverty thresholds; see text, this section. For more on poverty,
see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html>]
Size of family unit
One person (unrelated individual) 2. . . . .
Under 65 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Householder under 65 years old. . . . . .
Householder 65 years old and over. . . .
Three persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Five persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Six persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seven persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eight persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nine or more persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1980
4,190
4,290
3,949
5,363
5,537
4,983
6,565
8,414
9,966
11,269
12,761
14,199
16,896

1990
6,652
6,800
6,268
8,509
8,794
7,905
10,419
13,359
15,792
17,839
20,241
22,582
26,848

1995
7,763
7,929
7,309
9,933
10,259
9,219
12,158
15,569
18,408
20,804
23,552
26,237
31,280

2000 1
8,791
8,959
8,259
11,235
11,589
10,418
13,740
17,604
20,815
23,533
26,750
29,701
35,150

2005
9,973
10,160
9,367
12,755
13,145
11,815
15,577
19,971
23,613
26,683
30,249
33,610
40,288

2006
10,294
10,488
9,669
13,167
13,569
12,201
16,079
20,614
24,382
27,560
31,205
34,774
41,499

2007
10,590
10,787
9,944
13,540
13,954
12,550
16,530
21,203
25,080
28,323
32,233
35,816
42,739

2008
10,991
11,201
10,326
14,051
14,417
13,014
17,163
22,025
26,049
29,456
33,529
37,220
44,346

2009
10,956
11,161
10,289
13,991
14,366
12,968
17,098
21,954
25,991
29,405
33,372
37,252
44,366

1
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and sample expanded by 28,000 households. 2 A person living
alone or with non-relatives.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-236, and Historical Tables—Table 1, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty
.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html>.

Table 711. People Below Poverty Level and Below 125 Percent of Poverty
Level by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 2009
[29,272 represents 29,272,000. People as of March of the following year. Based on Current Population Survey, Annual Social
and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and Appendix III. For data collection changes over time,
see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/history.html>]
Number of persons below poverty
(1,000)
Year

1980. . . . . . . . .
1985. . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . .
1992 7 . . . . . . .
1993 8 . . . . . . .
1994. . . . . . . . .
1995. . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . .
1999 9 . . . . . . .
2000 10. . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . .
2002 11. . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . .
2004 12. . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . .
2009. . . . . . . . .

All
races 2
29,272
33,064
31,745
31,528
33,585
35,708
38,014
39,265
38,059
36,425
36,529
35,574
34,476
32,791
31,581
32,907
34,570
35,861
37,040
36,950
36,460
37,276
39,829
43,569

White 3
19,699
22,860
20,715
20,785
22,326
23,747
25,259
26,226
25,379
24,423
24,650
24,396
23,454
22,169
21,645
22,739
23,466
24,272
25,327
24,872
24,416
25,120
26,990
29,830

Black 4
8,579
8,926
9,356
9,302
9,837
10,242
10,827
10,877
10,196
9,872
9,694
9,116
9,091
8,441
7,982
8,136
8,602
8,781
9,014
9,168
9,048
9,237
9,379
9,944

Asian
and
Pacific
Islander 5
(NA)
(NA)
1,117
939
858
996
985
1,134
974
1,411
1,454
1,468
1,360
1,285
1,258
1,275
1,161
1,401
1,201
1,402
1,353
1,349
1,576
1,746

Percent of persons below poverty

Hispanic 6
3,491
5,236
5,357
5,430
6,006
6,339
7,592
8,126
8,416
8,574
8,697
8,308
8,070
7,876
7,747
7,997
8,555
9,051
9,122
9,368
9,243
9,890
10,987
12,350

All
races 2
13.0
14.0
13.0
12.8
13.5
14.2
14.8
15.1
14.5
13.8
13.7
13.3
12.7
11.9
11.3
11.7
12.1
12.5
12.7
12.6
12.3
12.5
13.2
14.3

White 3
10.2
11.4
10.1
10.0
10.7
11.3
11.9
12.2
11.7
11.2
11.2
11.0
10.5
9.8
9.5
9.9
10.2
10.5
10.8
10.6
10.3
10.5
11.2
12.3

Black 4
32.5
31.3
31.3
30.7
31.9
32.7
33.4
33.1
30.6
29.3
28.4
26.5
26.1
23.6
22.5
22.7
24.1
24.4
24.7
24.9
24.3
24.5
24.7
25.8

Asian
and
Pacific
Islander 5
(NA)
(NA)
17.3
14.1
12.2
13.8
12.7
15.3
14.6
14.6
14.5
14.0
12.5
10.7
9.9
10.2
10.1
11.8
9.8
11.1
10.3
10.2
11.8
12.5

Below 125
percent 1 of
poverty level

His- Number
panic 6 (1,000)
25.7 40,658
29.0 44,166
26.7 42,551
26.2 42,653
28.1 44,837
28.7 47,527
29.6 50,592
30.6 51,801
30.7 50,401
30.3 48,761
29.4 49,310
27.1 47,853
25.6 46,036
22.7 45,030
21.5 43,612
21.4 45,320
21.8 47,084
22.5 48,687
21.9 49,693
21.8 49,327
20.6 49,688
21.5 50,876
23.2 53,805
25.3 56,840

Percent
of total
population
18.1
18.7
17.5
17.3
18.0
18.9
19.7
20.0
19.3
18.5
18.5
17.8
17.0
16.3
15.6
16.1
16.5
16.9
17.1
16.8
16.8
17.0
17.9
18.7

NA Not available. 1 Includes those in poverty, plus those who have income above poverty but less than 1.25 times their
poverty threshold. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 Beginning 2002, data represent White alone, which refers to
people who reported White and did not report any other race category. 4 Beginning 2002, data represent Black alone, which refers
to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 5 Beginning 2002, data represent Asian alone, which
refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 6 People of Hispanic origin may be any race.
7
Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 8 The March 1994 income supplement was revised to allow for the coding
of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories:
earnings increased to $999,999; social security increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance
increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony decreased to $49,999. 9 Implementation
of Census-2000-based population controls. 10 Implementation of sample expansion by 28,000 households. 11 Beginning with
the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS), the questionnaire allowed respondents to choose more than one race. For 2002 and
later, data represent persons who selected this race group only and exclude persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in
prior years allowed respondents to report only one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1.12 Data have
been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, series P60-238, and Historical Tables—Tables 2 and 6, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes
/www/poverty/poverty.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html>.

464 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 712. Children Below Poverty Level by Race and Hispanic Origin:
1980 to 2009
[11,114 represents 11,114,000. Persons as of March of the following year. Covers only related children in families under 18 years
old. Based on Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and
Appendix III. For data collection changes over time, see <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/history
.html>]
Year
1980. . . . . . . .
1985. . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . .
1992 6 . . . . . .
1993 7 . . . . . .
1994. . . . . . . .
1995. . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . .
1999 8 . . . . . .
2000 9 . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . .
2002 10. . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . .
2004 11. . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . .
2009. . . . . . . .

Number of children below poverty level (1,000)
Asian and
All
Pacific
Hisraces 1
White 2
Black 3 Islander 4
panic 5
11,114
6,817
3,906
(NA)
1,718
12,483
7,838
4,057
(NA)
2,512
12,715
7,696
4,412
356
2,750
13,658
8,316
4,637
348
2,977
14,521
8,752
5,015
352
3,440
14,961
9,123
5,030
358
3,666
14,610
8,826
4,787
308
3,956
13,999
8,474
4,644
532
3,938
13,764
8,488
4,411
553
4,090
13,422
8,441
4,116
608
3,865
12,845
7,935
4,073
542
3,670
11,678
7,194
3,698
367
3,561
11,005
6,834
3,495
407
3,342
11,175
7,086
3,423
353
3,433
11,646
7,203
3,570
302
3,653
12,340
7,624
3,750
331
3,982
12,473
7,876
3,702
265
3,985
12,335
7,652
3,743
312
3,977
12,299
7,522
3,690
351
3,959
12,802
8,002
3,838
345
4,348
13,507
8,441
3,781
430
4,888
14,774
9,440
3,919
444
5,419

Percent of children below poverty level
Asian and
All
Pacific
Hisraces 1
White 2
Black 3 Islander 4
panic 5
17.9
13.4
42.1
(NA)
33.0
20.1
15.6
43.1
(NA)
39.6
19.9
15.1
44.2
17.0
37.7
21.1
16.1
45.6
17.1
39.8
21.6
16.5
46.3
16.0
39.0
22.0
17.0
45.9
17.6
39.9
21.2
16.3
43.3
17.9
41.1
20.2
15.5
41.5
18.6
39.3
19.8
15.5
39.5
19.1
39.9
19.2
15.4
36.8
19.9
36.4
18.3
14.4
36.4
17.5
33.6
16.6
13.1
32.8
11.5
29.9
15.6
12.4
30.9
12.5
27.6
15.8
12.8
30.0
11.1
27.4
16.3
13.1
32.1
11.4
28.2
17.2
13.9
33.6
12.1
29.5
17.3
14.3
33.4
9.4
28.6
17.1
13.9
34.2
11.0
27.7
16.9
13.6
33.0
12.0
26.6
17.6
14.4
34.3
11.8
28.3
18.5
15.3
34.4
14.2
30.3
20.1
17.0
35.3
13.6
32.5

NA Not available. 1 Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Beginning 2002, data represent White alone, which refers to
people who reported White and did not report any other race category. 3 Beginning 2002, data represent Black alone, which refers
to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 4 Beginning 2002, data represent Asian alone, which
refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 5 People of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
6
Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 7 The March 1994 income supplement was revised to allow for the coding
of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories:
earnings increased to $999,999; social security increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance
increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony decreased to $49,999. 8 Implementation
of Census 2000-based population controls. 9 Implementation of sample expansion to 28,000 households. 10 Beginning with the
2003 Current Population Survey (CPS), the questionnaire allowed respondents to choose more than one race. For 2002 and later,
data represent persons who selected this race group only and excludes persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior
years allowed respondents to report only one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1. 11 Data have been
revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC).
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical Tables—Table 3, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty
.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html>.

Table 713. People Below Poverty Level by Selected Characteristics: 2009
[43,569 represents 43,569,000. People as of March 2010. Based on Current Population Survey (CPS); see text, this section and
Section 1, and Appendix III. The 2010 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. For 2009, data represent persons
who selected this race group only and exclude persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior years allowed respondents
to report only one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1. For composition of regions, see map, inside
front cover]
Sex, age, region, nativity
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Under 18 years old . . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years old . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . .
55 to 59 years old . . . . . . . . .
60 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . . . .
65 to 74 years old . . . . . . . .
75 years old and over . . . . .
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Native . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign born . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naturalized citizen. . . . . . . .
Not a citizen. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number below poverty level (1,000)
All
White
Black
Asian
Hisraces 1
alone
alone
alone panic 2
43,569 29,830
9,944
1,746 12,350
19,475 13,388
4,287
825
5,863
24,094 16,442
5,656
921
6,487
15,451
9,938
4,033
463
5,610
6,071
4,177
1,343
294
1,440
6,123
4,263
1,316
255
1,864
4,756
3,415
965
210
1,495
4,421
3,124
963
176
914
1,792
1,294
379
57
284
1,520
1,117
298
77
227
3,433
2,501
647
213
516
1,675
1,240
295
103
296
1,758
1,261
352
110
219
6,650
4,342
1,595
495
1,611
8,768
5,964
2,124
282
1,068
17,609 11,384
5,355
375
4,559
10,542
8,140
871
593
5,111
36,407 24,642
9,235
632
7,748
7,162
5,188
709
1,114
4,603
1,736
1,052
216
427
773
5,425
4,136
492
686
3,830

All
races 1
14.3
13.0
15.6
20.7
20.7
14.9
11.8
10.0
9.3
9.4
8.9
8.0
10.0
12.2
13.3
15.7
14.8
13.7
19.0
10.8
25.1

Percent below poverty level
White
Black
Asian
alone
alone
alone
12.3
25.8
12.5
11.2
23.9
12.3
13.5
27.5
12.6
17.7
35.7
14.0
18.4
31.2
23.9
13.3
23.8
10.8
10.7
19.0
8.9
8.6
18.0
9.0
8.1
18.7
7.0
8.2
17.7
12.1
7.5
19.5
15.8
6.9
15.5
13.9
8.2
24.9
18.1
9.9
23.7
16.2
10.6
31.3
16.6
13.4
25.0
12.0
14.2
24.3
9.7
11.3
26.3
11.8
21.1
20.5
12.9
11.2
13.3
9.2
27.1
26.9
17.3

Hispanic 2
25.3
23.4
27.4
33.1
26.3
23.0
21.2
17.3
15.6
17.6
18.3
17.5
19.5
24.1
27.3
25.5
25.1
25.2
25.5
14.3
30.2

Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Tables POV01, POV29, and POV41. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/pov/toc.htm>.
1

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 465

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 714. Work Experience of People During 2009 by Poverty Status, Sex,
and Age: 2009
[99,306 represents 99,306,000. Covers only persons 16 years old and over. Based on Current Population Survey, Annual Social
and Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section, Section 1, and Appendix III]
Worked full-time year-round
Did not work full-time year-round
Below poverty level
Below poverty level
Number
Number
Number
Number
(1,000)
(1,000)
Percent
(1,000)
(1,000)
Percent

Sex and age
BOTH SEXES
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years old . . . . . . .
18 to 64 years old . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years old . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . .
35 to 54 years old . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . .
MALE
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years old . . . . . . .
18 to 64 years old . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years old . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . .
35 to 54 years old . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . .
FEMALE
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years old . . . . . . .
18 to 64 years old . . . . . . .
18 to 24 years old . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . .
35 to 54 years old . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . .

Did not work
Below poverty level
Number
Number
(1,000)
(1,000)
Percent

99,306
74
95,808
6,372
22,299
50,607
16,531
3,424

2,641
2
2,602
360
823
1,179
239
38

2.7
(B)
2.7
5.7
3.7
2.3
1.4
1.1

55,466
1,863
49,376
12,624
11,218
18,300
7,234
4,228

8,039
130
7,792
2,354
2,304
2,541
593
117

14.5
7.0
15.8
18.6
20.5
13.9
8.2
2.8

83,323
6,918
45,443
10,317
7,569
15,928
11,629
30,962

18,944
1,376
14,291
3,357
2,996
5,458
2,480
3,278

22.7
19.9
31.4
32.5
39.6
34.3
21.3
10.6

56,058
46
53,943
3,561
12,628
28,638
9,116
2,069

1,435
2
1,403
181
422
656
143
30

2.6
(B)
2.6
5.1
3.3
2.3
1.6
1.5

25,777
950
22,710
6,266
5,515
7,780
3,149
2,118

3,653
61
3,541
969
1,097
1,218
257
52

14.2
6.4
15.6
15.5
19.9
15.7
8.2
2.4

33,817
3,495
17,716
5,010
2,546
5,440
4,720
12,606

7,323
643
5,657
1,428
1,015
2,140
1,075
1,023

21.7
18.4
31.9
28.5
39.9
39.3
22.8
8.1

43,248
28
41,865
2,811
9,670
21,968
7,416
1,355

1,207

1,199
179
401
523
96
8

2.8
(B)
2.9
6.4
4.1
2.4
1.3
0.6

29,689
913
26,666
6,359
5,703
10,520
4,085
2,110

4,386
69
4,251
1,385
1,207
1,322
336
66

14.8
7.5
15.9
21.8
21.2
12.6
8.2
3.1

49,505
3,423
27,727
5,306
5,023
10,488
6,909
18,356

11,622
733
8,634
1,929
1,982
3,318
1,405
2,255

23.5
21.4
31.1
36.4
39.5
31.6
20.3
12.3

– Represents zero. B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table POV22, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032010/pov/new22_100.htm>.

Table 715. Families Below Poverty Level and Below 125 Percent of Poverty
by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 2009
[6,217 represents 6,217,000. Families as of March of the following year. Based on Current Population Survey, Annual Social and
Economic Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section and Section 1, and Appendix III. For data collection changes over time, see
<http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/history.html>]
Number of families below poverty (1,000)
Year

1980. . . . .
1985. . . . .
1990. . . . .
1995. . . . .
2000 7 . . .
2001. . . . .
2002 8 . . .
2003. . . . .
2004 9 . . .
2005. . . . .
2006. . . . .
2007. . . . .
2008. . . . .
2009. . . . .

All
races 2
6,217
7,223
7,098
7,532
6,400
6,813
7,229
7,607
7,835
7,657
7,668
7,623
8,147
8,792

White 3
4,195
4,983
4,622
4,994
4,333
4,579
4,862
5,058
5,293
5,068
5,118
5,046
5,414
5,994

Black4
1,826
1,983
2,193
2,127
1,686
1,829
1,923
1,986
2,035
1,997
2,007
2,045
2,055
2,125

Asian
and
Pacific
Islander 5
(NA)
(NA)
169
264
233
234
210
311
232
289
260
261
341
337

Percent of persons below poverty

Hispanic 6
751
1,074
1,244
1,695
1,540
1,649
1,792
1,925
1,953
1,948
1,922
2,045
2,239
2,369

All
races 2
10.3
11.4
10.7
10.8
8.7
9.2
9.6
10.0
10.2
9.9
9.8
9.8
10.3
11.1

White 3
8.0
9.1
8.1
8.5
7.1
7.4
7.8
8.1
8.4
8.0
8.0
7.9
8.4
9.3

Black 4
28.9
28.7
29.3
26.4
19.3
20.7
21.5
22.3
22.8
22.1
21.6
22.1
22.0
22.7

Asian
and
Pacific
Islander 5
(NA)
(NA)
11.0
12.4
7.8
7.8
7.4
10.2
7.4
9.0
7.8
7.9
9.8
9.4

Below 125
percent 1 of
poverty level
His- Number
panic 6 (1,000)
23.2
8,764
25.5
9,753
25.0
9,564
27.0 10,223
19.2
9,032
19.4
9,525
19.7
9,998
20.8 10,360
20.5 10,499
19.7 10,442
18.9 10,531
19.7 10,551
21.3 11,164
22.7 11,620

Percent
14.5
15.3
14.4
14.7
12.2
12.8
13.2
13.6
13.7
13.5
13.4
13.5
14.2
14.7

NA Not available. 1 See footnote 1, Table 711. 2 Includes other races, not shown separately. 3 Beginning 2002, data represent
White alone, which refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. 4 Beginning 2002, data
represent Black alone, which refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 5 Beginning 2002,
data represent Asian alone, which refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 6 People of
Hispanic origin may be any race. 7 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 8 Beginning with the 2003 Current
Population Survey (CPS), the questionnaire allowed respondents to choose more than one race. For 2002 and later, data represent
persons who selected this race group only and excludes persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior years allowed
respondents to report only one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1, Population. 9 Data have been
revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC).
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Historical and Detailed Tables—Tables 4 and POV04, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov
/hhes/www/poverty/poverty.html> and <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/families.html>.

466 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 716. Families Below Poverty Level by Selected Characteristics: 2009
[8,792 represents 8,792,000. Families as of March 2010. Based on Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic
Supplement (ASEC); see text, this section and Section 1, and Appendix III. The 2010 CPS allowed respondents to choose more
than one race. For 2009, data represent persons who selected this race group only and exclude persons reporting more than one
race. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1. For composition of regions, see map, inside front cover]
Characteristic
Total families. . . . . . . . . .

Number below poverty level (1,000)
All
White
Black
Asian
Hisraces 1
alone
alone
alone panic 2
8,792
5,994
2,125
337
2,369

All
races 1
11.1

Percent below poverty level
White
Black
Asian
alone
alone
alone
9.3
22.7
9.4

Hispanic 2
22.7

Age of householder:
15 to 24 years old . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years old . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . .
65 years old and over . . . . .

1,096
2,476
2,072
1,454
894
757

708
1,649
1,437
998
644
536

328
635
491
322
192
141

26
69
76
73
31
58

283
756
681
370
154
114

34.2
18.9
12.1
8.0
6.5
5.6

30.1
16.3
10.7
6.7
5.6
4.6

52.6
33.1
21.9
15.4
14.2
12.9

21.7
10.2
7.9
8.8
5.5
13.4

36.2
29.8
23.5
17.6
13.4
12.6

Region:
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,314
1,827
3,717
1,934

866
1,227
2,432
1,470

329
485
1,127
184

92
55
71
120

335
208
892
935

9.3
10.5
12.5
11.0

7.4
8.1
10.5
10.2

21.2
28.6
21.4
21.7

11.8
12.7
8.7
7.7

22.5
25.7
22.4
22.5

3,409

2,694

366

230

1,054

5.8

5.4

8.6

7.9

16.0

942

629

234

32

249

16.9

15.0

25.0

12.6

23.0

4,441

2,671

1,524

76

1,066

29.9

27.3

36.7

16.9

38.8

Type of family:
Married couple. . . . . . . . . . .
Male householder,
no spouse present. . . . . . .
Female householder,
no spouse present. . . . . . .

Includes other races, not shown separately. 2 Hispanic persons may be any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population
Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Tables POV04 and POV44, September 2010. See also <http://www.census.gov/hhes
/www/cpstables/032010/pov/toc.htm>.
1

Table 717. Top Wealth Holders With Gross Assets of $1.5 Million or More—
Debts, Mortgages, and Net Worth: 2004
[2,728 represents 2,728,000. Net worth is defined as assets minus liabilities. Figures are estimates based on a sample of federal
estate tax returns (Form 706). Based on the estate multiplier technique; for more information on this methodology, see source]

Sex and net worth

Both sexes, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of net worth:
Under $1.5 million 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$1.5 million under $2.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$2.0 million under $3.5 million. . . . . . . . .
$3.5 million under $5.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$5.0 million under $10.0 million. . . . . . . .
$10.0 million under $20.0 million. . . . . . .
$20.0 million or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total assets
Number of
top wealth
holders
Amount 1
(1,000)
(mil. dol.)
2,728
11,076,759

Debts and mortgages
Number of
top wealth
holders
Amount
(1,000)
(mil. dol.)
2,099
850,622

Net worth
Number of
top wealth
holders
Amount
(1,000)
(mil. dol.)
2,728
10,201,246

531
746
846
247
231
79
47

736,039
1,386,077
2,316,701
1,082,889
1,668,002
1,155,326
2,731,726

468
544
614
192
176
64
40

231,035
98,187
147,370
58,950
104,811
69,849
140,421

531
746
846
247
231
79
47

480,113
1,287,890
2,169,331
1,023,939
1,563,191
1,085,477
2,591,305

Males, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of net worth:
Under $1.5 million 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$1.5 million under $2.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$2.0 million under $3.5 million. . . . . . . . .
$3.5 million under $5.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$5.0 million under $10.0 million. . . . . . . .
$10.0 million under $20.0 million. . . . . . .
$20.0 million or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,555

6,471,540

1,208

583,805

1,555

5,862,844

389
359
465
131
135
47
30

528,017
675,321
1,289,522
578,304
989,077
679,613
1,731,686

339
258
346
102
100
38
25

184,673
54,149
96,654
37,496
74,003
41,466
95,364

389
359
465
131
135
47
30

318,454
621,172
1,192,868
540,808
915,074
638,146
1,636,322

Females, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of net worth:
Under $1.5 million 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$1.5 million under $2.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$2.0 million under $3.5 million. . . . . . . . .
$3.5 million under $5.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$5.0 million under $10.0 million. . . . . . . .
$10.0 million under $20.0 million. . . . . . .
$20.0 million or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,173

4,605,219

891

266,817

1,173

4,338,402

143
387
380
116
96
33
18

208,021
710,757
1,027,179
504,585
678,924
475,713
1,000,040

129
286
268
89
77
27
15

46,362
44,038
50,716
21,454
30,808
28,382
45,057

143
387
380
116
96
33
18

161,659
666,719
976,463
483,131
648,116
447,331
954,983

1
Includes other types of assets, not shown separately. 2 Includes individuals with zero net worth.
Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income Division, “SOI Data Tables,” July 2008,
<http://www.irs.gov/taxstats/indtaxstats/article/0,,id=96426,00.html>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 467

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 718. Top Wealth Holders With Gross Assets of $1.5 Million or More
by Type of Property, Sex, and Size of Net Worth: 2004
[2,728 represents 2,728,000. Net worth is defined as assets minus liabilities. Figures are estimates based on a sample of federal
estate tax returns (Form 706). Based on the estate multiplier technique; for more information on this methodology, see source]
Number of
top wealth
holders
(1,000)
2,728

Assets (mil. dol.)
Total
11,076,759

Personal
residences
1,185,941

Other
real estate
1,402,029

Closely
held
stock
1,127,194

Publicly
traded
stock
2,247,269

531
746
846
247
231
79
47

736,039
1,386,077
2,316,701
1,082,889
1,668,002
1,155,326
2,731,726

176,105
229,369
342,206
127,444
148,543
76,472
85,802

134,674
206,626
329,893
152,634
230,146
137,770
210,286

42,431
69,066
141,272
95,958
165,781
136,144
476,542

63,062
219,818
415,249
209,459
373,575
246,824
719,282

Males, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of net worth:
Under $1.5 million 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$1.5 million under $2.0 million. . . . . . . . . .
$2.0 million under $3.5 million. . . . . . . . . .
$3.5 million under $5.0 million. . . . . . . . . .
$5.0 million under $10.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$10.0 million under $20.0 million. . . . . . . .
$20.0 million or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,555

6,471,540

597,971

828,055

833,929

1,140,665

389
359
465
131
135
47
30

528,017
675,321
1,289,522
578,304
989,077
679,613
1,731,686

117,554
97,605
163,984
60,123
68,653
38,710
51,342

96,796
105,224
179,481
80,919
151,731
75,459
138,446

36,177
44,376
102,116
63,006
110,961
97,601
379,692

42,494
94,788
199,844
95,417
200,003
135,157
372,962

Females, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of net worth:
Under $1.5 million 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$1.5 million under $2.0 million. . . . . . . . . .
$2.0 million under $3.5 million. . . . . . . . . .
$3.5 million under $5.0 million. . . . . . . . . .
$5.0 million under $10.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$10.0 million under $20.0 million. . . . . . . .
$20.0 million or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,173

4,605,219

587,970

573,974

293,264

1,106,604

143
387
380
116
96
33
18

208,021
710,757
1,027,179
504,585
678,924
475,713
1,000,040

58,550
131,764
178,222
67,321
79,890
37,762
34,461

37,879
101,402
150,412
71,714
78,416
62,312
71,840

6,255
24,690
39,155
32,953
54,820
38,543
96,849

20,568
125,030
215,405
114,042
173,572
111,667
346,320

Sex and net worth
Both sexes, total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size of net worth:
Under $1.5 million 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$1.5 million under $2.0 million. . . . . . . . . .
$2.0 million under $3.5 million. . . . . . . . . .
$3.5 million under $5.0 million. . . . . . . . . .
$5.0 million under $10.0 million. . . . . . . . .
$10.0 million under $20.0 million. . . . . . . .
$20.0 million or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1
Includes other types of assets, not shown separately. 2 Includes individuals with zero net worth.
Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income Division, “SOI Data Tables,” July 2008, <http://www.irs.gov/taxstats
/indtaxstats/article/0,,id=96426,00.html>.

Table 719. Top Wealth Holders With Net Worth of $1.5 Million or More—
Number and Net Worth by State: 2004
[2,196 represents 2,196,000. Estimates based on a sample of federal estate tax returns (Form 706). Estimates of wealth by state
can be subject to significant year-to-year fluctuations and this is especially true for individuals at the extreme tail of the net worth
distribution and for states with relatively small decedent populations. Based on the estate multiplier technique; for more information
on this methodology, see source]
State
Total 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
District of Columbia. . . . . . . .
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . . . .
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of
top wealth
holders
(1,000)
2,196
18
1
36
11
428
32
47
8
7
199
56
7
5
101
32
18
21
18
22
8
50
83
47
33
8
33

Net worth
(mil. dol.)
9,721,133
79,123
4,776
139,861
94,704
1,793,642
163,324
197,801
30,923
27,850
904,014
270,677
22,552
23,982
476,354
112,272
55,332
65,084
65,404
92,315
35,173
191,279
335,482
261,085
135,682
61,786
115,716

Montana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Hampshire. . . . . . . . . .
New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . .
New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . .
North Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . .
Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . .
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . . . . .
South Carolina. . . . . . . . . . .
South Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . .
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Washington. . . . . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of
top wealth
holders
(1,000)
7
13
15
7
79
9
168
59
1
61
17
15
86
8
14
6
25
108
8
4
59
50
12
26
5

Net worth
(mil. dol.)
23,966
83,265
80,768
27,342
324,712
28,107
942,812
223,408
3,988
228,532
58,554
61,328
399,312
30,782
67,856
18,850
100,778
492,663
52,674
20,584
223,984
180,008
28,415
127,515
106,698

Other areas 1. . . . . . . . . . . .

5

28,042

State

Includes U.S. territories and possessions.
Source: U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Statistics of Income Division, “SOI Data Tables,” July 2008, <http://www.irs.gov/taxstats
/indtaxstats/article/0,,id=96426,00.html>.
1

468 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 720. Nonfinancial Assets Held by Families by Type of Asset: 2007
[221.5 represents $221,500. Families include one-person units and, as used in this table, are more comparable to the U.S. Census
Bureau’s household concept. Based on Survey of Consumer Finance; see Appendix III and <http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs
/oss/oss2/papers/measurement.pdf>. For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation. For data on financial assets,
see Table 1170]

Family characteristic

Any
financial
or nonfinancial
asset

Any
nonfinancial
asset

Vehicles

Primary
residence

Other
residential
property

Equity
in
nonresidential
property

Business
equity

Other
asset

PERCENT OF FAMILIES
HOLDING ASSET
All families, total . . . . . . . . . . .

97.7

92.0

87.0

68.6

13.7

8.1

13.6

7.2

Age of family head:
Under 35 years old . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
65 to 74 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
75 years old and over . . . . . . . .

97.1
96.9
97.6
99.1
98.4
98.1

88.2
91.3
95.0
95.6
94.5
87.3

85.4
87.5
90.3
92.2
90.6
71.5

40.7
66.1
77.3
81.0
85.5
77.0

5.6
12.0
15.7
20.9
18.9
13.4

3.2
7.5
9.5
11.5
12.3
6.8

8.0
18.2
17.2
18.1
11.2
4.5

5.9
5.5
8.7
8.5
9.1
5.8

Race or ethnicity or respondent:
White non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . .
Non-White or Hispanic. . . . . . . .

98.9
94.9

94.6
85.8

89.6
80.9

75.6
51.9

15.3
10.0

9.0
5.9

15.8
8.2

8.4
4.3

Tenure:
Owner occupied. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renter occupied or other. . . . . .

100.0
92.8

100.0
74.5

93.8
72.3

100.0
(B)

17.5
5.6

10.8
2.1

17.5
5.0

8.0
5.3

All families, total . . . . . . . . . . .

221.5

177.4

15.5

200.0

146.0

75.0

92.2

14.0

Age of family head:
Under 35 years old . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
65 to 74 years old . . . . . . . . . . .
75 years old and over . . . . . . . .

38.8
222.3
306.0
347.0
303.3
219.3

30.9
182.6
224.9
233.1
212.2
157.1

13.3
17.4
18.7
17.4
14.6
9.4

175.0
205.0
230.0
210.0
200.0
150.0

85.0
150.0
150.0
157.0
150.0
100.0

50.0
50.0
80.0
90.0
75.0
110.0

35.0
59.0
76.8
100.0
300.0
225.0

8.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
20.0
25.0

Race or ethnicity of respondent:
White non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . .
Non-White or Hispanic. . . . . . . .

271.0
89.2

203.8
102.0

17.1
12.0

200.0
180.0

136.5
175.0

75.0
62.7

100.0
50.0

15.0
8.0

Tenure:
Owner occupied. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renter occupied or other. . . . . .

344.2
13.6

253.5
10.1

18.4
8.6

200.0
(B)

150.0
85.0

80.0
38.0

100.0
33.0

20.0
5.4

MEDIAN VALUE ($1,000)
1

B Base too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of derived figure. 1 Median value of asset for families holding such
assets.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, “2007 Survey of Consumer Finances,” May 2009,
<http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/oss/oss2/2007/scf2007home.html>.

Table 721. Family Net Worth—Mean and Median Net Worth in Constant (2007)
Dollars by Selected Family Characteristics: 1998 to 2007
[Net worth in thousands of constant (2007) dollars (359.7 represents $359,700). Constant dollar figures are based on consumer
price index for all urban consumers published by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Families include one-person units and as used in
this table are comparable to the U.S. Census Bureau’s household concept. Based on Survey of Consumer Finance;
see Appendix III. For definition of mean and median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]
Family characteristic

1998

2001

2004

2007

All families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mean
359.7

Median
91.3

Mean
464.4

Median
101.2

Mean
492.3

Median
102.2

Mean
556.3

Median
120.3

Age of family head:
Under 35 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 to 64 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 to 74 years old . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75 years old and over . . . . . . . . . . .

81.3
249.9
461.5
677.6
594.2
395.7

11.6
80.8
134.5
162.8
186.5
159.9

106.1
303.7
568.4
856.0
793.5
548.6

13.7
90.7
155.4
216.8
207.9
181.6

80.7
328.6
596.1
926.7
758.8
580.0

15.6
76.2
158.9
273.1
208.8
179.1

106.0
325.6
661.2
935.8
1,015.2
638.2

11.8
86.6
182.5
253.7
239.4
213.5

Race or ethnicity of respondent:
White non-Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-White or Hispanic. . . . . . . . . . .

429.5
128.0

121.9
21.2

571.2
137.4

143.0
21.0

617.0
168.2

154.5
27.2

692.2
228.5

170.4
27.8

Tenure:
Owner occupied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renter occupied or other. . . . . . . . .

514.7
55.3

168.2
5.4

655.5
64.4

201.8
5.6

686.3
59.4

202.6
4.4

778.2
70.6

234.2
5.1

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, “2007 Survey of Consumer Finances,” May 2009,
<http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/oss/oss2/2007/scf2007home.html>.

Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 469

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

Table 722. Household and Nonprofit Organization Sector Balance Sheet:
1990 to 2010
[In billions of dollars (24,220 represents $24,220,000,000,000). As of December 31. For details of financial assets and liabilities,
see Table 1168]
Item
Assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Tangible assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Households 2, 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer durable goods 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial assets 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deposits 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time and savings deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Money market fund shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Credit market instruments 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agency and GSE-backed securities 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Municipal securities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corporate and foreign bonds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corporate equities 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mutual fund shares 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security credit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Life insurance reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pension fund reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equity in noncorporate business 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liabilities 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Credit market instruments 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Home mortgages 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Net worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacement cost value of structures:
Residential 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Households. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential (nonprofits) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Owners' equity in household real estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Owners' equity as percentage of household real estate. .

1990
24,220
9,723
7,606
6,801
2,039
14,497
3,325
2,490
389
1,741
117
648
238
1,961
512
62
392
3,310
2,939
3,703
3,581
2,489
824
20,517

1995
32,928
11,472
8,843
8,055
2,531
21,457
3,357
2,300
472
2,229
216
533
467
4,434
1,253
128
566
5,725
3,435
5,038
4,841
3,319
1,168
27,890

4,618
4,512
479
4,312
63.4

6,091
5,975
600
4,736
58.8

2000
50,047
16,764
13,430
12,183
3,196
33,283
4,376
3,033
960
2,458
594
531
551
8,147
2,704
412
819
9,171
4,815
7,377
6,987
4,798
1,741
42,670

2005
71,549
28,335
24,050
22,005
4,077
43,214
6,140
4,914
949
3,324
493
821
1,298
8,093
3,669
575
1,083
11,460
8,261
12,184
11,743
8,874
2,321
59,365

2007
78,546
27,986
23,311
20,879
4,435
50,560
7,407
5,889
1,348
4,073
669
896
2,017
9,627
4,597
866
1,202
13,391
8,685
14,367
13,803
10,540
2,555
64,179

2008
65,532
24,356
19,560
17,470
4,533
41,176
8,013
6,083
1,582
3,966
711
903
1,956
5,777
3,326
743
1,180
10,408
6,996
14,223
13,801
10,495
2,594
51,309

2009
67,690
23,567
18,732
17,081
4,561
44,123
7,895
6,172
1,313
4,106
83
1,010
2,081
7,321
4,178
669
1,242
11,915
6,011
14,033
13,567
10,340
2,479
53,657

2010
70,740
23,101
18,187
16,370
4,618
47,639
7,931
6,422
1,131
4,355
78
1,096
1,919
8,514
4,708
694
1,329
13,025
6,251
13,918
13,358
10,070
2,435
56,823

8,469 13,475 14,660 14,406 14,092 14,081
8,326 13,276 14,445 14,191 13,882 13,871
818
1,177
1,354
1,424
1,373
1,458
7,385 13,131 10,339
6,975
6,741
6,301
60.6
59.7
49.5
39.9
39.5
38.5

1
Includes types of assets and/or liabilities not shown separately. 2 At market value. 3 Includes all types of owner-occupied
housing including farm houses and mobile homes, as well as second homes that are not rented, vacant homes for sale, and vacant
4
land. At replacement (current) cost. 5 GSE = Government-sponsored enterprises. 6 Value based on the market values of equities
held and the book value of other assets held by mutual funds. 7 Net worth of noncorporate business and owners’ equity in farm
business and unincorporated security brokers and dealers. 8 Includes loans made under home equity lines of credit and home
equity loans secured by junior liens.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, "Federal Reserve Statistical Release, Z.1, Flow of Funds
Accounts of the United States," March 2011, <http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/z1/Current/>.

Table 723. Net Stock of Fixed Assets and Consumer Durable Goods in
Current and Chained (2005) Dollars: 1990 to 2009
[In billions of dollars (18,307 represents $18,307,000,000,000). Estimates as of December 31. For explanation of chained dollars,
see text, this section]
Item
CURRENT DOLLARS
Net stock, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furnishings and durable household equipment. . . .
Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAINED (2005) DOLLARS
Net stock, total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consumer durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

18,307
16,268
12,671
6,564
2,507
4,057
6,107
3,598
3,449
551
2,898
149
1,077
734
2,521
2,039
650
649
322

22,846
20,315
15,811
7,990
3,100
4,890
7,821
4,504
4,316
675
3,641
188
1,292
868
3,213
2,531
811
787
392

30,147
26,951
21,230
10,562
4,134
6,429
10,668
5,721
5,489
704
4,786
232
1,435
904
4,285
3,196
1,042
977
449

42,606
38,529
30,587
14,057
4,931
9,127
16,530
7,941
7,606
802
6,804
335
1,749
1,081
6,193
4,077
1,302
1,248
548

45,905
41,637
32,856
15,174
5,243
9,931
17,682
8,781
8,432
850
7,582
349
1,867
1,152
6,914
4,268
1,307
1,325
604

47,898
43,463
33,956
15,999
5,461
10,539
17,956
9,508
9,162
895
8,266
346
1,953
1,204
7,555
4,435
1,318
1,378
649

49,441
44,908
34,694
17,014
5,685
11,329
17,680
10,214
9,878
956
8,923
336
2,035
1,250
8,179
4,533
1,263
1,434
689

48,500
43,939
33,776
16,495
5,611
10,885
17,281
10,163
9,842
988
8,854
321
2,011
1,245
8,152
4,561
1,278
1,424
709

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

30,448
28,508
22,082
10,216
3,044
7,361
11,898
6,430
6,149
714
5,422
281
2,175

35,752
32,907
25,959
12,327
4,204
8,149
13,626
6,949
6,648
734
5,911
302
2,943

41,139
37,037
29,358
13,579
4,901
8,678
15,780
7,678
7,357
796
6,561
321
4,102

42,311
37,986
30,162
13,912
5,103
8,815
16,249
7,825
7,503
824
6,679
323
4,332

43,365
38,831
30,862
14,283
5,301
8,995
16,578
7,971
7,646
853
6,795
325
4,556

44,151
39,492
31,370
14,612
5,428
9,197
16,751
8,122
7,795
891
6,909
327
4,689

44,515
39,794
31,517
14,679
5,383
9,300
16,831
8,266
7,935
922
7,022
329
4,754

NA Not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, August 2010. See also <http://www.bea.gov
/national/FA2004/SelectTable.asp>.

470 Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

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