Viva Pathology

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Pathology Viva Questions:
Robbins 8 th Edition

Pathology Unit 1:
Viva Questions
Hyperplasia. (2/01, 1/07) pg 6-7
Hypertrophy. (2/01, 1/07, 1/10) pg 7-8
Hypertrophy vs hyperplasia (1/08) pg 6-8
Atrophy. (1/07) pg 9-11
Atrophy vs apoptosis (features/mechanisms). (2/01, 2/04) pg 27-31
Metaplasia and dysplasia. (1/96, 2/04, 2/07 1/10) pg 10-11
Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia. (2/97) pg 6-11
Biochemical hallmarks of cell injury. (2/04) pg 14-18
Reversible ischaemia and necrosis. (2/99, 2/02, 2/03, 2/04, 2/08, 1/09) pg
19-22
Irreversible ischaemia (2/03) pg 19
Reversible vs irreversible cellular injury. (1/02, 2/05, 1/06, 2/09) pg 1920
Define necrosis and give examples of types of necrosis. (1/96, 1/97) pg
21-22
Coagulative vs liquefactive necrosis. (2/00) pg 21-22

Pathology Unit 2:
Viva Questions
Reperfusion injury (2/05, 1/06, 2/06, 1/10) pg 24
Atrophy vs apoptosis. (2/01, 2/04) pg 27-31
Apoptosis (features and mechanisms) (2/04, 2/05, 2/06, 1/08, 1/10)
Discuss steatosis. (2/04) pg 35-36
Tell me about metastatic calcification. (2/04, 1/08) pg 41-42

Pathology Unit 3:
Viva Questions
Vascular response to acute inflammation. (2/03, 1/06, 1/07, 1/09) pg 5052

Role of neutrophils in acute inflammation. (1/96, 1/01, 2/08) pg 53-61
Chemical mediators of inflammation. (2/95, 1/99, 2/02) pg 63-74
Role of the complement system in host defence. (1/02, 2/06, 2/08) pg 64

Pathology Unit 4:
Viva Questions
Tell me about chronic inflammation. (1/98, 2/07, 2/09) pg 78-81
Tell me about the role of macrophages. (1/95) pg 79-81

Pathology Unit 5:
Viva Questions
Angiogenesis. (2/04, 1/08) pg 99-102
Tell me about wound healing by primary intention. (86, 2/93, 1/95, 1/98,
2/98, 2/02, 1/04, 2/04, 1/05, 1/07, 2/09) pg 102-106
Tell me about wound healing by secondary intention. How does this
differ from primary union ? (1/02) pg 102
What are the complications of wound healing ? (2/93) pg 106
What pathological factors could affect wound healing ? (1/00, 2/08, 1/10)
pg 106-108
Explain the mechanism of scar formation and fibrosis. (2/04, 1/05, 1/08)
pg 104, 107

Pathology Unit 6:
Revision Week

Pathology Unit 7:
Viva Questions
Pathogenesis of oedema. (1/93, 2/98, 2/99, 1/02, 1/03, 1/07, 1/10) pg
120-122
Ascites. (2/95) pg 120
Normal haemostasis. (1985, 2/09)
Role of platelets in coagulation. (2/99, 2/03, 1/05, 2/06, 1/09) pg 126-127
Clotting cascade:

Discuss this. (1/95, 2/99, 1/05, 2/06, 1/10) pg 127-130
Discuss factors that inhibit the cascade. (2/03) pg 125
Venous thrombosis:
Predisposing factors and outcomes. (1/96, 1/97, 1/01, 1/04, 1/05, 1/09)
pg 133
Pathogenesis. (2/99, 2/02, 2/06) pg 130-132
Effects of arterial thrombosis. (1/01) pg 133, pg 135
Embolism: sources and consequences. (2/95, 1/97, 1/99, 1/08, 2/09) pg
136-137
Cellular pathology of irreversible shock. (2/97) pg 141-142
Pathogenesis of septic shock. (2/97, 2/00, 2/05, 2/07, 1/09) pg 140
Haemorrhagic shock. (2/99, 1/03) pg 141

Pathology Unit 8:
Viva Questions
Cells of the immune system. (2/96) pg 196-202
T-cells. (1/00, 2/00) pg 196-198
B-cells (1/01, 1/03) pg 198-199
Role of complement in immune processes. (1/03) pg 210
Hypersensitivity. (1/95) pg 205
Type 1 hypersensitivity. pg 206-209
Explain. (1/98, 1/99, 2/00, 2/07, 2/09)
Chemical mediators and their actions. (1/02) pg 208
Type 2 hypersensitivity (transfusion reaction). (1/99, 2/00, 1/01, 2/05,
2/08, 1/10) pg 210
Type 3 hypersensitivity. (2/99, 2/03, 2/05, 2/08) pg 211-214
Type 4 hypersensitivity. (2/99, 2/07, 1/09) pg 215-218

Pathology Unit 9:
Viva Questions
HIV virus and modes of transmission. (1/01, 2/03) pg 236-238
Immunopathogenesis of AIDS. (1/96, 2/99) pg 238-243
Abnormalities of immune function in AIDS. (2/98) pg 242 table 6-12

Pathology Unit 10:
Viva Questions
Describe the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (1/95, 2/99, 1/01, 2/01,
1/03, 2/08) pg 521-524
What are the microscopic features of an atheroma ? (1/00) pg 517
Tell me about the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. (2/01) pg 526529
Tell me about aneurysms. (1/95) pg 530-531
Aortic aneurysms:
Pathogenesis (1/04) pg 531
Complications (2/04) pg 532
What is an aortic dissection ? (2/04, 1/07, 1/10) pg 532-534

Pathology Unit 11:
Viva Questions
Pathophysiology of acute pulmonary oedema. (1/96) pg 562
Tell me about the pathogenesis of MI. (2/98, 1/99, 1/00, 2/01, 2/07) pg
576-577
What are the pathological consequences of acute MI ? (2/03) pg 584-586
Tell me about cardiogenic shock. (1/98) pg 584

Pathology Unit 12:
Viva Questions
Tell me about hypertensive heart disease. (1/03) pg 587
Tell me about calcific aortic stenosis. (2/04, 2/08) pg 590-591
Infective endocarditis:
Pathogenesis. (2/00, 2/02) pg 596-597
What are the potential organ system effects ? (2/00) pg 597
Describe the pathogenesis of acute pericarditis. (2/03, 2/08) pg 611-612
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (1/06, 1/09) pg 604-606

Pathology Unit 13:
Revision Week

Pathology Unit 14:
Viva Questions:
Outline the differences between benign and malignant tumours. (1/95,
1/97, 2/99) pg 281
Tumour invasion and metastases. (1/05, 1/09) pg 279-281
Invasion of the extracelluar matrix. (1/05) pg 310-313
What clinical effects may tumours have on their host ? (2/09) pg 332-335
Tell me about paraneoplastic syndromes. (1/05) pg 333-335
What are tumour markers ? (+examples).
Which agents are thought to be carcinogenic ?

Pathology Unit 15:
Viva Questions
Tell me about host barriers to infection. (2/95, 2/09) pg pg 352-353
Describe how viruses cause cell injury. (1/02) pg 356-357
Describe how bacteria cause cell injury. (1/02) pg 357-359
Measles. (1/07) pg 363
Herpes simplex. (1/07) pg 365-366
Varicella zoster. (2/01, 2/05, 1/06) pg 368
Tell me about staphylococcal infections. (2/95, 2/99) pg 371-372
Tell me about streptococcal infections. (1/96, 1/00, 1/04, 2/09) pg 373374

Pathology Unit 16:
Viva Questions
Neisserial infections. (1/09) pg 377-378
Tell me about infection with M. tuberculosis. (1/05, 2/08) pg 381-386
Pathogenesis of primary pulmonary TB (2/98, 2/03) pg 381-382
Anareobic bacterial infection. (2/99)
Discuss clostridial wound infections. (1/01, 1/04) pg 393-394
Clostridial infections. (1/08) pg 393-394
Tell me about tetanus. (1/95, 2/98)
Candidiasis. (2/08) pg 397-398

Clinical effects of malaria (2/01) pg 401-402
Pathogenesis of malaria (2/03, 2/08) pg 401-402
Describe the pathogenesis of plasmodium falciparum infection. (2/03)

Pathology Unit 17:
Viva Questions
Name the main constituents of tobacco smoke, and their effects on
health. (1/01) pg 419-420
Discuss the pathological effects of smoking on the lung. (2/03) pg 419420
Discuss the pathological consequences of heroin use. (2/03) pg 426
What are the patterns of lung injury related to air pollution ? (2/97) pg
429
Lead poisoning (2/06) pg 432-433
Tell me about radiation injury. (1/95, 2/97, 2/03, 2/06) pg 436-441
Tell me about the systemic consequences of a thermal burn. (2/95) pg
445
Vitamin K (1/09) pg 456
Thiamine deficiency (2/06) pg 456-457

Pathology Unit 18:
Revision Week

Pathology Unit 19:
Viva Questions
Tell me about the causes of ARF. (2/96) pg 960-961
Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis. (1/06, 2/06) pg 974-976
Nephrotic syndrome. (2/06, 1/08) pg 978-979
Describe the pathological changes in the kidney in acute tubular necrosis.
(1/00, 1/02, 1/06) pg 993-996
What is the pathogenesis of pyelonephritis ? (1/99, 2/00) pg 998-1000
Analgesic abuse nephropathy (2/00) pg 1003-1004
Describe the pathogenesis of hypertensive renal failure. (2/96) pg 10071008
Obstructive uropathy. (1/00) pg 1012-1014
Renal calculi:

Pathogenesis of kidney stones. (1/95, 1/99, 2/02, 1/06, 2/07) pg 1014
Consequences. (1/99, 2/02) pg 1015

Pathology Unit 20:
Viva Questions
Types of atelectasis, pg 713-714
What are the causes of ARDS ? (2/96, 1/01, 1/04, 2/09) pg 715
Emphysema:
Basic pathology of emphysema. (1/97, 2/00, 1/06, 1/07, 2/07, 1/10)
pg 717-722
Pathological classifications. (1/97, 2/98) pg 718-719
Pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis. (1/99) pg 722
Asthma:
Pathogenesis. (2/96, 1/98, 1/02, 1/06, 1/07) pg 723-724
Pathological features. (1/04) pg 726
Basic pathological processes of restrictive lung disease. (1/97) pg 729

Pathology Unit 21:
Viva Questions
Pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism. (1/98, 1/00, 2/02) pg 742
Bacterial pneumonia. (1/99, 2/99, 2/00) pg 748-749
Legionella pneumonia. (1/01, 2/02, 1/05) pg 749
Atypical pneumonia (1/03) pg 751-752
Influenza (1/05, 1/09, 1/10) pg 751-752
Malignant mesothelioma (1/09) pg 768-769

Pathology Unit 22:
Viva Questions
Peptic ulcer disease (1/08) pg 816-819
Bacterial enteritis. (2/01, 2/02, 2/04) pg 833-834
Salmonella dysentery (2/04, 1/06) pg 835
Cholera (2/04, 1/06) pg 835-836
Crohns disease (2/05, 1/09) pg 847-849
Ulcerative colitis (2/05) pg 849-851
Ischaemic bowel disease (2/05, 2/09) pg 851-853

Pathology Unit 23:
Viva questions:
Cirrhosis:
Basic pathological principles (1/97, 1/05) pg 882-883
Pathophysiology of the consequences. (1/97) pg 883
Portal hypertension. (1/05, 1/10) pg 883-885
Mechanisms involved in the formation of ascites. (1987, 2/95)
Tell me about unconjugated jaundice. (2/97, 2/98, 2/99, 2/00) pg 887
Hepatitis A (2/05, 1/08) pg 890-891
Hepatitis B infection.
Describe the serological changes (1/92, 1/96, 1/97, 2/98, 1/04) pg 893
Pathogenesis (1/97, 2/98) pg 892
Clinical syndromes, pathological consequences. (1/97, 2/02, 2/05)
Hepatitis C
Tell me about the pathogenesis. (1/00, 2/01, 2/02, 1/08) pg 894
Consequences. (2/02, 2/06, 1/09) pg 895
Hepatitis D (2/06, 1/10) pg 895-896
Pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. (2/01) 898-899
Pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis. (2/01) pg 899-901
Alcoholic hepatitis and consequences. (2/02, 1/07) pg 904-907
Cholelithiasis – pathogenesis and consequences. (2/02, 1/07) pg 928-931

Pathology Unit 24:
Revision Week

Pathology Unit 25:
Viva Questions
Leukopaenia:
Pathological causes (1/97)
Immunological consequences (1/97)

Pathology Unit 26:
Viva Questions
Tell me about acute pancreatitis. Consequences. (2/96, 1/98, 2/02, 1/04,
1/05, 2/06, 2/09) pg 942-944
What are the complications of chronic pancreatitis ? (2/96) pg 945-946

Pathology Unit 27:
Viva Questions
Tell me about the causes of anaemia. (2/95) pg 623
Discuss the pathological basis of haemolytic anaemia. (1/97, 1/99, 1/10)
pg 624-625
Sickle cell anaemia (1/08) pg 628-632
Pernicious anaemia (2/06) pg 639-642
Tell me about microcytic anaemia. (2/97) pg 643-646
Von Willebrands disease (2/07, 1/09) pg 655
Haemophilia A (2/07) pg 655
Tell me about DIC. (2/00) pg 656-657
Pathogenesis of DIC. (2/03, 1/08, 2/09) pg 656-658

Pathology Unit 28:
Viva Questions
Fracture healing:
Sequence of events. (1/96, 2/98, 2/00, 2/01, 1/03, 1/05, 2/07) pg 12881289
Pathological processes affecting ? (2/02) pg 1289
Avascular necrosis. (2/01) pg 1289-1290
Tell me about osteoarthritis. (1/98, 2/05) pg 1304-1305
Rheumatoid arthritis (2/05) pg 1305-1308
OA versus RA. (2/01) pg 1304-1308
Tell me about gout. (2/05, 1/08) pg 1311-1314

Pathology Unit 29:
Viva Questions
Pituitary adenoma (2/08)
Hyperthyroidism (2/97, 2/08)
Graves disease. (1/06)
Thyroiditis. (2/98)
Pathogenesis of Type 1 DM. (1/98, 1/06, 2/08, 2/09)
Pathogenesis of Type 2 DM. (1/06)

Pathology Unit 30:
Revision Week

Pathology Unit 31:
Viva Questions
Peripheral nerve transaction and repair. (2/98, 2/00, 1/03) pg 1330

Pathology Unit 32:
Viva Questions
Non haemorrhagic CVA (2/07) pg 1363-1365
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (1/07) pg 1366-1367
Ruptured berry aneurysm (2/07) pg 1367
Bacterial meningitis. (2/00, 1/07, 1/10) pg 1369-1370
Non bacterial meningitis. (1/03) pg 1370
Multiple sclerosis (1/07, 2/09) pg 1382-1384
Alzheimers disease (2/07) pg 1386-1389

Pathology Unit 33:
Viva Questions
Pre-eclampsia. ( 1/08)

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