VoIP Feasibility Study

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1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Voice over Internet Protocol is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over internet protocol networks such as the internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with voice over internet protocol are internet protocol telephony, internet telephony, voice over broadband, broadband telephony, and broadband phone. internet telephony refers to communications services — voice, facsimile, and/or voice-messaging applications — that are transported via the internet, rather than the public switched telephone network. The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and compression/translation of the signal into internet protocol packets for transmission over the internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end. Voice over internet protocol systems employ session control protocols to control the setup and tear-down of calls as well as audio codec’s which encode speech allowing transmission over an internet protocol network as digital audio via an audio stream. Codec use is varied between different implementations of voice over internet protocol (and often a range of codec’s are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fid “Internet protocol” instead of traditional analog systems. Some voice over internet protocol services need only a regular phone connection, while others allow you to make telephone calls using an Internet connection instead. Some voice over internet protocol services may allow you only to call other people using the same service, but others may allow you to call any telephone number - including local, long distance, wireless, and international numbers. Voice over internet protocol is mainly concerned with the realization of telephone service over internet protocol-based networks such as the internet and intranet. Internet protocol telephony is currently breaking through to become one of the most important service on the net. The actual breakthrough was made possible by the high bandwidth available in an intranet and, increasingly, on the internet. Another fundamental reason is the cost associated with the various implementations.

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The public telephone network and the equipment makes it possible are taken for granted in most parts of the world. Availability of a telephone and access to low-cost, high quality worldwide network is considered to be essential in modern society (telephone are even expected to work when the power off).There is, however, a paradigm shift beginning to occur since more and more communication is in digital form and transported via packet networks such as internet protocoland Frame Relay frames. Since data traffic, there has been considerable interest in transporting voice over data networks. Support for voice communications using the internet protocol, which is usually just called “Voice over internet protocol” or voice over internet protocol, has become especially attractive given the low-cost, flat-rate pricing of the public Internet. In fact, toll quality telephony over internet protocol has now become one of the key steps leading to the convergence of the voice, video, and data communications industries. The feasibility of carrying voice and signaling message over the internet has already been demonstrated but delivering high-quality commercial products, establishing public services, and convincing users to buy into the vision are just beginning. Definition Voice over internet protocol can be defined as the ability to make telephone calls and to send facsimiles over internet protocol- based data networks with a suitable quality of service and a much superior cost/benefit. Equipment producers see Voice over internet protocol as a new opportunity to innovate and copete. The challenge for then is turning this vision into reality by quickly developing new voice over internet protocol-enabled equipment. For Internet service providers, the possibility of introducing usage-based pricing and increasing their traffic volumes is very attractive. Users are seeking new types of integrated voice/data applications as well as cost benefits. Successfully delivering voice over packet networks presents a tremendous opportunity; however, implementing the products is not as straightforward a task as it may first appear. This document examines the technologies, infrastructures, software, and systems that will be necessary to realize voice over internet protocol on a large scale. The types of applications that will both drive the market and benefit the most from the convergence of voice and data networks will be identified.

History of Voice Over Internet Protocol

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Voice over Internet Protocol owes its existence to the difference in price between long-distance connections and the use of data networks. This technology uses data networks such as the Internet to transmit voice information from a simple PC. A telephone conversation is conducted via microphone and loudspeaker connected to the sound card. Microsoft NetMeeting is the most common Internet telephony program. Its features also include Internet video communication (image telephony). Or, a specially adapter can be used to hook standard telephones up to the data network. All devices that support the same standard can be connected over one data network. Gateways are also available for connecting these devices to telephones in the normal telephone network. These possibilities have led to the creation of IPbased telephone systems using voice over internet protocol.


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WORLD SCENARIO Table 1.1- World Internet Usage Statistics

Source : Internet Usage and World Population Statistics are for December 31, 2009.Demographic (Population) numbers are based on data from the US Census Bureau . Internet usage information comes from data published by Nielsen Online, by the International Telecommunications Union, by GfK, local Regulators and other reliable sources. Copyright © 2010, Miniwatts Marketing Group. All rights reserved. Figure 1.1

The Changing Face of Broadband Distribution

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The chart below shows how the telecoms industry today offers two dominant types of distribution systems for content and services.

Fig 1.2:- The Changing Face of Broadband Distribution

1. Vertically integrated networks, like the Public Switched Telephony Network, its mobile equivalent, Next Generation Network replacements for these, and SMS messaging ("PSTN & SMSC"). Here, a dedicated network integrates connectivity, service and payment. 2. Internet access, where connectivity, services and payment are all separate ("Broadband Internet"). 3. In the future there will be a wide range of new business and payment models which assemble devices, applications, content and connectivity in new technical and economic ways ("Other").

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Table 1.2- Internet Usage in Asia

INTERNET USERS AND POPULATION STATISTICS FOR ASIA % Penetratio User Pop. Internet n ASIA Population Growth Users % of Users, (% REGION ( 2009 Est. ) ( 2000- of World Worl Latest Data Populatio 2009 ) d n) 3,808,070,50 56.3 Asia Only 764,435,900 20.1 % 568.8 % 42.4 % 3 % Rest of the 2,959,734,70 43.7 1,037,894,55 35.1 % 320,7 % 57.6 % World 5 % 7 WORLD 6,767,805,20 100.0 1,802,330,45 26.6 % 399.3 % 100.0 % TOTAL 8 % 7 NOTES: (1) Asiatic Internet Usage and Population Statistics were updated for December 31, 2009. (2) Population numbers are based on data from the US Census Bureau. (3) The most recent usage comes mainly from data published by Nielsen Online , ITU , official country statistics and other trustworthy local sources. (4) Data on this site may be cited, giving due credit and establishing an active link back to Internet World Stats . (5) For definitions and help, see the site surfing guide. Copyright © 2010, Miniwatts Marketing Group. All rights reserved.

Figure 1.3

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Table:-1.3 ASIA INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION Population ( 2009 Est.) 28,395,716 2,967,004 8,238,672 156,050,883 691,141 388,190 14,494,293 1,338,612,96 8 4,615,807 7,055,071 1,156,897,76 6 240,271,522 127,078,679 15,399,437 22,665,345 48,508,972 5,431,747 6,834,345 559,846 25,715,819 396,334 3,041,142 48,137,741 28,563,377 174,578,558 97,976,603 4,657,542 Internet Users, (Year 2000) 1,000 30,000 12,000 100,000 500 30,000 6,000 22,500,000 20,000 2,283,000 5,000,000 2,000,000 47,080,000 70,000 -19,040,000 51,600 6,000 60,000 3,700,000 6,000 30,000 1,000 50,000 133,900 2,000,000 1,200,000 Internet Users, Latest Data 500,000 191,000 2,444,600 556,000 45,000 217,000 74,000 384,000,000 1,024,000 4,878,713 81,000,000 30,000,000 95,979,000 2,300,000 -37,475,800 850,000 527,400 259,000 16,902,600 71,700 330,000 108,900 499,000 18,500,000 24,000,000 3,370,000 Penetration (% Population) 1.8 % 6.4 % 29.7 % 0.4 % 6.5 % 55.9 % 0.5 % 28.7 % 22.2 % 69.2 % 7.0 % User Growth Users (%) ( 2000in Asia 2009 ) 49,900.0 % 0.1 % 536.7 % 0.0 % 20,271.7 % 0.3 % 456.0 % 0.1 % 8,900.0 % 0.0 % 623.3 % 1,133.3 % 1,606.7 % 5,020.0 % 113.7 % 1,520.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 50.2 % 0.1 % 0.6 % 10.6 % 3.9 % 12.6 % 0.3 % 0.0 % 4.9 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.0 % 2.2 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.1 % 2.4 % 3.1 % 0.4 %

ASIA Afganistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalem Cambodia China * Georgia Hong Kong * India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Korea, North Korea, South Kyrgystan Laos Macao * Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore

12.5 % 1,400.0 % 75.5 % 103.9 % 14.9 % 3,185.7 % --77.3 % 96.8 % 15.6 % 1,547.3 % 7.7 % 8,690.0 % 46.3 % 331.7 % 65.7 % 356.8 % 18.1 % 1,095.0 % 10.9 % 1,000.0 % 0.2 % 10,790.0 % 1.7 % 898.0 % 10.6 % 13,716.3 % 24.5 % 1,100.0 % 72.4 % 180.8 %

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Sri Lanka Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Vietnam TOTAL ASIA

21,324,791 22,974,347 7,349,145 65,998,436 1,131,612 4,884,887 27,606,007 88,576,758 3,808,070,50 3

121,500 6,260,000 2,000 2,300,000 2,000 7,500 200,000 114,304,000

1,163,500 15,143,000 600,000 16,100,000 1,800 75,000 2,469,000 22,779,887 764,435,900

5.5 % 857.6 % 65.9 % 141.9 % 8.2 % 29,900.0 % 24.4 % 600.0 % 0.2 % 0.0 % 1.5 % 3,650.0 % 8.9 % 32,820.0 % 25.7 % 11,289.9 % 20.1 % 568.8 %

0.2 % 2.0 % 0.1 % 2.1 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.3 % 3.0 % 100.0 %

Figure 1.4-

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Asia’s share of the global broadband subscriber base stood at 37% by end-2009, with 129 million of the 351million broadband subscribers in the world being in Asia. At the same time, the dominant fixed broadband technology continued to be DSL with 66% of the market. Asia is the world’s largest regional Internet market, measured by users. The number of Internet users in the region was estimated to have reached 578 million by mid-2010 out of a total global Internet user population estimated at 1.4 billion. Although the market is starting to change, Internet development in Asia has been dominated for a long time by Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. China and India have joined this group. For a number of years the developing economies of the region have had considerably slower growth, as they dealt with high access costs, poor infrastructure and the slow pace of deregulation. But this is changing, given the widespread recognition among governments, business sectors and the wider population that not being online severely limits the potential for achieving enormous social and economic benefits. While there is considerable activity in the Internet and online markets across the region, the market in Asia continues to be dominated by the big players of North Asia, (South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, etc), with a significant role also being played by some of the South East Asian countries (Singapore, Malaysia, etc). Of course, in terms of sheer Internet user numbers, China (200 million) and India (210 million) maintain a real presence, despite their modest user penetration figures.

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The Asian Internet market can be broken into three user penetration groups. The top group includes the more highly penetrated markets in terms of users and subscribers. They also tend to have sophisticated and extensive broadband access facilities in place. Typically we find that countries from this group are among the global leaders in broadband Internet. South Korea, with a user penetration of over 71%, leads the regional market with a broadband subscriber penetration of 30%. Closely following in second place is Hong Kong with 70% user penetration and 27% broadband subscriber penetration. The countries in this top grouping are characterized by their state of the art national infrastructure and, most importantly, strong regulatory support for expansion of telecom and IT services. The countries in second band – roughly between 10% and 20% user penetration – are to be found in expansion mode when it comes to their Internet markets. But there is a clear gap (20%) to be bridged before they can be counted in the top grouping. With Thailand (21% user penetration) and Vietnam (20%) playing lead roles in this middle group, find that in the last few years both operators and governments have started to give priority to expanding Internet access and speed in these countries. In the third grouping – those markets with a user penetration of less than 10% – we tend to find those countries that, for whatever reason, have not yet ‘got their act together’ when it comes to Internet. Of course, some are performing relatively well under difficult circumstances. Indonesia, for example, has major infrastructure challenges to overcome in providing Internet to its citizens; yet its 9% penetration does in fact represent a very significant 25 million users. And the war-ravaged Afghanistan is managing 2% user penetration under extremely difficult circumstances. Then there is the tiny fledgling nation of Timor Leste (East Timor), which has continued to struggle with political instability as it attempts to build its national infrastructure. At the bottom end of the Internet scale in Asia, however, we find a number of countries that are simply struggling with poor telecom infrastructure and generally underdeveloped regulatory regimes. Included among these are Laos, Nepal, Turkmenistan, Cambodia, Tajikistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. INTERNET TELEPHONY Internet telephony is the cheapest and fastest way to provide affordable basic telecom services, which is why this technology enjoys phenomenal growth rates world-wide. In the

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beginning of the 21st century, 60% of the world's communications will be carried over the Internet.

INDIAN SCENARIO Table 1.4- INDIA – Internet Usage Stats YEAR 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Users 1,400,000 2,800,000 5,500,000 7,000,000 16,500,000 22,500,000 39,200,000 50,600,000 40,000,000 42,000,000 Population 1,094,870,677 1,094,870,677 1,094,870,677 1,094,870,677 1,094,870,677 1,094,870,677 1,094,870,677 1,112,225,812 1,112,225,812 1,129,667,528 % Penetration. 0.1 % 0.3 % 0.5 % 0.7 % 1.6 % 2.1 % 3.6 % 4.5 % 3.6 % 3.7 %

Source: worldinternetstats.com

INDIA - Internet Market Despite the considerable popularity of Internet in India, the ISP market has been in disarray. There were around 150 operational ISPs in the country, after a period of market rationalization, but, despite the large number of providers, 10% of the ISPs have 90% of the subscribers. In fact, 5% have 85%. The state-owned – BSNL dominate the market, holding first position in terms of Internet subscribers. Cybercafés have certainly been

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playing a major role in fuelling Internet development in India. About 30% of the total Internet subscriber base has broadband access.

INDIA - Broadband Market While India initially embraced the Internet with a degree of ambivalence, there was tremendous enthusiasm among dial-up users and an estimated 60% of Internet users were still regularly accessing the Internet via the country’s more than 10,000 cybercafes. But when it comes to high-speed broadband access, there has been reluctance to embrace, especially within the corporate sector, and the take-up rate has been relatively slow. By early 2009, there were around 6 million broadband subscribers – a lowly penetration (by population) of less than 0.6%. After a surge in broadband subscribers in 2006, the market settled back to a relatively modest 50% growth in 2007/08. Internet adoption continues to grow in India. According to the Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) the low cost of broadband has helped increase Internet usage. There are 5,281,000 broadband Internet connections as of Dec./09, per TRAI. Broadband usage in India is growing 20% per month, according to the Internet Service Providers Association of India (ISPAI). Voice Over Internet Protocol Voice over Internet Protocol is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over internet protocol networks such as the internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with voice over internet protocol are internet protocol telephony, internet telephony, voice over broadband, broadband telephony, and broadband phone. internet telephony refers to communications services — voice, facsimile, and/or voice-messaging applications — that are transported via the internet, rather than the public switched telephone network. INDIA - Voice Over Internet Protocol

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VoIP in India is yet to gain acceptance in India, but possesses great future prospects. Low call-rates as compared to conventional telephony and increasing Internet penetration are set to drive growth of the VoIP-based services in India. The market is expected to change the dynamics of the Indian telecom industry once the necessary regulatory changes are in place. Internet telephony cannot make compromises in voice quality, reliability, scalability and manageability, and work seamlessly with telephone systems all over the world. Internet telephony will prove to be a boon for a price-sensitive market like India and rural telephony will receive an impetus. The Government of India may further deregulate the market and allow phone-to-phone telephony through the Internet.

1.3 COMPANY PROFILE Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd (Asianet Satcom) Vision:

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To create infrastructure for the promotion of high-quality Video, Data & Voice services through cable and to be a provider of such services in the most cost-effective manner. Corporate Profile Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd. 2nd Floor, Leela building Technopark, Trivandrum 695 023 Corporate Office Kerala, India IndiaTel: ++91 471 2575353, 2574862, Fax: ++91 471 2575454 54 Centres 1232 employees R Mahesh Kumar Vinod Panicker S. Satish Kumar G. Sankaranarayanan K.Suresh Canndy

Centres Manpower President & CEO Executive Vice President (Finance & Accounts) Senior Vice President (Asianet Cable Service) Executive Vice President (Asianet Dataline) Kerala Circle Head ( VOIP service )

Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd (Asianet Satcom) is the largest cable network services company in Kerala, India. Started in 1993, Asianet Satellite Communications has today grown in size and reach. Its cable network services operate from over 52 centres spread throughout Kerala and touch over half a million homes and establishments. It is the leading service provider in the region for Cable TV and Internet solutions, and has embarked on a fascinating journey into the CONVERGENCE era and adoption of evolving technologies. The company has re-defined technical perfection in CATV by offering up to 70 simultaneous channels of studio quality picture and CD-like audio. The offerings include seven self-owned channels under the Asianet Cable Vision (ACV) bouquet.

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Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd. is today an Internet Service Provider in the State of Kerala and one of the pioneers in Internet through cable, a revolutionary new concept that has brought always-on net access to homes in Kerala. Asianet Satcom is one of the largest private investors in Kerala with over Rs. 350 crores investments in infrastructure consisting of 50 Earth stations, 40,000 kms of Hybrid Fibre Coaxial cable network spread over almost all the leading cities and towns in the State, an underground Optic-Fibre backbone stretching for 700 kms utilising the special Rights of Way given by the Government of Kerala, and sophisticated facilities for Web-based solutions and portal services, including two Satellite Gateways for Internet bandwidth. With a view to ensure high bandwidth availability, Asianet has set up its own International Satellite Gateways at Trivandrum and Cochin. Asianet Internet Service is already available in Trivandrum and Cochin cities. The company is also geared to implement an ambitious plan to create an Information Highway by laying an Optical Fibre backbone that would provide State-wide connectivity and also inter-link the company's various local networks. Asianet's ISP operations would also help create a great deal of synergy for its CATV services. The ongoing up gradation of the network into a Hybrid Fibre Co-axial one would enable the company to offer up to 500 channels in the near future and open up new vistas in the form of the Web TV and Interactive multimedia services. As an ISP, Asianet looks at being a user-friendly provider of Internet access, Web-services, E-commerce services, Data and voice Connectivity services with the internet advantages of the DATA over CABLE System. Asianet Dataline Established in 1993, and one of the first ISPs in India, Asianet Dataline provides a full range of high quality services to the home and business user, from the latest in high speed Cable Broadband Internet access and allied services such as VPN, VoIP, Dialup Internet, Web Hosting & Website Development. Our mission is to provide the best ISP service in the state of Kerala. Commitment to higher quality provision and lower prices is guaranteed. Within a short span of time, Asianet Dataline (a division of Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd, the largest Cable TV Network in Kerala) has become Kerala's largest Broadband ISP with more than 84,000 subscribers through out the state. With a view to

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ensure high bandwidth availability, Asianet has set up its own International Satellite Gateways at Trivandrum and Cochin. Asianet Internet Service is already available in all major towns across Kerala. Asianet is a pioneer in rolling-out broadband Internet access services, branded Asianet Dataline, on its state-of-the art Cable TV Network and has over 35000 business and residential subscribers in all over Kerala.

With a view to ensure high bandwidth availability, Asianet has also set up its own International Satellite Gateways at Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi. Asianet has a total Internet bandwidth capacity of more than 200mbps, which is the largest in the state of Kerala, among the new generation private ISPs. Asianet Data Line provides services to many Corporates, Educational Institutions and Residential customers. Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd is now focusing on VOIP business seeing the future of this industry in India and particularly looking to bulk of international call traffic from Kerala. Asianet smart phone International calls are never again an expensive affair with the introduction of Asianet smart phone from Asianet Dataline Services. The features of Asianet smart phone is as follows
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Low Calling Rates: Call over 200 destinations worldwide, including mobile phones. Call Status: we can know the call destination, duration, cost and remaining balance during each call. Sound Optimization: here the phone can be connected to the specialized modem .So Asianet smart phone connection can linked to a common land phone. Better Firewall Penetration: Industry standard SIP firewall penetration for low bandwidth, high quality calls.

Minimum System Requirements:

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Land line Broad band connectivity with specialized modem EMTA or ATA Common land phone.

Asianet Smart Fone Asianet Smart Fone is a VOIP (voice over internet protocol) enabled specialized service. In this service we can call international calls in a low tariff. Asianet smart phone service is a pre-paid service. Here the company provides two types of modems an EMTA modem and a ATA modem. An EMTA modem which can be connected to the computer to get the Asianet Broadband which is a postpaid service. At the same time it can be connected to a land phone also to make International Calls. This modem is a product of Cisco Systems. An ATA modem which helps to connect other ISP’s in to the Asianet smart phone service. This modem is produced by Cisco systems. The Model EPC2203 Cable Modem (EPC2203) is a high-speed cable modem with an Embedded Media Terminal Adapter (EMTA). The EPC2203 features two RJ-11 telephone ports for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service along with a 10/100BASE-T Ethernet port and a USB 1.1 port for high-speed data connectivity. The EPC2203 also features Dual Mode. This feature allows the service provider to deploy the EPC2203 in networks that use DOCSIS® 6 MHz downstream modulation.

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Cable modem with an Embedded MTA that provides two lines of voice services Toll-quality, high-compression, and high-fidelity (exceeding toll quality) CODEC options Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) and AES-128 encryption options Attractive compact design and versatile orientation to stand vertically, lie flat on the desktop, or mount easily on the wall Front panel LEDs provide visual feedback of real-time data transmission and cable modem status Bridged 10/100BASE-T auto-sensing/auto-MDIX Ethernet port, and USB 1.1 data port. The Cisco ATA 186 Analog Telephone Adaptor is a handset-to-Ethernet adaptor that

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turns traditional telephone devices into IP devices. Customers can take advantage of the many

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new and exciting IP telephony applications by connecting their analog devices to Cisco ATAs. The Cisco Analog Telephone Adaptor products are standards-based communication devices that deliver true, next generation voice-over-IP (VoIP) terminations to businesses and residences world. Features of ATA modem • Two voice ports support legacy (analog) touch Connects legacy telephones to IP-based networks tone telephones • RJ 45 connection to 10BaseT Ethernet hub or switch • Auto-provisioning with Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) provisioning Servers • Automatic assignment of IP address, network route IP, and subnet mask via Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) • Web configuration through built-in Web server • Touch-tone telephone keypad configuration with voice prompt • Administration password to protect configuration and access • Remote upgrades through network • Advanced pre-processing to optimize full-duplex voice compression • High performance line-echo cancellation eliminates noise and echo • Voice activity detection (VAD) and comfort noise generation (CNG) save bandwidth by delivering voice, not silence • Dynamic network monitoring to reduce jitter artifacts such a packet loss Flexible configuration and provisioning options Clear, natural-sounding voice quality Benefits of these modems These device will be useful to customers who would like to use their normal telephone to make international local calls. Customers who have a cable TV connection but don’t have a PC/laptop can avail this service. Local calls -are referred to calls made in CUG.
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The device will ensure better voice clarity and internet connectivity. Will enable customers to make calls through existing telephone plugged directly into EMTA and ATA device. This service will be useful to customers to make calls free of cost in the Close User Group (Locally ,Nationaly Internationaly IP to IP) Can be easily configured to any existing PBX system

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Asianet being the biggest network laid service operators in Kerala, which would make it possible for customers to make calls to their relatives and friends from any location in Kerala free of cost without even applying for a internet connection.

The device will be useful to interconnect customers across the state with existing telephone A complete replacement for ordinary cable modems/VoIp devices. Will bring additional revenue to ISP by bundling voice with Broadband or for digital customers. Beneficial to corporate who have geographically dispersed branches . Cost much less than a normal VoIP phone. Asianet Cable and Digital TV customers with high competition from other operators could have an upper edge if all feasible areas are being marketed with the device.

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“Asianet smart phone”is a VOIP enabled service. It is a prepaid service used to make International calls at a minimum cost. This service provides pre-paid cards and it contains the PIN by using this PIN we can refill the account. These cards are available in denominations of Rs.100,200,500,1000. A service tax of 10.36% is applicable to these cards. Table4- Tariff of Global Talk Cards Rs.100 10.3% Rs.89.7 1 month Rs.200 10.3% Rs.179.4 3 months Rs.500 10.3% Rs.448.5 6 months Rs.1000 10.3% Rs.897.00 12 months

Service Tax Talk Value Validity

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Market research can be defined as the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organizations using statistical and analytical methods and techniques of

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the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision making. Market Research is a systematic, objective collection and analysis of data about a particular target market, competition, and/or environment. It always incorporates some form of data collection whether it be secondary research (often referred to as desk research) or primary market research which is collected direct from a respondent. The purpose of any market research project is to achieve an increased understanding of the subject matter. With markets throughout the world becoming increasingly more competitive, market research is now on the agenda of many organisations, whether they be large or small. Market Research is either quantitative, qualitative, or a combination of both. Qualitative and quantitative market research methods each provide different insights into customer behaviour. Normally, research results are more useful when the two methods are combined.

QUALITATIVE MARKET RESEARCH Qualitative market research provides an understanding of how or why things are as they are. For example, a Market Researcher may stop a consumer who has purchased a particular type of bread and ask him or her why that type of bread was chosen. Unlike quantitative research there are no fixed set of questions but, instead, a topic guide (or discussion guide) is used to explore various issues in-depth. The discussion between the interviewer (or moderator) and the respondent is largely determined by the respondents' own thoughts and feelings.

There are various types of qualitative market research methodologies. Research of this sort is mostly done face-to-face. One of the best-known techniques is the market research group discussion (or focus group). These are usually made up of 6 to 8 targeted respondents, a research moderator whose role is to ask the required questions, draw out answers, and encourage discussion, and an observation area usually behind one way mirrors, and video and/or audio taping facilities. QUANTITATIVE MARKET RESEARCH

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Quantitative market research is numerically oriented, requires significant attention to the measurement of market phenomena and often involves statistical analysis. For example, a bank might ask its customers to rate its overall service as either excellent, good, poor or very poor. This will provide quantitative information that can be analyzed statistically. The main rule with quantitative market research is that every respondent is asked the same series of questions. The approach is very structured and normally involves large numbers of interviews/questionnaires.

Perhaps the most common quantitative technique is the ‘market research survey’. These are basically projects that involve the collection of data from multiple cases – such as consumers or a set of products. Quantitative market research surveys can be conducted by using post (self-completion), face-to-face (in-street or in-home), telephone, email or web techniques. The questionnaire is one of the more common tools for collecting data from a survey. Market Research for Business/Planning Market research is for discovering what people want, need, or believe. It can also involve discovering how they act. Once that research is completed, it can be used to determine how to market your product. Questionnaires and focus group discussion surveys are some of the instruments for market research.

For starting up a business, there are some important things

Market information

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Through Market information we can know the prices of the different commodities in the market, the supply and the demand situation. Information about the markets can be obtained from different sources and varieties and formats. And the sources and varieties have to be obtained to make the business work.

Market segmentation

Market segmentation is the division of the market or population into subgroups with similar motivations. it is widely used for segmenting on geographic differences, personality differences, demographic differences, ethnographic differences, use of product differences, and psychographic differences and also gender differences.

Market trends

The upward or downward movements of a market, during a period of time. The market size is more difficult to estimate if we are starting with something completely new. In this case, we will have to derive the figures from the number of potential customers or customer segments. Besides information about the target market, we also need information about our competitor, our customers, products etc. Lastly, we need to measure marketing effectiveness. • Market Research for New Products

In a changing market, staying competitive often requires the development of new products. As consumer tastes and needs change, products must also change. Development new products, however, is a risky and costly venture. Experts estimate that eight out of ten new products fail. With such formidable odds, it pays to be informed and prepared to meet the challenges of introducing a new product. Market research is an essential tool to help boost the chances for success. Information about the market and consumers is needed to support critical decisions about the product. • Product Introduction

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As we introduce the product to the market, we should test the distribution of the product. Is the product getting on the shelves? Is it getting a favorable presentation on the shelves? Again, evaluating advertising, awareness and usage is important. Marketing research is not only costly, but it also takes time. In selecting marketing research techniques, we must balance the needs of our schedule. If we want to enter a market quickly, we may not have the time to complete all of the marketing research studies. With new products, success will not result solely from a good idea or from reliance on a talented sales force. Successful new product marketers learn how to delight customers by studying their needs and behaviours. Market research can provide us that information, and it’s an investment well worth making to help us to beat the odds and succeed in new product development.

Market Feasibility Analysis Planning, development and introduction of new products is always associated with uncertainty. Specific knowledge regarding potential target consumers and their probable spending on the new product provide us with more certainty concerning the market success of new product developments. We could get precise and reliable information in this area after conducting market feasibility analysis. Definition and Goals of Market Feasibility Analysis Market feasibility study typically involves testing geographic locations to determine the difficulty in carrying out a designated task. Generally, a feasibility study precedes technical development and project implementation. In other words, a feasibility study is an evaluation or analysis of the potential impact of a proposed project. In this context market refers to the total of all potential consumers with a certain need or desire who are willing or able to satisfy this need or this desire through the purchase of products / services. The sales potential can then be derived from the results of the market potential analysis.

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The maximum number of consumers available will usually be determined by market research, but it may sometimes be calculated from demographic data or government statistics. Ultimately there will, of course, be limitations on the number of consumers. For guidance one can look to the numbers using similar products. The maximum potential individual usage, or at least the maximum attainable average usage (there will always be a spread of usage across a range of customers), will usually be determined from market research figures. Applications Market feasibility analyses are especially used for growth or unsaturated markets for which “market size” cannot simply be estimated through the actual market volume. Market potential analysis offers decision support for specific questions for which such as:  Exploration of potential (target) markets  Determination of company locations  Evaluation of ideas (screening)  Designation of sales areas Broadband Service Broadband in data can refer to broadband networks or broadband Internet, the data transmission over a fibre optic cable can be referred to as broadband as compared to a telephone modem operating at 56,000 bits per second. Dial-up modems are limited to a bit rate of less than 56 Kbit/s (kilobits per second) and require the full use of a telephone line— whereas broadband technologies supply more than double this rate and generally without disrupting telephone use. Broadband technologies can be classified as either one-way or two-way. One-way technologies send digital information to the end user at very high speeds, but rely on some other means (usually an analogue modem and a phone line) to receive information from the end user. One-way broadband technologies include digital television (DTV) and satellite. Two-way broadband technologies, such as cable and digital subscriber lines (DSL) send and receive digital information at very high speeds over the same medium. Two-way broadband technologies usually require a wired infrastructure. In order to remain competitive as broadband industry evolves broadband service suppliers must have a strategy to be able to offer a triple play service at some point in the

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future; that is voice, data and video. Of these three, video service is the most challenging as it requires most bandwidth. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Voice over IP (VoIP) is a transmission technology for transfer of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. Its a communication service including voice, voice-messaging(voice mail) applications that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN) that are typical analog telephone lines. Interconnected VoIP services also allow you to make and receive calls to and from traditional landline numbers. The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and placing them into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the Internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end.

Dedicated bandwidth is never shared and is used by a single call throughout the duration of a conversation that makes CS very inefficient. Dedicated resources makes CS very expensive. Next there are limitations of using the same signaling rate on both ends. in terms of resilience complex algorithms are needed if the dedicated path breaks, that might result in call being dropped. in the current digital infrastructure merging analog CS with the digital equipment also poses a great challenge. since the circuit is continuously open resources are wasted since most of the time there is nothing to send. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone. VoIP or “Voice over Internet Protocol” is the technology that allows digitized audio to be transmitted over Intranets and the Internet. Using this technology, we can make and receive phone calls using your broadband or high speed Internet connection instead of our standard phone line. Internet telephony refers to communications services — voice and/or voicemessaging applications — that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network. The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analogue voice signal to digital format and compression/translation

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of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the Internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end. VoIP is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework the world's phone systems. Above all else, VoIP is basically a clever "reinvention of the wheel." The interesting thing about VoIP is that there is not just one way to place a call. There are three different "flavours" of VoIP service in common use today. ATA -- The simplest and most common way is through the use of a device called an ATA (analogue telephone adaptor). The ATA allow us to connect a standard phone to your computer or your Internet connection for use with VoIP. The ATA is an analog-to-digital converter. It takes the analogue signal from your traditional phone and converts it into digital data for transmission over the Internet. Simply crack the ATA out of the box, plug the cable from our phone that would normally go in the wall socket into the ATA, and we are ready to make VoIP calls. Some ATAs may ship with additional software that is loaded onto the host computer to configure it; but in any case, it's a very straightforward setup. GROWTH OF VoIP By 1998, VoIP traffic had grown to represent approximately 1% of all voice traffic in the United States. Entrepreneurs were jumping on the bandwagon and were creating devices which enabled PC-to-phone and phone-to-phone communication. Networking manufacturers such as Cisco and Lucent introduced equipment that could route and switch the VoIP traffic and as a result by the year 2000, VoIP traffic accounted for more than 3% of all voice traffic. Now, in 2005, major voice quality issues have long since been addressed and VoIP traffic can be prioritized over data traffic to ensure reliable, clear sounding, unbroken telephone calls. Revenue from VoIP equipment sales alone are projected to reach around $3 billion this year and are being forecast to be over $8.5 billion by the end of 2008. This is primarily being driven by low cost unlimited calling plans and the abundance of enhanced and useful telephony features associated with VoIP technology. This is a phenomenal growth rate and with the rapid introduction of Video over IP fueling demand, the future of this technology is truly exciting and will enable us to enjoy products that our grandparents and even parents never thought were possible. Video over IP follows the same concept as VoIP but in this case enables the transmission of video signals. As such, video phones are becoming more common than you would think, and many companies are

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already offering attractive packages. One of our featured partners, Packet8 already has a video phone offering. For further information and a detailed explanation on VoIP you can visit our VoIP Explained page. Our VoIP review section and VoIP provider plan search engine will then aid you in making your final purchase decision, to start using this revolutionary new technology in your home.

ADVANTAGES OF VOIP Operational costVoIP can be a benefit for reducing communication and infrastructure costs. That include:

Routing phone calls over existing data networks to avoid the need for separate voice and data networks. Conference calling, IVR, call forwarding, automatic redial, and caller ID features that traditional telecommunication companies (telcos) normally charge extra for are available free of charge from open source VoIP implementations.



Costs are lower, mainly because of the way Internet access is billed compared to regular telephone calls. While regular telephone calls are billed by the minute or second, VoIP calls are billed per megabyte (MB). In other words, VoIP calls are billed per amount of information (data) sent over the Internet and not according to the time connected to the telephone network. In practice the amount charged for the data transferred in a given period is far less than that charged for the amount of time connected on a regular telephone line.


Flexibility: VoIP can facilitate tasks and provide services that may be more difficult to implement using the PSTN. That include:

The ability to transmit more than one telephone call over a single broadband connection without the need to add extra lines. Secure calls using standardized protocols. Most of the difficulties of creating a secure telephone connection over traditional phone lines, such as digitizing and digital

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transmission, are already in place with VoIP. It is only necessary to the existing data stream.

Location independence. Only a sufficiently fast and stable Internet connection is needed to get a connection from anywhere to a VoIP provider. Integration with other services available over the Internet, including video conversation, message or data file exchange during the conversation, audio conferencing, managing address books, and passing information about whether other people are available to interested parties.

Low cost, coupled with a seemingly endless list of new possibilities make VoIP technology one of the hottest Internet technologies today. There are however several other benefits to using this technology.

Cost Effective - Traditional phone calls work by allocating an entire phone line to

each call. With VoIP, voice data is compressed and transmitted over a computer network. This means VoIP uses substantially less bandwidth than a traditional telephone call and is consequently more cost effective.

Simple Infrastructure - With VoIP on your network, you no longer need separate Scalable System - Traditional PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange)

cabling for your telephone system.

based phone systems come in many size ranges and it may be necessary periodically to scrap existing systems and replace hardware. This is not the case with VoIP systems.

Low Operating Costs - Because a VoIP exchange is based on software rather Portability - We can make and receive phone calls wherever there is a broadband

than hardware, it is easier to alter and maintain.

connection simply by signing in to our VoIP account. This makes VoIP as convenient as email. For instance if we are traveling, simply pack a headset or Internet phone and we can talk to our family or business associates for almost nothing.

Extra Features - There are many other features that make VoIP attractive. Call

forwarding, call waiting, voicemail, caller ID and three-way calling are some of the many services included with Internet telephone at no extra charge. We can also send data such as pictures and documents at the same time we are talking on the phone. Disadvantages of Using VoIP

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PSTN may lack efficiency but it is more reliable. But the network that makes up the Internet is far more complex and therefore functions within a far greater margin of error. What this all adds up to be one of the major flaws in VoIP: reliability. Threats codecs improper sampling can cause Voice cutoffs, echoing and can reduce intelligibility of voice. While VoIP vulnerabilities are typically similar to the ones users face on the internet, new threats, scams, and attacks unique to IP telephony are now emerging. VoIP is also susceptible to worms, viruses and hacking Another issue associated with VoIP is having a phone system dependant on individual PCs of varying specifications and power. A call can be affected by processor drain. Let's say you are chatting away on your softphone, and you decide to open a program that saps your processor. Quality loss will become immediately evident. In a worst case scenario, your system could crash in the middle of an important call. In VoIP, all phone calls are subject to the limitations of normal computer issues.

Latency the greater the distance between calling parties, the greater the latency. That means the time one speaks to the time other listens is dependant on the time it takes for packets to go from one endpoint to other. Greater the latency less is understandability and quality of conversation. Latency can also be caused due to heavy traffic congestion in the network Jitter Jitter can also affect speech quality; jitter is the variable latency between packets. Jitter is more common in IP-based speech because the path for voice packets across the network may not always follow the same route. The buffers commonly used in IP networks can also increase packet induced jitter PSTN VOIP Integration: Phone companies use VoIP to streamline their networks. By routing thousands of phone calls through a circuit switch and into an IP gateway, they can seriously reduce the bandwidth they're using for the long haul. Once the call is received by a gateway on the other side of the call, it's decompressed, reassembled and routed to a local circuit switch. On a user level a PSTN user call can be routed to an ip gateway through circuit switching where devices such

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as Soft switches can route the call to the intended VOIP through a packet switched network by digitizing the Circuit switched analog data. Packet loss Another contributing factor can result from packet loss or discard somewhere between the calling parties. Packet discard can "throw away" a "lot of speech" as opposed to an uncompressed sound wave. The more highly compressed the voice packet, the greater the amount of conversation lost when a packet is discarded. Modems and VoIP With the advent of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony, modems have been extended to provide telephone service. Some companies which offer cable TV service are still offering VOIP phone, allowing customers who already purchased cable TV to eliminate their plain old telephone service (POTS). VoIP use is higher amongst cable modem users. Any high-speed Internet service subscriber can use VoIP telephony. When using cable operator VoIP, a combined customer premises equipment device known as an embedded multimedia terminal adapter (EMTA) will often be used. An EMTA is a cable modem and a VoIP adapter (MTA, multimedia terminal adapter) bundled into a single device. Modem manufacturers
• • • • • • • • • • •

3Com Ambit Broadband ARRIS Cisco Systems D-Link Ericsson Huawei Linksys Motorola Netgear Nortel Networks

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• • • • • •

Philips RCA Scientific Atlanta Thomson Toshiba Turbocomm

Internet Telephony & VoIP After its introduction, Internet telephony has been highly developed rapidly in a brief period. Many software developers currently offer PC telephony software and free conference call. However, more importantly, gateway servers are rising to act as an interface between the Internet and the PSTN (It expands as Public Switched Telephone Network),VOIP Service. With voice-processing cards, these gateway servers allow Internet telephony VoIP (It expands as Voice Over Internet protocol) IP phones users to communicate through traditional telephones over long distances without exceeding "Long Distance" telephone network. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allow us to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. Some VoIP services may only allow us to call other people using the same service, but others may allow us to call anyone who has a telephone number - including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers. Also, while some VoIP services only work over our computer or a special VoIP phone, other services allow us to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter.

Scope Voice communication will certainly remain a basic from of interaction for all of us. The public switched telephone network apply cannot be replaced, or even dramatically changed, in the short term (this may not apply to provide voice networks, however). The

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immediate goal for voice over internet protocol service providers is to reproduce existing telephone capabilities at a significantly lower “total cost of operation “and to offer a technically competitive alternative to the public switched telephone network.

Voice over internet protocol infrastructure It is the combination of voice over internet protocol with point-of-service applications that shows great promise for the longer term. The first measure of success for voice over internet protocol will be cost saving for long distance calls as long as there are no additional constraints imposed on the end user. For example, callers should not be required to use a microphone on a pc. voice over internet protocol provides a competitive threat to the providers of traditional telephone service that, at the very least, will stimulate improvements in cost and function throughout the industry implemented using an internet protocol network. This design would also apply if other types of packet networks (such as frame relay) were being used. Some example of voice over internet protocol applications that are likely to be useful would be: Public switched telephone network gateways Interconnection of the Internet to the public switched telephone network can be accomplished using a gateway, either integrated into or provided as a separate device. A PC-

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based telephone, for example, would have access to the public network by calling a gateway at a point close to the destination (thereby minimizing long distance charges). Internet-aware telephones Ordinary telephones (wired or wireless ) can be enhanced to serve as an Internet access device as well as providing normal telephony. Directory services, for example, could be accessed over the Internet by submitting a name and receiving a voice. Internet-office trunking over the corporate intranet Replacement of tie trunks between company-owned using an private branch exchange Intranet link would provide economies of scale and help to consolidate network facilities. Remote access from a branch (or home) office A small office (or a home office) could gain access to corporate voice, data, and facsimile services using company’s Intranet (emulating a remote extension for a private branch exchange, for example). This may be useful for home-based agents working in a call center. Voice calls from a mobile PC via the Internet One example would be using the Internet to call from a hotel instead of using expensive hotel telephones. This could be ideal for submitting or retrieving voice messages. Internet call center access Access to call center facilities via the Internet is emerging as a valuable enable adjunct to electronic commerce applications. Internet call center access would enable a customer who has questions about a product being offered over the Internet to access customer service agents online. Another voice over internet protocol application for call centers is the interconnection of multiple call centers. Widespread deployment of a new technology seldom occurs without a clear and sustainable justification, and this is also the case with voice over internet protocol. Demonstrable benefits to end users are also needed if voice over internet protocol products (and services ) are to be a long-term success. Generally, the benefits of technology can be divided into the following four categories:
 . Cost Reduction. Although reducing long distance telephone costs is always a

popular topic and would provide a good reason for introducing voice over internet protocol, the actual saving over the long term are still a subject of debate in the industry. Flat rate pricing is available with the Internet and can result in considerable

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savings for both voice and facsimile (at least currently). It has been estimated that up to 70% of all calls to Asia are to send faxes, most of which could be replaced by internet protocol. These lower prices, however, are based on avoiding telephony access charges and settlement fees rather than being a fundamental reduction in resources costs. The sharing of equipment and operations costs across both data and voice users can also improve network efficiency since excess bandwidth on one network can be used by the other, thereby creating economies of scale for voice (especially given the rapid growth in data traffic ).
 .

Simplification. An integrated infrastructure that supports all forms of

communication allows more standardization and reduce all forms of communication allows more standardization and reduces the total equipment complement. This combined infrastructure can support dynamic bandwidth optimization and a fault tolerant design. The difference between the traffic patterns of voice and data offer further opportunities for significant efficiency improvements.

Consolidation. Since people are among the most significant cost elements in a network, any opportunity to combine operations, to eliminate points of failure, and to consolidate accounting systems would be beneficial.. Universal use of the internet protocol for all applications holds out the promise of both services and security services may be more easily shared. s Even though basic telephony and facsimile are the initial applications for voice over internet protocol, the longer term benefits are expected to be derived from multimedia and multi service applications. For example, Internet commerce solution can combine WWW access to a call center agent from the PC. Needless to say, voice is an integral part of conferencing systems that may also include shared screens, white boarding, etc. Combining voice and data features into new application will provide the greatest returns over the longer term. Although the use of voice over packet networks is relatively limited at present, there is considerable user interest and trials are beginning. End user demand is to grow rapidly the next five years. Frost & Sullivan and other research firms have estimated that the compound annual growth rate for IP-enabled telephone equipment will be 132% over the period from 1997 to 2010 (from $47.3 M in 1997 to $5.16B by 2010). It is expected that VoIP will be deployed by 70% of the Fortune 1000 companies by the year 2000. Industry analysts have also estimated that the annual revenues for the IP fax gateway market will increase from less than $20M in 1996 to over $300M by the year 2010. It

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is clear that a market has already been established and there exists a window of opportunity for developers to bring their products to market.

3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary Objectives 1. To find out the awareness level and market potential of VOIP services among NRI families in malappuram district.

2. To find out the frequency of ISD calls made by NRI families in Malappuram District.

3. To find out the medium which they use to make ISD calls.

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Secondary Objectives 1. To inform end users in Malappuram district about Asianet VOIP services.


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The study helps to make a detailed product analysis and also helps to determine the market feasibility of Asianet SmartFone prepaid service in Malappuram District. It also gives an insight to major competitors existing in the market and the customer’s satisfaction of their product and service. The findings of the study may be helpful for the company to adopt innovative marketing strategy to launch the product in the market in such a way that it will be more appealing to the customers. 3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the way to systematically solve the research problem. It describes the procedure which has been used in the research. Research methodology is the back bone of the project work. It means the way one researcher select his sample and sample size, methods of data collection, various tools for studying and analysing the problems with certain objectives and goals in view. The information is used to identify the marketing opportunities, designing launching strategies and improve the marketing performance.

RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of condition and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The type of research used in this study is descriptive research because the research is conducted on the basis of survey of analysing the problem. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. It also includes attempts by researcher to causes even where they cannot control the variable.

The main aim behind this study is to assess the market potential of Asianet Smart Fone and Global Talk prepaid cards in Malappuram District. The respondents are personally contacted and the researcher fills questionnaire on the basis of the information provided by the respondents.

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RESEARCH PERIOD Research period is the time taken for data collection. The research period of this study was 45 days from 5th April 2009 to 19th May 2010.

DATA SOURCE Two types of data are involved in the study are primary and secondary data of which primary data is more important.


Primary data The primary data are those, which are collected fresh for the first time by the

researcher through questionnaire. In this study the primary data source is the interview with the internet subscribers and ISD calling NRI families in Malappuram District. (2) Secondary data The secondary data are those, which have already been collected by someone else for some purpose. The secondary data includes company publications, journals, magazines, internet etc. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Research instrument means the material used for data collection. In this study questionnaire is used to collect data from customers. The questionnaire contains multiple choice questions, closed and open ended questions. The data were analyzed by using percentages.

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a. Population Here the population is taken as the entire NRI families in Malappuram District.

b. Sample Size

For the study 150 sample were selected from various locations in Kollam District

c. Sampling Procedure

The sampling procedure used in this study is convenience sampling. A convenience sampling is one in which the only criterion for selecting the sampling units is the convenience of the sampler. Commonly used convenience samples are associates, friends, family members, and passers by. The method of convenient sampling is also called a chunk. The chunk refers to that fraction of population being investigated neither by probability nor by judgement but by convenient.


Conducted method In the process, survey method is uses as the research approach. In survey method

the researcher personally interview the respondents using questionnaire. 3.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

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1. 2.

The opinion of the respondents may be biased.

Some of the respondents were very busy and they were reluctant to co-operate with the researcher. 3. The time period was a major constraint.

4.1 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Tools Used For Analysis After the collection of data, from the respondents each sample questions are coded and tabulated and then subjected to analysis. The data update was analyzed using the following tools.

⇒ PERCENTAGE (%) ANALYSIS The percentage of respondents’ coming under the same category was found out as it helped to know the response of the customers more clearly.

⇒ DIAGRAMATIC REPRESENTATION Diagrams are used to represent the tabulated data diagrammatically. This will give a vivid picture about the information collected.

BAR DIAGRAM A basic from of diagrammatic representation is bar diagram. Bar diagram consist of series of bars of equal width. The bar stands on a common base time with equal gap

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between one bar and other. The bars are constructed in such a way that their lengths are proportion to the magnitude that they represent. PIE-DIAGRAM In Pie-Diagram, different segments of in a circle represent percentage contribution of various compounds to the total. This chart is very useful because if clearly bring out the relative importance of the various components. percentage of the component.

Angle 3600 represent 100% and the

corresponding angles for each component can be found by multiplying 3600 with

CHI-SQUARRE (X2) TEST The Chi-Square is an important test amongst several test of significance developed by

statisticians. The Chi-Square is symbolically written as X2. The X2 test is good for nominal or ordinal scale of measurement and it is similar to binominal distribution. X 2 test is also used for analysing quantitative variables. X2 = ∑ (fo- fe)2

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Analysis and Interpretations Nature of the Territory of Respondents Table 4.1 Territory Frequency Percent Valid rural urban Total 74 76 150 49.3 50.7 100.0 Valid Percent 49.3 50.7 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.1 Cumulative Percent 49.3 100.0

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Source : Primary Data INTERPRETATION In this survey 49.3% of respondents was from rural area and 50.7% was from urban area.

Educational Qualification Table 4.2 Educational Qualification Frequen cy Percent Vali below 10th d 10-12th Graduate post graduate Profession al Total Figure 4.2 26 50 38 23 13 150 17.3 33.3 25.3 15.3 8.7 100.0 Valid Percent 17.3 33.3 25.3 15.3 8.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 17.3 50.7 76.0 91.3 100.0

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Source : Primary Data Interpretation Majority that is 33% of the respondents were having educational qualification in between 10th and 12th standard, 25.3% were graduates, 17.3% were below 10th standard, 15.3% were post graduates, 8.7% were professionals. Age of the Respondents Table 4.3 Age Frequenc y Percent Valid 18-25 26-35 36-45 above 45 Total Figure 4.3 38 33 39 40 150 25.3 22.0 26.0 26.7 100.0 Valid Percent 25.3 22.0 26.0 26.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 25.3 47.3 73.3 100.0

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Source : Primary Data Interpretation 26.7% of respondents were above 45 years of age, 26% were between 36–45 years, 25.3% were between 18–25, 22% were between 26-35 .

Income Level Table 4.4

Income Level Frequenc y Percent Valid below 1 Lakhs 1-2 Lakhs 2-3 Lakhs 3-5 Lakhs above 5 Lakhs Total 44 62 29 13 2 150 29.3 41.3 19.3 8.7 1.3 100.0 Valid Percent 29.3 41.3 19.3 8.7 1.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 29.3 70.7 90.0 98.7 100.0

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Figure 4.4

Source : Primary Data Interpretation The majority 41.3% were having an income level between 1-2 lakh rupees, then 29.3% were below 1 lakh rupees, 19.3% were between 2-3 lakhs rupees, 8.7% were between 3-5 lakh rupees and 1.3% were above 5 lakh rupees. Number of NRI’s in a family Table 4.5 No of NRI's Frequency Percent Valid 1 2 3 more than 3 Total Figure4.5 67 64 17 2 150 44.7 42.7 11.3 1.3 100.0 Valid Percent 44.7 42.7 11.3 1.3 100.0 Source : Primary Data Cumulative Percent 44.7 87.3 98.7 100.0

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Source : Primary Data Interpretation 44.7% of the NRI families are having only 1 NRI in their family, 42.7% has 2 NRI’s, 11.3% has 3 NRI’s and 1.3% has more than 3 NRI’s in their family.

International Calls Making Customers Table 4.6 International Calls Frequenc y Percent Valid yes No Total 103 47 150 68.7 31.3 100.0 Valid Percent 68.7 31.3 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.6 Cumulative Percent 68.7 100.0

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Source : Primary Data

Source : Primary Data Interpretation Out of the sample 150, 103 respondents (68.7%) makes ISD calls while 47 respondents(31.7%) do not makes ISD calls.

Frequency of ISD Calling Table 4.7 Frequency of Calls Frequenc y Percent Valid Daily Weekly Monthly Total Missin who do not g make ISD calls Total 16 75 12 103 47 150 10.7 50.0 8.0 68.7 31.3 100.0 Valid Percent 15.5 72.8 11.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 15.5 88.3 100.0

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Source : Primary Data Figure 4.7

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 72.8 % of the respondents makes weekly ISD calls, 15.5% makes daily ISD calls and 11.7% makes only monthly ISD calls. Call Duration of ISD calls Table 4.8 Duration Frequency Valid less than 5 mins 5-10 mins 10-15 MINS above 15 mins Total Missing Total Who do not make ISD calls 22 36 39 6 103 47 150 Percent 14.7 24.0 26.0 4.0 68.7 31.3 100.0 Source : Primary Data Valid Percent 21.4 35.0 37.9 5.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 21.4 56.3 94.2 100.0

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Figure 4.8

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 37.9 % of ISD calling respondents has a call duration in between 10-15 minutes 35% has a call duration of 5-10 minutes,21.4 has call duration of less than 5 minutes and 5.8% has a call duration of more than 15 minutes Medium Used To Make ISD Calls Table 4.9

Medium used for calling Frequency Valid land phone Mobile land phone and mobile phone mobile phone and internet land phone,mobile phone and internet Total Who do not make ISD calls Total 6 38 8 32 19 103 47 150 Percent 4.0 25.3 5.3 21.3 12.7 68.7 31.3 100.0 Cumulative Valid Percent Percent 5.8 36.9 7.8 31.1 18.4 100.0 5.8 42.7 50.5 81.6 100.0

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Source : Primary Data Figure 4.9

Interpretation 36.9% of the respondents uses mobile phones for making ISD calls, 31.1% uses both mobile phone and internet, 18.4% uses land phone mobile phone and internet, 7.8% uses land phone and mobile phone, 5.8% uses only land phone. Average Monthly Telephone Bill Table 4.10 Telephone Bill Frequency Valid less than 500 500-1000 above 1000 Total 55 69 26 150 Percent 36.7 46.0 17.3 100.0 Valid Percent 36.7 46.0 17.3 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.10 Cumulative Percent 36.7 82.7 100.0

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Source : Primary Data Interpretation 46.6% of respondents are having a telephone bill between Rs 500-1000, 36.7 has less than Rs 500 telephone bill, 17.3% have telephone bill above Rs 1000.

Number of Mobile Phones in a Family Table 4.11

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Number of Mobile Phones Frequency Valid 1 2 3 more than 3 Total Missing Who do not use mobile phone 50 52 28 12 142 8 150 Percent 33.3 34.7 18.7 8.0 94.7 5.3 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.11 Valid Percent 35.2 36.6 19.7 8.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 35.2 71.8 91.5 100.0


Source : Primary Data Interpretation 36.6% of respondents have 2 mobile phone connections, 35.2% have only 1, 19.7% have 3 and 8.5% have more than 3 connections.

Amount Spend For ISD Calls in Mobile Phones Table 4.12

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Amount spend for ISD calls on mobile Frequency Valid less than 100 100-500 500-1000 above 1000 Total Missing Total Who do not use mobile phones 29 57 18 7 111 39 150 Percent 19.3 38.0 12.0 4.7 74.0 26.0 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.12 Valid Percent 26.1 51.4 16.2 6.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 26.1 77.5 93.7 100.0

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 51.4% of respondents are spending in between Rs 100-500 for ISD calls on mobile phone, 26.1% are spending less than Rs 100, 16.2% are spending Rs 500-1000, 6.3% are spending above Rs 1000. Frequency of ISD Calling if the Call Rates Become Half the Existing Table 4.13

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Half call rate Frequency Valid Daily Weekly Monthly Total 77 67 6 150 Percent 51.3 44.7 4.0 100.0 Valid Percent 51.3 44.7 4.0 100.0 Source : Primary Data Cumulative Percent 51.3 96.0 100.0


Source : Primary Data Interpretation If the call rates become half the existing 51.3% of the respondents will make daily ISD calls, 44.7% will make weekly ISD calls and 4% will make monthly calls. People owning a Computer Table 4.14

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Computer Frequency Percent Valid Yes No Total 108 42 150 72.0 28.0 100.0 Valid Percent 72.0 28.0 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.14 Cumulative Percent 72.0 100.0

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 72% of respondents has a computer at home while 28% doesn’t have.

Subscribers of Internet Connection Table 4.15

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Internet Frequency Valid yes no Total 63 87 150 Percent 42.0 58.0 100.0 Valid Percent 42.0 58.0 100.0 Source : Primary Data Figure 4.15 Cumulative Percent 42.0 100.0

Source : Primary Data

Interpretation 58% of respondents don’t have internet connection at home, while 42% have internet connection at home.

Type of connection used by the subscribers. Table 4.16

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Type of connection Frequency Valid broad band dial up Total Missing People either don’t have a computer or an Internet Connection 52 11 63 Percent 34.7 7.3 42.0 Valid Percent 82.5 17.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 82.5 100.0





100.0 Source : Primary Data

Figure 4.16

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 82.5 % of respondents are using Broad Band internet connection and 17.5% are using Dial Up internet connection

Current Internet Service Provider. Table 4.17

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Internet Service Provider Frequency Valid Bsnl reliance Others Total Missing People either don’t have a computer or an Internet Connection 54 6 3 63 Percent 36.0 4.0 2.0 42.0 Valid Percent 85.7 9.5 4.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 85.7 95.2 100.0





100.0 Source : Primary Data

Figure 4.17

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 85.7% of respondents are having BSNL as Internet Service Provider, 9.5% are using Reliance, 4.8% have other service providers. Awareness level of VOIP services (Internet Telephony) Table 4.18

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Awareness about VOIP Frequency Valid Yes No Total 70 80 150 Percent 46.7 53.3 100.0 Valid Percent 46.7 53.3 100.0 Source : Primary Data Cumulative Percent 46.7 100.0

Figure 4.18

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 46.7% of the respondents are aware about VoIP calling while the majority 53.3% are unaware about it.

Experience in Internet Telephony Table 4.19

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Experience in Internet Telephony Frequency Valid Yes No Total 50 100 150 Percent 33.3 66.7 100.0 Valid Percent 33.3 66.7 100.0 Source : Primary Data Frequency 4.19 Cumulative Percent 33.3 100.0

Source : Primary Data

Interpretation The majority 66.7% has no experience in Internet Telephony (VOIP Calling), while 33.3% has experience in Internet Telephony.

Customers Satisfaction on Voice Clarity of Internet Calling Table 4.20

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Satisfaction level of voice clarty they get on VOIP calls Frequency Valid Yes No Total People either don’t have a computer or an Internet Connection Total 10 45 55 Percent 6.7 30.0 36.7 Valid Percent 18.2 81.8 100.0 Cumulative Percent 18.2 100.0




100.0 Source : Primary Data

Figure 4.20

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 81.8 % of the respondents are not satisfied with the voice clarity they get on VOIP calls, only 18.2% are satisfied with the voice clarity.

Awareness about Asianet VOIP services (Smart Fone)

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Table 4.21 Awareness about Asianet VOIP Service Frequency Valid Yes No Total Figure 4.21 9 141 150 Percent 6.0 94.0 100.0 Valid Percent 6.0 94.0 100.0 Source : Primary Data Cumulative Percent 6.0 100.0

Source : Primary Data Interpretation 94% of the respondents haven’t heard about Asianet Kerala Talk or Asianet VOIP Services.


1)Find out the association between the income level and consumption patterns of NRI families in malappuram district

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Null Hypothesis (H0)

: There is no association between the income level and consumption pattern.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1):

There is association between the income level and consumption pattern.

Table 4.22 Income Level * Frequency of Calls Crosstabulation Count Frequency of Calls do not call below 1 lakh 1-2 lakhs Income Level 2-3 lakhs 3-5 lakhs above 5 lakhs Total Table 4.23 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 58.898a 57.970 11.179 150 . Source : Primary Data Df 12 12 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000 .000 .001 23 20 4 0 0 47 Daily 3 7 2 2 2 16 Weekly 18 23 23 11 0 75 monthly 0 12 0 0 0 12 Total 44 62 29 13 2 150

Source : Primary Data

INFERENCE Reject H0 Accept H1.

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The study shows that there is association between income level and usage pattern of ISD calls made by NRI families in MALAPPURAM district.

2) Find out the association between the Nature of territory and consumption patterns of NRI families in malappuram district.

Null Hypothesis (H0)

: There is no association between the nature of territory and consumption pattern.

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Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is association between the nature of territory and consumption pattern. Figure 4.24 Territory * Frequency of Calls Crosstabulation Count Frequency of Calls do not call Territory Rural Urban Total 33 14 47 daily 10 6 16 weekly 25 50 Monthly 6 6 Total 74 76

75 12 150 Source : Primary Data

Figure 4.25 Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 16.991a 17.384 12.261 150 Source : Primary Data df 3 3 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .001 .001 .000

Inference Reject H0 Accept H1

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The study shows that there is association between nature of terittory and usage pattern of ISD calls made by NRI families in MALAPPURAM district.

1) Out of 150 NRI families taken for survey 68.7% makes outgoing ISD calls. 2) Mobile phone is the most used medium to make ISD calls, the majority of the

respondents are using mobile phone for making outgoing ISD calls.
3) There is a large number of potential customers among the respondents, 72.8%

of the respondents are making weekly ISD calls,15.5% makes ISD calls daily. 4) 72% of respondents own a computer.

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5) Majority of respondents has a feeling that internet is an expensive service,

Only 42% of the respondents has an internet connection at home.
6) Only among the respondents having an internet connection at home 82.5% are

using Broad Band Internet Connection.
7) BSNL is the market leader among the Internet Service Providers with 85.7%

of total internet subscribers.
8) VoIP services is not much popular among NRI families in malappuram,

majority of the respondents (53.3%) don’t have knowledge about VoIP services or internet telephony
9) Out of the respondents who knows about VoIP services, only 33.3% has made

VoIP calls.

Most of the respondents are not aware about the Asianet VoIP

Services or Kerala Talk, only 6% of the respondents knows about Asianet VoIP service. 11) The study shows that there is association between income level and usage pattern of ISD calls made by NRI families in MALAPPURAM district

The study shows that there is association between income level and

usage pattern of ISD calls made by NRI families in MALAPPURAM district.

5.2 Suggestions

1. Advertise the product in the channel leading Malayalam channels .
2. The company can use printed advertisements about the product all around the district.

3. Hoardings about the product and its will help to raise the awareness level and popularity of Asianet Smart Phone.

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4. Asianet Satellite Communications can conduct events in Malappuram to increase the

awareness of the product. 5. Have a tie-up with a major retailers in the area and make it a hub of “Global Talk” cards. 6.

Conduct campaign programmes in schools and colleges Offer Special benefits to customers who are takes the connection at the time of product launch. Provide some additional benefits to regular customers. Position Asianet Smart Phone as the cheapest medium to make ISD calls.

8. 9.


The new product introduced by “Asianet Satellite Communications” is an innovation especially in a state where the usage of internet and number of international calls are increasing day by day. People are becoming more aware of the new internet technologies like VoIP service which is cost effective when compare with telephones and mobile phones.

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Asianet’s ‘Smart Fone’ is an innovation for tomorrow. Malappuram district is a place where majority of the families have at least 1 NRI , so the product has got the potential to penetrate in to the market. Since the Asianet Smart Phone is suitable for internet telephony, youngsters will be more interested in the product. The main constrain is the lack of awareness about the product. By using various promotional activities and product positioning the product can capture a significant proportion of ISD calling NRI families.



The Practice of Management, Drucker, Peter F. (1954), New York: Harper &


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Marketing Management,Philip Kotler, Pearson Education,13th Edition.

Research Methodology ,Methods and Techniques,Kothari.C.R, NewAge

International Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint Edition, 2004. Statistical Methods In Business And Social Sciences,G.V. Shenoy, Pant Macmillian India Ltd,Reprinted, 2003


JOURNALS VoIP: A comprehensive survey on a promising technology By: Karapantazis, Stylianos; Pavlidou, Fotini-Niovi. Computer Networks, Aug2009, Vol. 53 Issue 12, p2050-2090, 41p. Cost-quality based consumer perception analysis of voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) in India. By: Jaiswal, M. P.; Raghav, Bhoopesh. Internet Research, 2004, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p95102, 8p. WEBSITES www.asianetdataline.com www.asianet.co.in www.indiaonvoip.com

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APPENDIX Consumer Survey On VOIP Service Feasibility & Potentiality
[This survey is the part of the project work of the MBA programme] Personal Profile

Name and address 1.2 Age in years

: : 18-25 25-35 35-45 Above 45

1.3 Educational Qualification Postgraduate

: Below 10th 10th to 12th Graduate

Professional 1.4 Marital status : Single Married

Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd. 1.5 Nature of Territory : Rural

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1.6 Income level 3 (Annual income in lakhs) Rs 3-Rs 5

: Below Rs 1 Above Rs 5 Rs 1-Rs2 Rs 2-Rs

1. How many NRI’s are there in your family ? : 1 3 more than 3 2

2. Do you make outgoing international calls ?

: Yes No

3. If No, Specify the reason ………..

: Expensive

Ignorance (pls specify)

other reasons

4. If yes, how frequently you call them ? Monthly Others

: Daily Weekly

Asianet Satellite Communications Ltd. 5. How long will your call lasts? mins 10-15 mins above 15 :

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Less than 5 mins

5-10 mins

6. Which medium do you use to make the calls ? Internet Other …..

: Land phone Mobile phone

(pls specify)

7. What is your average monthly telephone bill ? 500-1000 Above 1000

: Less than 500

8. How many mobile phone connections are there in your family ? Three More thanThree

: One Two

9. How much do you spend for ISD calls in your mobile phone? 500-1000 Above 1000

: Less than 100 100-500

10. If the calls rates become half of the existing, how often will you make ISD calls ? Monthly Others …. (pls specify)

: Daily Weekly

11. Do you have a computer at home ?


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12. Do you have an internet connection at home ?

: Yes No

13. If yes, which type of connection do you have ? Others……. (pls specify)

: Broad band Dial-up

14. Who is your internet service provider ? Asianet (pls specify) 15. Are you aware about VOIP services ? (Internet telephony) Others…

: BSNL Reliance



16. Do you have experience in internet telephony ?

: Yes No

17. If yes, are you satisfied with the voice clarity of internet calls you make ? 18. Have heard about Asianet VOIP services ? (Kerala Talk) :

: Yes No



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