Social Development Fall, 2011 1
The University of Texas at Dallas Course Syllabus
Course Information Course Number: Term: Meeting Times: HCS 6350, Section 001 Fall 2011 Tuesdays 1:00-3:45 PM, CR 1.508
Contact Information Professor: Office: Office Hours: Telephone: Email: Lisa H. Rosen, Ph.D. GR 4.802 Wednesday 3:00-4:30 PM or by appointment 972-883-4179 [email protected]
Course Pre-requisites, Co-requisites, and/or Other Requirements There are no formal prerequisites for this class.
Course Description This course provides an advanced survey of current and classical research in social development. We will review theories, processes, and major topics in infant, child, and adolescent social development.
Student Learning Objectives/Outcomes With your active participation, this course will allow you to: 1. Identify and describe key milestones and complexities of social development across infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. 2. Define and apply major theoretical viewpoints in understanding social development. 3. Critique and apply the research methods used in studying social development. 4. Critically evaluate conclusions derived from published research in social development. 5. Demonstrate effective writing skills in creating a research proposal on one of the major topics addressed in the course. 6. Demonstrate effective oral communication skills in delivering presentations in class.
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Course Requirements Class Participation and Discussion Questions (20% of grade). Students are expected to attend classes regularly and participate in class discussions. For each assigned reading, students will write a discussion question. The purpose of these questions is to encourage thoughtful analysis of the material as well as to structure our course discussion. There are many types of questions that foster good discussion including questions that critique methods, questions that discuss potential implications of the research, and questions that suggest connections to other readings. You should post these questions on eLearning no later than 1 PM on the Monday afternoon before we meet. I will integrate and organize these questions in preparation for our class discussion. I will e-mail these questions to you by Tuesday morning to review before class. Class Presentations (10% of grade). Students will be assigned an article for which they will be responsible for leading a class discussion. You should be prepared to describe the following in no more than 15 minutes: Purpose of the study General methodology Major findings Strengths and weaknesses Overall evaluation including future directions Presentation of an article also involves preparing a 1-page handout summarizing the article for other students. If you would like me to make copies of your summary, please submit your summary to me by 9 AM on the day of your presentation. You are exempt from writing discussion questions on the days when you are presenting. Class Debate (5% of grade). Students will debate Judith Harris' controversial contention that parenting practices do not matter because genes and peers are the ultimate shapers of adult personality. Each student will be assigned to one particular side of one of the debate, and we will establish ground rules for the debate as a group. Research Proposal (35% of grade). Students will develop a research proposal for an empirical study related to some aspect of social development. I encourage you to relate this assignment to your current program of research. The proposal will be due in installments, and I will provide you with detailed feedback along the way. You will also have some class time to work with a writing partner on your proposal and as a group we will help formulate an analytic plan. Final Exam (30% of grade). There will be a final exam designed to encourage deep reflection on the course material. You may use notes and class materials to help you complete the exam.
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Readings. Readings are available through electronic course reserves. The URL for our class is: http://utdallas.docutek.com/eres/coursepage.aspx?cid=1088. Prior to each class meeting, you need to read all of the assigned selections. Readings for presentations are marked by * on the reading list that follows. These readings are not required unless you are presenting. Readings may be modified somewhat depending on the needs and interests of this group. Course Policies The following policies, along with your active participation, will help ensure a good class experience. Students should be open-minded to new information. Students should demonstrate respect and professionalism toward fellow students and the instructor throughout the course. Students may leave the classroom if they feel uncomfortable during any of the class discussions or films. Academic Calendar DATE TOPIC 8/30 9/6 9/13 9/20 9/27 10/4 10/11 10/18 10/25 11/1 11/8 11/15 11/22 11/29 12/6 12/10 Introduction Emotional development and temperament The self and identity Attachment Families and parenting Parental discipline Peer relationships: Status and rejection Peer relationships: Friendships and romance Aggression, bullying, and antisocial behavior Gender development Ethnicity and ecological context Childcare and schools Abuse and neglect Presentation of research proposals Risk and Resilience Final Exam
Statement of Topic Due
Introduction and Method Due
Class Presentations/Fall Celebration/ Entire proposal due
* Note: I reserve the right to change these dates for pedagogical reasons.
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Readings 9/6 Emotional Development and Temperament
Thompson, R. A., & Goodvin, R. (2005). The individual child: Temperament, emotion, self, and personality. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science (pp. 391428). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kagan, J. (1989). Temperamental contributions to social behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 668-674. Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 69-74. Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, A. H., Plomin, R., Rothbart, M. K., Thomas, A., Chess, S., Hinde, R. A., & McCall, R. B. (1987). Roundtable: What is temperament? Four approaches. Child Development, 52, 505-529. 9/13 The Self and Identity
Rosen, L. H., & Patterson, M. M. (in press). The self and identity. In M. K. Underwood & L.H. Rosen (Eds.), Social development. New York: Guilford. Montemayor, R., & Eisen, M. (1977). The development of self-conceptions from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 13, 314-319. Marcia, J. E. (2002). Adolescence, identity, and the Bernardone family. Identity, 2, 199-209. Phinney, J. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34-49. * Harter, S., Waters, P., & Whitesell, N.R. (1998). Relational self-worth: Differences in perceived worth as a person across interpersonal contexts among adolescents. Child Development, 69, 756-766. * Cassidy, J., Ziv, Y., Mehta, T. G., & Feeney, B. C. (2003). Feedback seeking in children and adolescents: Associations with self-perceptions, attachment representations, and depression. Child Development, 74, 612-628. 9/20 Attachment
Van den Boom (2001). First attachments: Theory and research. In G. Bremner & A. Fogel (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of infant development (pp. 296-325). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
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Isabella, R. A., & Belsky, J. (1991). Interactional synchrony and the origins of infant-mother attachment: A replication study. Child Development, 62, 373-384. Waters, E., Merrick, S., Treboux, D., Crowell, J., & Albersheim, L. (2000). Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood: A twenty-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 71, 684-689. Van den Boom (1994). The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: An experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lowerclass mothers with irritable infants. Child Development, 65, 1457-1477. * Zeanah, C. H., Smyke, A. T., Koga, S. F., Carlson, E., & the Bucharest Early Intervention Project Core Group. (2005). Attachment in institutionalized and community children in Romania. Child Development, 76, 1015-1028. *Anisfeld, E., Casper, V., Nozye, M., & Cunningham, N. (1990). Does infant carrying promote attachment? An experimental study of the effects of increased physical contact on the development of attachment. Child Development, 61, 1617-1627. 9/27 Families and Parenting
Holden, G. W. (2010). Parenting: A dynamic perspective. Los Angeles: Sage. [Read chapter 4] Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424-435. Harris, J. R. (2002). Beyond the nurture assumption: Testing hypotheses about the child’s environment. In J. G. Borkowski, S. Ramey, & M. Bristol-Power (Eds.), Parenting and the child’s world: Influences on academic, intellectual, and social-emotional development (pp. 3-20). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Gladwell, M. (1998). Do parents matter? The New Yorker, August 17, 1998. [http://www.gladwell.com/1998/1998_08_17_a_harris.htm ] Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Almeida, D. M. (2003). Parents do matter: Trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development, 74, 578-594. Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218-232. 10/4 Parental Discipline
Rankin, J. L. (2005). Discipline. In J. Rankin (Ed.), Parenting experts: Their advice, the
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research, and getting it right (pp. 117-162). Westport, CT: Praeger. Benjet, C., & Kazdin, A. (2003). Spanking children: The controversies, findings and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 197-224. Lansford, J., Criss, M.M., Dodge, K. A., Shaw, D.S., Pettit, G.S., & Bates, J.E. (2009). Trajecotries of physical discipline: Early childhood antecendents and developmental outcomes. Child Development, 80, 1385-1402. Vittrup, B., Holden, G. W., & Buck, M. J. (2006). Attitudes predict the use of physical punishment: A prospective study of the emergence of disciplinary practices. Pediatrics, 117, 2055-2064. *Straus, M .A. & Kaufman Kantor, G. (1994). Corporal punishment by parents: A risk factor in the epidemiology of depression, suicide, alcohol abuse, child abuse and wife beating. Adolescence, 29, 543-561. * Lansford, J., Chang, L., Dodge, K., Malone, P., Oburu, P., Palmerus, K., Bacchini, D., Pastorelli, C., Bombi, A., Zelli, A., Tapanya, S., Chaudhary, N., Deater-Deckard, K., Manke, B., & Quinn, N. (2005). Physical discipline and children's adjustment: Cultural normativeness as a moderator. Child Development, 76, 1234-1246. 10/11 Peers: Status and Rejection Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., & Renshaw, P. D. (2002). Peer acceptance and rejection in childhood. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 265-284). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Coie, J. D., & Cillessen, A. H. (1993). Peer rejection: Origins and effects on children’s development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 89-92 Brendgen, M., & Vitaro, F. (2008). Peer rejection and physical health problems in early adolescence. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 183-190. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Children's treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 367-380. *Rosen, L. H., & Underwood, M. K. (2010). Attractiveness as a moderator of the association between aggression and popularity. The Journal of School Psychology, 48, 313-333. *Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D., & Blakemore, S. (2010). Social and brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain and Cognition, 72, 134-145.
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10/18 Peers: Friendship and Romance Bukowski, W. M., Motzoi, C., & Meyer, F. (2009). Friendship as process, function, and outcome. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 217-231). New York: Guilford. Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1999). Friendships and adaptation across the life span. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 76-79. Collins, W. A. (2003). More than myth: The developmental significance of romantic relationships during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 1-24. Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J., Siebenbruner, J., & Collins, W. A. (2001). Diverse aspects of dating: Associations with psychosocial functioning from early to middle adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 313-336. *Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63, 103-115. *Rose, A. J., Carlson, W., & Waller, E. M. (2007). Prospective associations of co-rumination with friendship and emotional adjustment: Considering the socioemotional trade-offs of co-rumination. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1019-1031. 10/25 Aggression, Bullying, and Antisocial Behavior Underwood, M. K. (2002). Aggression. In C. H. Hart & P. Smith (Eds.). Handbook of Childhood Social Development (pp. 533-548). London: Blackwell. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094-2100. Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 22-30. Dodge, K.A. (2008). Framing public policy and prevention of chronic violence in American Youths. American Psychologist, 63, 573-590. * Tremblay, R. E. (2006). Prevention of youth violence: Why not start at the beginning? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 481-487. *Capella, E., & Weinstein, R. (2006). The prevention of social aggression among girls. Social Development, 15, 434-459.
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Golombok, S., & Hines, M. (2002). Sex differences in social behavior. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 117-136). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Martin, C. L., & Ruble, D. (2004). Children’s search for gender cues: Cognitive perspectives on gender development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 67-70. Rose, A. J. & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential tradeoffs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98-131. Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. * Brown, C. S., Chu, H., & Bigler, R. S. (in press). An experimental study of the correlates and consequences of perceiving oneself to be the target of gender discrimination. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. * Lamb, L., Bigler, R.S., Liben, L. S., & Green, V. A. (2009). Teaching children to confront peers' sexist remarks: Implications for theories of gender development and educational practice. Sex Roles, 61, 361-382. 11/8 Ethnicity and Ecological Context
Coll, C. G., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., & Wasik, B. H. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891-1914. Hill, N. E. (2006). Disentangling ethnicity, socioeconomic status and parenting: Interactions, influences, and meaning. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1, 114-124. Luthar, S. S., & Latendresse, S. J. (2005). Children of the affluent: Challenges to well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 49-53. Patterson, M. M., & Bigler, R. S. (2006). Preschool children's attention to environmental messages about groups: Social categorization and the origins of intergroup bias. Child Development, 77, 847-860. * Hughes, J. M., & Bigler, R. S. (2007). Consequences of learning about historical racism among European American and African American children. Child Development, 78, 1689-1705. * Bigler, R. S., Arthur, A. E., Hughes, J. M., & Patterson, M. M. (2008). The politics of race and gender: Children's perceptions of discrimination and the U. S. presidency. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8, 1-30
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11/15 Childcare and Schools Vandell, D.L. (2004). Early child care: The known and the unknown. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 387-414. McCartney, K., Burchinal, P., Clarke-Stewart, A., Bub, K.L., Owen, M.T., Belsky, J., & the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2010). Testing a series of causal propositions relating time spent in child care to children’s externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1-17. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network.( 1997). The effects of infant child care on infantmother attachment security: Results of the NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, 68(5), 860-879. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2003). Does amount of time spent in child care predict socioemotional adjustment during the transition to kindergarten? Child Development, 74, 976-1005. * Gunnar, M. R., Kryzer, E., Van Ryzin, M. J., & Phillips, D. A. (2010). The rise in cortisol in family day care: Associations with aspects of care quality, child behavior, and child sex. Child Development, 81, 851-869. * Aviezer, O., & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2008). Attachment and non-maternal care: Towards contextualizing the quantity vs. quality debate. Attachment and Human Development, 10, 275-285. 11/22 Abuse and Neglect Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2008). Available online at: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/can_info_packet.pdf. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cicchetti, D. (2004). An odyssey of discovery: Lessons learned through three decades of research on child maltreatment. American Psychologist, 59, 731-741. Toth, S. L., Manly, J. T., & Nilsen, W. J. (2008). From research to practice: Lessons learned. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 317-325. Fuller-Thomson, E., Brennenstuhl, S., & Frank, J. (in press). The association between childhood physical abuse and heart disease in adulthood: Findings from a representative community sample. Child Abuse and Neglect. *Cyr, C., Euser, E. M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Van Ijzendoorn, J. (2010). Attachment
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security and disorganization in maltreating and high-risk families: A series of metaanalyses. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 87-108. *Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Harris, W. W., & Putnam, F. W. (2009). The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children: Descriptive results from a multigenerational study. Journal of Interpersonal Violoence, 24, 424-449. 12/6 Risk and Resilience
Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205-220. Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2003). Resilience to childhood adversity: Results of a 21year study. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 130-155). New York: Cambridge. Olds, D., Henderson, C.R. Jr., Cole, R., Eckenrode, J., Kitzman, H., Luckey, D., Pettitt, L., Sidora, K., Morris, P., & Powers, J. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1238-1244. *Klasen, F., Oettingen, G., Daniels, J., Post, M., Hoyer, C., & Adam, H. (2010). Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers. Child Development, 81, 1096-1113. *Kronenberg, M. E., Hansel, T. C., Brennan, A. M., Osofsky, H. J., Osofsky, J. D., & Lawrason, B. (2010). Children of Katrina: Lessons learned about postdisaster symptoms and recovery patterns. Child Development, 81, 1241-1259.
Social Development Fall, 2011 11 Student Conduct & Discipline The University of Texas System and The University of Texas at Dallas have rules and regulations for the orderly and efficient conduct of their business. It is the responsibility of each student and each student organization to be knowledgeable about the rules and regulations which govern student conduct and activities. General information on student conduct and discipline is contained in the UTD publication, A to Z Guide, which is provided to all registered students each academic year. The University of Texas at Dallas administers student discipline within the procedures of recognized and established due process. Procedures are defined and described in the Rules and Regulations, Board of Regents, The University of Texas System, Part 1, Chapter VI, Section 3, and in Title V, Rules on Student Services and Activities of the university’s Handbook of Operating Procedures. Copies of these rules and regulations are available to students in the Office of the Dean of Students, where staff members are available to assist students in interpreting the rules and regulations (SU 1.602, 972/883-6391). A student at the university neither loses the rights nor escapes the responsibilities of citizenship. He or she is expected to obey federal, state, and local laws as well as the Regents’ Rules, university regulations, and administrative rules. Students are subject to discipline for violating the standards of conduct whether such conduct takes place on or off campus, or whether civil or criminal penalties are also imposed for such conduct. Academic Integrity The faculty expects from its students a high level of responsibility and academic honesty. Because the value of an academic degree depends upon the absolute integrity of the work done by the student for that degree, it is imperative that a student demonstrate a high standard of individual honor in his or her scholastic work. Scholastic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, statements, acts or omissions related to applications for enrollment or the award of a degree, and/or the submission as one’s own work or material that is not one’s own. As a general rule, scholastic dishonesty involves one of the following acts: cheating, plagiarism, collusion and/or falsifying academic records. Students suspected of academic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary proceedings. Plagiarism, especially from the web, from portions of papers for other classes, and from any other source is unacceptable and will be dealt with under the university’s policy on plagiarism (see general catalog for details). This course will use the resources of turnitin.com, which searches the web for possible plagiarism and is over 90% effective. Email Use The University of Texas at Dallas recognizes the value and efficiency of communication between faculty/staff and students through electronic mail. At the same time, email raises some issues concerning security and the identity of each individual in an email exchange. The university encourages all official student email correspondence be sent only to a student’s U.T. Dallas email address and that faculty and staff consider email from students official only if it originates from a UTD student account. This allows the university to maintain a high degree of confidence in the identity of all individual corresponding and the security of the transmitted information. UTD furnishes each student with a free email account that is to be used in all communication with university personnel. The Department of Information Resources at U.T. Dallas provides a method for students to have their U.T. Dallas mail forwarded to other accounts. Withdrawal from Class The administration of this institution has set deadlines for withdrawal of any collegelevel courses. These dates and times are published in that semester's course catalog. Administration procedures must be followed. It is the student's responsibility to handle withdrawal requirements from any class. In other words, I cannot drop or withdraw any student. You must do the proper paperwork to ensure that you will not receive a final grade of "F" in a course if you choose not to attend the class once you are enrolled. Student Grievance Procedures Procedures for student grievances are found in Title V, Rules on Student Services and Activities, of the university’s Handbook of Operating Procedures. In attempting to resolve any student grievance regarding grades, evaluations, or other fulfillments of academic responsibility, it is the obligation of the student first to make a serious effort to resolve the matter with the instructor, supervisor, administrator, or committee with whom the grievance originates (hereafter called “the respondent”). Individual faculty members retain primary responsibility for assigning grades and evaluations. If the matter cannot be resolved at that level, the grievance must be submitted in writing to the respondent with a copy of the respondent’s School Dean. If the matter is not resolved by the written response provided by the respondent, the student may submit a written appeal to the School Dean. If the grievance is not resolved by the School Dean’s decision, the student may make a written appeal to the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education, and the deal will appoint and convene an Academic Appeals Panel. The decision of the Academic Appeals Panel is final. The results of the academic appeals process will be distributed to all involved parties. Copies of these rules and regulations are available to students in the Office of the Dean of Students, where staff members are available to assist students in interpreting the rules and regulations. Incomplete Grade Policy As per university policy, incomplete grades will be granted only for work unavoidably missed at the semester’s end and only if 70% of the course work has been completed. An incomplete grade must be resolved within eight (8) weeks from the first day of the subsequent long semester. If the required work to complete the course and to remove the incomplete grade is not submitted by the specified deadline, the incomplete grade is changed automatically to a grade of F. Disability Services The goal of Disability Services is to provide students with disabilities educational opportunities equal to those of their non-disabled peers. Disability Services is located in room 1.610 in the Student Union. Office hours are Monday and Thursday, 8:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.; Tuesday and Wednesday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m.; and Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. The contact information for the Office of Disability Services is: The University of Texas at Dallas, SU 22 PO Box 830688 Richardson, Texas 75083-0688 (972) 883-2098 (voice or TTY) Essentially, the law requires that colleges and universities make those reasonable adjustments necessary to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability. For example, it may be necessary to remove classroom prohibitions against tape recorders or animals (in the case of dog guides) for students who are blind. Occasionally an assignment requirement may be substituted (for example, a research paper versus an oral presentation for a student who is hearing impaired). Classes enrolled students with mobility impairments may have to be rescheduled in accessible facilities. The college or university may need to provide special services such as registration, notetaking, or mobility assistance. It is the student’s responsibility to notify his or her professors of the need for such an accommodation. Disability Services provides students with letters to present to faculty members to verify that the student has a disability and needs accommodations. Individuals requiring special accommodation should contact the professor after class or during office hours. Religious Holy Days The University of Texas at Dallas will excuse a student from class or other required activities for the travel to and observance of a religious holy day for a religion whose places of worship are exempt from property tax under Section 11.20, Tax Code, Texas Code Annotated. The student is encouraged to notify the instructor or activity sponsor as soon as possible regarding the absence, preferably in advance of the assignment. The student, so excused, will be allowed to take the exam or complete the assignment within a reasonable time after the absence: a period equal to the length of the absence, up to a maximum of one week. A student who notifies the instructor and completes any missed exam or assignment may not be penalized for the absence. A student who fails to complete the exam or assignment within the prescribed period may receive a failing grade for that exam or assignment. If a student or an instructor disagrees about the nature of the absence [i.e., for the purpose of observing a religious holy day] or if there is similar disagreement about whether the student has been given a reasonable time to complete any missed assignments or examinations, either the student or the instructor may request a ruling from the chief executive officer of the institution, or his or her designee. The chief executive officer or designee must take into account the legislative intent of TEC 51.911(b), and the student and instructor will abide by the decision of the chief executive officer or designee.