Waste Management

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Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as it ensures the  protection of the environment environment and of human hea health lth .It is not only a techn technical ical environmental issue but also a highly political one. Waste management is closely related to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles, resource consumption pattern, jobs and income levels, and other socio-economic and cultural factors. Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental, human health and safety and economic impacts. Implementing a “less is better” concept provides better protection of human health and safety by reducing exposures, generating less demand for disposal on the environment. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost. Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had an unintended and negative impact on the urban environment – generation of wastes far  beyond the handling capacities capacities of urban governmen governments ts and agencies. Citi Cities es are now grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste, the costs involved, the disposal technologies and methodologies and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment. But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find solutionsinvolving the community and the private sector, involving innovative technologies and disposal methods, and involving behavior changes and awareness raizing. These issues have amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world. There is a need for a complete rethinking of “waste”- to analyze if waste is indeed waste.




A rethinking that calls for, WASTE to become WEALTH REFUSE to become RESOURCE TRASH to become CASH

There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is focused on municipalities and uses high energy / high technology , to move more towards waste  processing and waste recycling recycling (that involve involvess public-private partnerships , aiming for eventual waste minimization –driven at the community level, and using low energy/low technology resources . Some of the defining criteria for future waste minimization program will include deeper community participation, understanding economic benefits/recovery of waste, focusing on life cycles (rather than end-of-pipe solutions, decentralize decentralized d administration of waste, minimizing environmental impacts, reconciling investment cost with long-term goals.





To study the waste management situation and to understand the process that goes behind it. That will help me create an awareness to protect public health, safety and to provide a safe working environment. All efforts of mine are to learn how to reduce waste without compromising health. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:

The basic objective of this project is creating awareness about waste management and the steps taken to reduce waste prevailing in the city. LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT:

The only limitation or rather, an opportunity that could have taken this study to another level, I felt was, in terms of my inability to go to other places across India or overseas to see for myself the situation there and how the local authorities are tackling it. Someday, an opportunity to this will certainly bring a new dimension to my understanding of this project. METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION:  


Interviews with concerned people from the industry. Research using reading material like articles, journals, newspapers, UN reports.   Field work involving visit to ITC, Bisleri, MPCB.




Waste is rubbish, trash, garbage or junk is unwanted or undesired material. There are a number of different types of waste. It can exist as a solid, liquid or gas or as waste heat. When released in the latter two states the wastes can be referred to as emissions. It is usually strongly linked with pollution. Waste may also be intangible in the case of wasted time or wasted opportunities. The term waste implies things, which have been used inefficiently or inappropriately. Some components of waste can be recycled once recovered from the waste stream. E.g.  plastic bottles, metals, metals, glass or paper The bi biodegradable odegradable component o off wastes e.g. paper & food waste) can be composted or anaerobic digested to produce soil improvers and renewable fuels. If it is not dealt with sustainably in this manner biodegradable waste can contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and by implication climate change. There are two main definitions of waste. One view comes from the individual or the organization preceding the material, material, the second is the view of government, and is set out in different acts of waste management. The two have to combine to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste.




Below waste is categorized according to the sector generating it. Different sectors generate specific types of waste, and collection systems are adapted to the sectors and their specific waste. Information on specific waste sectors: 

Waste from the building and construction sector

Packaging waste

Waste from households

Waste from industry

Waste from institutions , trade and offices

Waste from power plants and wastewater treatment plants.





Waste can be divided into many different types. The most common methods of classification are by their physical, chemical and biological characteristics. characteristics. One important classification is by their consistency. Solid waste is waste materials that contain less than 70% water. This class includes as household garbage, some industrial waste, some mining waste, and oilfield waste such as drill cutting. Liquid wastes are usually waste water that contains less than 1 % solids. Such waste may contain high concentrations of dissolved salts and metals. Sludge is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain  between 3% & 25% solids, solids, while the rest of the m material aterial is wat water er dissolved material materials. s.





Industrial waste is waste type produced by industrial factories, mills and mines. It has existed since the outset of the industrial revolution. revolution. Toxic waste and chemical w waste aste are two designations of industrial waste. It is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substance. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous waste could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 7 millions tones of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in 4 states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.


Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous waste can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludge’s. They can be the by products of manufacturing manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial commercial products like like cleaning fluid or pesticides. It exhibits at least one of four characters – ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Hazardous waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and the Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle.





Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of the human  beings or the animals or in research activiti activities es in these fields or in th thee production or testing of biological. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical, waste, discarded medicines, chemical waste waste etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to the human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that 4 kg of waste generated in hospital at least 1 kg would be infected.





Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change on lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimates 6 millions tones of solid waste; in 1997 it was about 48 millions tones.





Radioactive waste arises primarily from nuclear generation; smaller quantities are derived from military sources and a variety of uses in medical, industrial and university establishments. There are many types of radioactive waste which can be classified either according to their radioactive properties or according to the sources from which they originated. Low level radioactive wastes generally consist of contaminated laboratory debris, biological materials, building materials. High level of radioactive waste consists of spent fuels from nuclear power reactors, together with liquid and solid residues from reprocessing of spent fuels.

NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE  Non-hazardous are those that that pose no immediat immediatee threat to human hea health lth and the environment. Household garbage is included into this category.






The term “management” characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) bus iness) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word “mange” comes from the Italian mangier (to handle-especially a horse), which in turn derives from the Latin Manus (hand). The French word management (later management) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17 th and 18th centuries.





Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas and for residential, industrial and commercial producers. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of the local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. Basic waste management principles of waste management are to: 

Reduce environmental and health impacts and

To save resources.





Protect people who handle waste items from accidental injury.

Prevent the spread of infection to healthcare workers who handle the waste.

Prevent the spread of infection to the local community.

Safely dispose of hazardous materials.

Open piles of waste should be avoided because they are a risk to those who scavenge and

unknowingly reuses contaminate items.


Historically the amount of waste generated by human population was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. Common waste produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human & biodegradable wastes, and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimal environmental impact. Before the widespread use of metals, wood was widely used for most applicants. However, reuse of wood has been well documented nevertheless, it is once again well documented that reuse and recovery of such metals have been carried out by earlier humans. With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the increase in the population and the massive migration of people to the industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18 th century. There was a consequent increase in the industrial and domestic waste posing threat to human health and environment. 13



Waste has played a tremendous role in the history. The plague, cholera, and typhoid fever, to mention a few, were diseases that altered the populations of many countries. They were perpetuated by filth that harbored rats and contaminated water supply. It was not uncommon for everybody to throw their waste and human waste out of the window which would decompose in the street.




WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS There are number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include: 

Waste hierarchy – The waste hierarchy refers to the “3 Rs” reduce, reuse and recycle

which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimizati minim ization. on. The wast wastee hiera hierarchy rchy remains the corne cornerston rstonee of most waste minim minimizat ization ion strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from  products and to generate the the minimum amount of waste. Extend ended ed pro produc ducer er res respon ponsib sibili ilityty- Ext   Ext Extend ended ed pro produc ducer er res respon ponsib sibili ility ty (EP (EPR) R) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout 

their lifecycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of pr prod oduc ucts ts an and d pa pack ckag agin ing g in intr trod oduc uced ed to th thee ma mark rket et.. Th This is me mean anss that that firm firmss wh whic ich h manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after  their useful life as well as during manufacture. 

  Polluter pays principle- The polluter pays principle is a principle where the polluting

 party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.





There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage  between countries countries or regions. The waste hier hierarchy: archy: 




REDUCE Waste minimization or reduction is a process of waste management at the top of the Waste hierarchy. Waste management has traditionally been focused on processing wastes after they are created rather than reducing their production. This latter process usually requires specific knowledge of the production process, unlike post creation processes such as re-use, recycling, composting or waste –to-energy.




To reduce waste volume, it is first necessary to determine the composition of the waste and reason for its creation. Therefore, no general procedures apply to the general case, and each case must be processed individually. Commercial waste is often produced because of delivery procedures set by a central supply system, or it may be the result of the machinery used, which often requires considerable investment for appropriate upgrades. Most waste comes from the (manufacturing) industry, agriculture, construction and demolition industries. Household waste only constitutes a small percentage of overall waste, and therefore has less affect on the overall waste volume.

REUSE Reuse is using an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used a number of times for the same function, and new life reuse where a new use is found for the item. It is distinct from recycling, where the used item is broken down into raw materials which are used to make new items. Reuse can have both financial and environmental benefits, and either of these can be the main motivation for it. The financial motivation historically did, and in the developing world still does, lead to very high levels of reuse, but rising wages and consequent consumer demand for the convenience of disposable products made the reuse of low value items such as packaging uneconomic in richer countries, leading to the demise of many reuse schemes – indeed we have gone a long way down the road to being a disposable society. Current environmental awareness is gradually changing attitudes and regulations, such as the new packaging regulations, are gradually beginning to reverse the situation. The classic example of conventional reuse is the doorstep delivery of milk in reusable bottles; other examples include the retreading of tyres and the use of plastic delivery trays (transit  packaging) in place of cardboard cartons




RECYCLING Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. Recycling prevents useful material resources being wasted, reduces the consumption of raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence greenhouse gas emissions, compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key concept of modern waste management and is the third components of the waste hierarchy. Recyclable materials, also called “recyclables” or “recyclates” may originate from a wide range of sources including the home and industry. They include glass,  paper, aluminum, asphalt, asphalt, iron, textiles and pl plastics. astics. Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or garden waste is also recyclable with the assistance of microorganisms through composting or anaerobic digestion. Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a fourth R: “Rethink” with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Some re-think solutions may be counterintuitive, such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more “waste material” left the now larger scraps are than used for cutting small parts of  pattern, resulting in a decrease decrease in net wa waste. ste. This type of solution iiss by no means limited to the clothing industry. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other  materials by modifying industrial production. It also involves changes in manufacturing technology, raw materials input, and product formulation. At times the term “pollution  prevention” may refer refer to source reduction.





Reduction in interference with the environment will increase by reducing or eliminating

the effluent discharge. It is an effective approach towards ‘Sero Liquid Discharge’. 

Recycled water can be treated to almost any standards hence is suitable for any end user.

Reduction in “Fresh water” intake and the costs associated with it.

Reduction in “disposal volume” and the costs associated with it.

Recycled water is like creation of “New”, “In – house” source of good quality water

largely unaffected by external factors. In areas where “Fresh Water” cost is presently high or likely to be hiked, the recycled water shall provide “ongoing savings”.  Recycling and reuse is an approach towards ISO – 14000

Sources of waste water for recycle and reuse.

In a running industry the water in untreated or treated form is used for various applications. Hence the waste water is being generated in various sections. The sources typically are treated effluent from effluent treatment plant, boiler blow down, floor washings.

End use of recycled water

The recycled water generated from waste water can be used for various applications after suitable post – treatment like process water, boiler feed cooling tower, chillers, as soft water gardening etc.






The overall overall goal of urban solid waste m management anagement is to collect, treat aand nd dispose of

solid wastes generated by all urban population groups in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner using the most economical means available. 

Local governments are usually authorized to have responsibility for providing solid waste

management services, and most local government laws give them exclusive ownership over waste once it has been placed outside a home or establishment for collection. 

As cities grow economically, business activity and consumption patterns drive up solid

waste quantities. At the same time, increased traffic congestion adversely affects the productivity of the 

solid waste fleet. 

Productivity loss is exacerbated by longer hauls required of the fleet, as open lands for

disposal are further and further away from urban centers. 

 The challenge is to rationalize worker and vehicle performance, while expanding

services to a growing urban population.


Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being

 packed in cans, aluminium aluminium foils, plastics, and oth other er such non biodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of Plastics and they seem to have achieved success.




For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Latah

where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. 

 Other states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause

harm to the environment. 

One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable

or biodegradable bags. 

 Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling

of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle.


Radioactive waste management involves dealing safely with the wastes from processes

involving radioactivity. 

This waste comes from a number of sources, s ources, and ranges from paper towels used in

hospitals to nitric acid solution formed as a result of reprocessing nuclear fuel. 

Most radioactive waste is currently stored safely on major sites under license from the

Health and Safety Executive’s Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and is subject to strict regulatory control.





Certain things that are not needed around the house are kept aside to be sold to the kabadiwala or the man who buys old items. These items are newspapers, used bottles, magazines, carry bags, old exercise books, oilcans, etc. This is one form of segregation, which is done as a routine in all households in India. Separating our waste is essential as the amount of waste being generated today causes immense problem. Segregation of municipal solid waste can be clearly understood by schematic representation. Certain items are not




 biodegradable but can can be reused or recycle recycled.In d.In fact, it is believed believed that a larger por portion tion can  be recycled; a part part of it can be conve converted rted to compost, and only a smaller portion of real waste that has no use and has to be discarded. Household waste should be separated daily into different bags for the different categories of waste such as wet and dry waste, which should be disposed of separately. One should also keep a bin for toxic wastes such as medicines, batteries, dried paint, old  bulbs, and dried shoe polish. Wet Wet waste, which cconsists onsists of leftover foodstuff, veg vegetable etable  peels, etc., should be put in a compost pit and th thee compost could be used aass manure in the garden. Dry waste consisting of cans, aluminium foils, plastics, metal glass, and paper could be recycled. If we do not dispose of the waste in a more systematic manner, more than 1400 sq. km of land, which is size of the city of Delhi, would be required in the country by the year 2047 to dispose of it. Waste can be segregated as 1. Bio Biodeg degrad radabl able. e. 2. Non biode biodegrada gradable ble Biodegradable waste:

It includes organic waste, e.g. kitchen waste, vegetables, fruits, flowers leaves from the garden, and paper. Non biodegradable waste:

It can be further segregated into. a) Recyclable w waste aste – plasti plastics, cs, paper, glass, metal, etc.  b) Toxic waste – old m medicines, edicines, paints, chem chemicals, icals, bulbs, spray cans, fert fertilizer ilizer and pesticid pesticidee containers, batteries, shoe polish. c) Soiled – hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids Toxic and

soiled waste must be disposed of with utmost care.




PROCEDURE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT The above four key aspects of waste management – disposal, processing, recycling and minimization – is presented here in the form of a dual axis continuum, which helps in understanding the actions to be taken, and in building a comprehensive waste management strategy for local governments in cities for developing countries.

Waste Processing

Waste Minimization

Waste Disposal

Waste Recycling

Waste Disposal:

Historically, efforts in the management of waste have focused primarily on the disposal part of the waste. Whilst there is now a general move towards the recovery of resources from waste, disposal is still the most common form of managing waste. Dumping, land filling of waste and incerination are some of the common methods of waste disposal.

Waste Processing

Waste Minimization

Waste disposal

Waste Recycling

Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw materials, which are then, reprocessed either in to the same material or a new product, generally including




waste separation and material reprocessing. There are various materials that are capable of  being recycled, and technology technology is advancing to allow the recycling recycling of more materi materials. als. The benefits of recycling do not lie solely in diversion of waste away from disposal but, even more importantly, in the reduction of the amount of virgin resources that need to be harvested and processed for the manufacture of new products.

Waste Processing

Waste Minimization

Waste Disposal

Waste Recycling

Waste processing is the range of activities characterized by the treatment and recovery of materials or energy from waste through thermal, chemical, or biological means. It also covers hazardous waste handling. Generally there are two main groups of processes to be considered, 1. Biological Pr Processes, ocesses, such as open composting, enclose enclosed d composting, ana anaerobic erobic digestion, and vermiculture. 2. Thermal proc processes, esses, such aass incerinati incerination, on, and ga gasification. sification.




WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS Disposal methods for waste products vary widely, depending on the area and the type of waste material. For example, in Australia the most common method of disposal of solid household waste is in landfill sites, as it is a large country with a low density population. By contrast in Japan it is more common for waste to be incinerated, because the country is smaller and land is scarce. Other waste types will be disposed off in different ways in both countries.






Disposing of waste in a landfill is one of the most traditional methods of waste

disposal, and it remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, landfills were often established in discussed quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly –designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing 26



of waste materials in a way that minimizes their impact on the local environment. Older,  poorly –designed or poorly – managed managed landfills can create create a number of adve adverse rse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leach ate where result of rain percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the leach ate which can pollute groundwater and surface water.

 Another byproduct of the landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide) which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobic ally. This gas creates odor problems, kills surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas. Characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leach ate, such as clay or plastic lining material.




Disposed waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stabilize the new landform, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats) and reduce the amount of wind-blown litter. Many landfills also have a landfill gas extraction system installed after closure to extract the landfill gas generated by the decomposing waste materials. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Even flaring the gas is a better environmental outcome than allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this consumes the methane, which is far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Many local authorities, especially in urban areas, have found it difficult to establish new landfills due to the opposition from owners of adjacent land. Few people want a landfill in their local neighborhood. As a result, solid waste disposal in these areas has become more expensive as material must be transported further away for disposal (or managed by other methods) This fact ,as well as growing concern about the impacts of excessive materials consumption , has given rise to efforts to minimize the amount of orts include taxing or levying waste sent to landfill , recycling the materials , converting material to energy, designing products that use less material , and legislation mandating that manufactures 28



 become responsible for disposal disposal costs of products or packaging. packaging. A related subje subject ct is that of industrial ecology, where the material flows between industries is studied. The byproducts of one industry may be a useful commodity to another, leading to a reduced materials waste stream.

INCINERATION Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, team and ash. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such s uch as emission of gaseous pollutants. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is scarcer, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste –to-energy (WtE) or energy-fromwaste (EfW) is broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam and/or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro-pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans; PAHs….which may be created within the incinerator and afterwards in the incinerator  plume which may have have serious environmental cconsequences onsequences in the area area immediately around the incinerator. On the other hand this method or the more being anaerobic digestion  produces heat that can be used as energy.




A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted or recycled, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery, recycling and other terms. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term, as there is a finite supply of most raw materials. There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste materials, with new technologies and methods being developed continuously. In some developing nations some resource already takes place by way of manual laborers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage material that can be sold in the recycling market. These unrecognized workers called waste pickers or rag pickers are part of the informal sector, but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities solid waste management departments. There is an increasing trend in recognizing their contribution to the environment and there are efforts to try and integrate them into the formal waste management systems, which is proven to be both cost effective and also appears to help in urban poverty alleviation. However, the very high human cost of these activities including diseases, injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with or infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country.





Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste the popular meaning of “recycling” in the most developed countries has come to refer  to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials. They are collected and sorted into common groups, so that the raw materials from these items can be used again (recycled). In developed countries the most common consumer items recycled include aluminum  beverage cans, steel, steel, food and aerosol cans, HDPE and and PET plastic bott bottles, les, glass bottles and  jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, newspapers, magazin magazines es and cardboard. Other types of plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable, although not as commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of obsolete computers and electronic equipment is important, but, more costly due to the separation and extraction  problems. Much electronic electronic waste is sent to Asia, where rec recovery overy of the gold and copper can cause environmental problems (monitors contain lead and various “heavy metals” such as selenium and cadmium; both are commonly found in electronic items) Recycled or used materials have to compete in the marketplace with new (virgin) materials. The cost of collection and sorting the materials often the case in developed countries where industries producing the raw materials are well-established. Practices Practices such as trash picking can reduce this value further as choice items are removed9such as aluminum cans). In some countries, recycling programs are subsidized by deposits paid on beverage containers (see container deposit legislation) However, most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the environment of recycling these materials, compared with extracting virgin materials. It usually requires significantly less energy, water and other resources to recycle materials than to produce new materials. For example , recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of bauxite ore being mined and prevents the generation of 15.17 tones CO 2 greenhouse gases; recycling steel saves about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore. 31






HEALTH IMPACTS OF WASTE Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and of the main aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it land, air, and waste. With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials, there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal waste collection centers from where it is collected by the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and dumps. However, either due to the resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure, not all of this waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites. If at this stage the management and disposal is improperly done, it can cause serious impacts on health and problems to the surrounding environment. Waste is not properly managed; especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste from household and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other creatures that in turn spread disease. Normally it is the waste that decomposes and releases a bad odor. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems. This  plague outbreak in Surat Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to the callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city. Plastic waste is another cause for ill health. Thus excessive solid waste that is generated should be controlled by taking certain  preventive measures.




IMPACTS OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste includes the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the pre-school children, waste workers and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. Other highrisk group includes population living close to a waste dump and those, whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites. Uncontrolled solid waste also increases risk of injury, and infection. In particular organic domestic waste poses a serious threat, since they ferments, creating conditions favorable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable. Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health, children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. In fact, direct exposure can lead to diseases through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to the chemical poisoning. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste. Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. Other than this,

co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. Uncollected solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff, resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of  disease. Waste dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body or the ground water source. Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers, seas and lakes results in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and animals that feed on it Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention since this can

create major health hazards. This waste generated from the hospitals, health care centers, 34



medical laboratories and research centers such as discarded syringe needles, bandages, swabs, plasters and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular noninfectious waste. Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighborhood. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that spread disease. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe s afe distance from all human settlement. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage into nearby ground water sources. Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Workers working with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Disposal of health care wastes require special attention since it can create major health hazards, such as Hepatitis B and C, through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and others, who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled, may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items.


INFECTIONS Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste and from infected wounds. Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially during landfill operations. Different diseases that result from the bites if animals feeding on the waste. Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste




CHRONIC DIDEASES Incineration operators are at risk of chronic diseases, including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds.

ACCIDENTS Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects. Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste. Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites.

DISEASES Certain chemicals if released untreated example cyanides, mercury and polychlorinated  biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to to disease or death. S Some ome studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies have  been carried out in various various parts of the world to eestablish stablish a connectio connection n between health aand nd hazardous waste.

THE ROLE OF PLASTICS The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a matter of concern. Colored plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium. In most industrialized countries, color plastics have been legally banned. In India, the government of Himachal Pradesh has banned the use of plastics and so has Latah district. Other states should emulate their example.




PREVENTION MEASURES Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment around the area or cause health hazards to the people living there. At the household level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it should be ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting which is undoubtedly the best method for the correct disposal of this segment s egment of the waste. In fact the organic part of the waste that is generated decomposes more easily, attracts insects and causes disease. Organic waste can be composted and then used as a fertilizer.

WASTE PREVENTION TECHNIQUES In general waste prevention can be achieved either: 

By reducing the demand to be met (immaterialisation )

By using less harmful material for meeting the demand ( dematerializa dematerialization) tion)

Usually a waste prevention techniques is related to a certain process, to a certain product, service or product service system or to a certain consumption behavior. Process related waste prevention comprises those techniques which reduce waste arising during production by – establishing internal cycles for auxiliary materials and production wastes substituting hazardous materials introducing more efficient technologies. Product related waste prevention comprises techniques which 

Allow a repeated use of products or parts of the product

Extend product life and or make products easier to repair or

Change the design of a product in a way that it contains less material or less harmful material. 37



Service oriented waste prevention either replaces products by services for meeting the demand, or complements products with a service system in order to maintain the  products in an efficient efficient way.

Consumption related waste prevention comprise those techniques which effect the life style or the consumption behavior 





Water is one of the most essential parts for human survival. Human water demand for Industrial water supply, irrigation and generation of power is ever increasing with development of civilization. Since the start of the industrial revolution and the fast expanding agricultural activities water resource began to deteriorate with time. In view of the wide range of activities affecting the quality and water use. Water quality, in general is determined by the gases, solutes and suspended mater in the water. In any case water quality is usually affected, directly or indirectly, by human activities making it harmful for living plants and animals. Industrial operations produce a liquid product that almost always must be treated before  being returned to the environment. environment. There are three different groups of w waste aste water to be considered.





Domestic waste water: These waters are produced by the mere acts of living such as using

the bathroom, doing laundry, or washing the dishes. These wastes are normally handled by the sanitation department, which eliminates pathogens before disposal. Process waste waters: These waters are produced by some industrial processes and include

the undesired liquid product of any unit operation. The major concern with these wastes is the reactions that may occur with the environment being either direct or indirect. Some may rob oxygen from the environment , while others may be toxic Cooling waste water: These waters are produced as a result of some sort of heat exchanger

where heat is removed from the product. Waters can be used once or recycled. Recycling creates the necessity for periodic cleaning, where at least some may be released into the environment. This type of waste must be monitored and often treated and is also a major factor in thermal pollution of water sources.





Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days. Over the years rising populations, growing industrialization and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove salts) water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities. In the forests, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. His groundwater in turn feeds wells, lakes and rivers. Protecting forests means protecting water catchments. In accident India, people believed that forests were the mothers of rivers and worshipped the sources of these water bodies.

Some ancient Indian methods of water conservation

The Indus Valley Civilization that flourished along the banks of the river Indus and other  parts of western and northern northern India about 5000 years ago had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage systems in the world. The fact that the people were well acquainted with hygiene can be seen from the covered drains running beneath the streets of the ruins at both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Another very good example is the well planned city of Dholavira, Dholavira, on Khadir Bet, a low low plateau in the Rann Rann in Gujarat. On Onee of the oldest water harvesting systems is found about 130 km from Pune along Naneghat in the Western Ghats. A large number of tanks were cut in the rocks to provide drinking water to tradesmen who used to travel along this ancient trade route. Each fort in the area had its own water harvesting and storage system in the form of rock-cut cisterns, ponds, tanks and well that are still in use today. A large number of forts like Raigad had tanks that supplied water. In ancient times, houses in parts of western Rajasthan were built so that each had a rooftop water harvesting system. Rainwater from these rooftops was directed into underground tanks. This system can be seen even today in all the forts, palaces and houses of the region. 41



Underground baked earthen pipes and tunnels to maintain the flow of water and to transport it to distant places, are still functional at Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh, Golkunda and Bijapur in Karnataka, and Aurangabad in Maharashtra. The various methods of water conservation are:

Rainwater harvesting Agriculture

Reducing water demand.





Water pollution is contributed due to industrial effluents and sewage. The time has come to avert major disaster. Effluent treatment systems have to be incorporated in industry. Industries, where it is already in existence, need to operate their plans regularly without looking for savings.  New techniques that that need no water aare re highly beneficia beneficial. l. Some of the wet processes are replaced by the dry processes. To minimize the volume of effluents , the waste water that is polluted may be used in rinsing Concentrated wastes, low in volume, are mingled with diluted waste for treatment of disposal. It can be segregated from other streams of diluted wastes, for reduction in  pollution load and diluted diluted wastes after minor minor treatment is utili utilized zed for irrigation. Small industries cannot afford treatment plants as they frequently discharge their effluents, near agricultural lands and on roads. It can be avoided by setting up a common effluent treatment plant where industries are located. Waste can be converted into wealth. For instance, in our country distilleries can set up  biogas plants which are fed by their effluent effluentss resulting in reduction in fuel fuel cost and decrease in effluent’s strength. The sludge obtained is a problem. The sludge from pulp and paper industry may be used for manufacturing boards used in packing or in preparation of artificial wooden panels while those from the electroplating industry may form water proofing compounds. Recovery of chemicals and metals is practiced in most industries. The reclaimed waste water can be reused for industrial processes such as boiler, feeding, cooling which will help cut down the fresh water needs. And paper mills, sugar industries and distilleries that let out more effluents can be used for irrigation or as fertilizers after proper treatment, without affecting ground water.




WASTE MANGEMENT IN INDIA There is no Indian policy document, which remains examines waste as part of a cycle of  production – consumption – recovery recovery or perceives th thee issue of waste through a pr prism ism of overall sustainability. In fact, interventions have been fragmented and are often contradictory. The new Municipal Rules 2000, which came into effect from January 2004, fails even to mange waste in a cyclic process. Waste management still is a linear system of collection and disposal, creating health and environmental hazards.

Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. Till now, the problem of waste has been as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish. But a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically, recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. Waste can be wealth, which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban  poor but can also enrich the earth through comp composting osting and recycling rath rather er than spreading  pollution as has been the the case. Increasing urban migration and a high den density sity of  population will make make waste management management a difficult issue tto o handle in the nea nearr future, if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created.   Developing countries, such as India, are un undergoing dergoing a massive migration of thei theirr  population from rural to urban centers. New consumption patterns and soci social al linkages are emerging. India will have more than 40% that is 400 million people clustered in cities 44



over the next thirty years (UN 1995). Modern urban living brings on the problems of waste, which increases in quantity, and changes in composition with each passing day. There is, however, an adequate understanding of the problem, both of infrastructure requirements as well as its social dimensions. Urban planners municipal agencies, environmental regulators, labor groups, citizens group and non-governmental organizations need to develop a variety of response which are rooted in local dynamics rather than borrow non-contextual solutions from elsewhere. There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid waste in India, especially over the past few years, yet sustainable either of organic or inorganic waste remains an untapped and unattended area. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid solid waste mention or acknowledge acknowledge recycling as one of tthe he ways of diverting waste, but they do so in a piece meal manner and do not address the framework needed to enable this to happen. Critical issues such as industry responsibility, a critical  paradigm to enable sustainable sustainable recycling aand nd to catalyze w waste aste reduction through, say better   packing, has not been touched touched upon. This new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared by many stakeholders, including product manufacturers, consumers and communities, the recycling industry, trade, municipalities and the urban poor.




HOW TO CONTRIBUTE EVERYDAY All of us in our daily lives contribute our bit to this change in the climate. Give these points a good, serious thought; Electricity is the main source of power in urban areas. All our gadgets run on electricity generated mainly from thermal power plants. These thermal power plants run on fossil fuels (mostly coal) and are responsible for the emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Cars, buses and trucks are the principal ways by which goods and people are transported in most of our cities. These are run mainly on petrol or diesel both fossil fuels. We generate large quantities of waste in the form of plastics that remain in the environment for many years and cause damage. We use huge quantity of paper in our work at schools and in offices. Have we ever thought about the number of trees that we use in a day?? Timber is used in large quantities for construction of houses, hous es, which means that large areas of forest have to be cut down. A growing population has meant more and more mouths to feed. Because the land area available for agriculture is limited (and in fact, is actually shrinking as a result of ecological degradation), high-yielding varieties of crop are being grown to increase the agriculture output from a given area of land. However, such high – yielding varieties of crops require large quantities of fertilizers; and more fertilizer means more emissions of nitrous oxide.




EFFORTS TOWARDS WASTE MANAGEMENT The World Bank Group currently has about 120 active projects with solid waste management components. There are about 85 projects under supervision with $3.5 billion in loan/grant commitments, of which about 85% is designated for ‘urban environment’ activities. Solid waste management is the main component in more than half of these  projects. At least 20 projects projects with large so solid lid waste components aare re now under prepara preparation tion within the $4.5 billion (minimum) urban environment pipeline. An estimated 20 additional  projects are in the pipeline. pipeline. A large number of NGOs are working in the field of solid waste management such as clean Ahmadabad Abhiyan in Ahmadabad, waste wise in Bangalore, Mumbai environmental action group in Mumbai, and Vatavaran and Srishti in Delhi. They are all successfully creating awareness among the citizens about their rights and responsibilities towards solid waste and the cleanliness of their city. These organizations promote environmental education and awareness in schools and involve communities in the management of solid waste.





Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from global perspective of resource management. The Tallories declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local , regional and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of “green house” gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations and the heritage of future 48



generations. Several universities have implemented the Tallories Declaration by establishing environmental management and waste management programs, example the waste management university project. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations, example WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. Many supermarkets encourage customers to use their reverse vending machine to deposit used containers and receive a refund from the recycling fees. Brands that manufacture such machines include Tomra and Envipco.









INTRODUCTION OF INDIAN TOBACCO CORPORATION ITC was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. As the Company's ownership progressively Indianised, the name of the Company was changed from Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited to India Tobacco Company Limited in 1970 and then to I.T.C. Limited in 1974. In recognition of the Company's multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses - Cigarettes & Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Agri-business, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing, Education & Stationery and Personal Care - the full stops in the Company's name were removed effective September September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened 'ITC 'ITC Limited Limited'.'. Though the first six decades of the Company's existence were primarily devoted to the growth and consolidation of the Cigarettes and Leaf Tobacco businesses, the Seventies witnessed the beginnings of a corporate transformation that would usher in momentous changes in the life of the Company. ITC's Packaging & Printing Business was set up in 1925 as a strategic backward integration for ITC's Cigarettes business. It is today India's most sophisticated packaging house. 51



In 1975 the Company launched its Hotels business with the acquisition of a hotel in Chennai which was rechristened 'ITC-Welcome group Hotel Chola'. The objective of ITC's entry into the hotels business was rooted in the concept of creating value for the nation. ITC chose the hotels business for its potential to earn high levels of foreign exchange, create tourism infrastructure and generate large scale direct and indirect employment. Since then ITC's Hotels business has grown to occupy a position of leadership, with over 100 owned and managed properties spread across India.





ITC prides itself on being Solid Waste recycling positive - recycling more waste than its  businesses generates. All ITC units/businesses, apart from minimizing waste generation, are mandated to recycle 100% of waste generated by their operations. Waste recycling provides solutions for saving natural resources and energy. It also reduces costs and environmental  pollution. Recycling prevents wastes from reaching landfills and creates


employment opportunities. Waste paper is a key input in the manufacture of recycled paperboards. ITC PSPD has commenced a strategic initiative for wastepaper recycling called "WOW" "WOW" (Wealth  (Wealth Out of Waste). This intervention has established an efficient collection and recycling chain targeting larger sources of aggregation such as schools, offices and residential colonies. Apart from contributing to a cleaner environment, WOW is an important source of cost competitiveness for the industry. The waste that is generated in the hotel is been classified in to three types:  Food waste.  Water waste.  Oil














The waste that is collected from the kitchens contributes the food waste. It consists of salads, vegetable cuttings, food that is ordered and wasted from the customers. All the waste that is collected from the kitchen is segregated in to degradable and nondegradable waste.







The degradable waste is collected in green bins. As the waste that is collected is degradable that is it gets decomposed so it is collected in green colored  bins. To manage this this degradable waste th they ey have two types of machines i.e. 

Organic waste controller.


Two stage shredder. 54




The organic waste controller is a machine which converts the degradable waste in to a organic powder that can be used as a manure. The process of the organic waste controller can be explained as below:

Degradable waste collected is put in OWC

Add brown and white  powder 

Grinding process.

Fine organic powder.

Decomposition of  organic powder.

Manure obtained.





 The waste that is collected is poured in the organic waste controller then brown

 powder that is saw dust dust and white powder th that at is vioculum bacte bacteria ria is added to it.   The saw dust that is added to the waste is used to maintain the dryness of the wet

food waste.  This stuff is grinded and then finally an organic powder is obtained.   This organic powder is poured into crates and is placed in to storages racks. The

crates are arranged in a day wise manner. These crates are moved ahead day by day.   During this day by day rotation the organic powder is been decomposed. During

this process the growth of bacteria occurs.  There is also an arrangement of a water pipeline which gives water to these crates

in every 15 minutes for 3-4 sec.   When the crates reach the last shelf that is after 7 days the organic manure is

 prepared. This manure is is used as a fertilize fertilizerr for growing plants.  They also sell this manure in tones to contractors, vendors and then it is further

 been supplied to the builders builders like Raheja , Rusto Rustomjee mjee etc.

Non – degradable waste:

The non- degradable waste collected in yellow bins. As the waste that is collected is non-degradable it is collected in yellow bins. This waste consists of the aluminium foils, plastic materials, bottles etc.





Waste water comprises of the water from the kitchens, toilets, swimming pools etc.

It is collected at the effluent treatment plant (ETP). This one of the waste water management plant.

Through ETP process two layers of water are formed.

The lower water level is of bacteria. The upper level is the purified water.

This purified water is used for flushing purposes, irrigation purposes etc.

This water is also used in the cooling tower. This is a part of the air conditioning system.

They use the entire water for the hotel purpose. They do not give it to the BMC.

OIL WASTE: Oil waste is generated from the drainage water. This water contains a surface of oil at the top of it. This oil is collected and then sold it to the vendors for further treatment. The vendors convert this oil in to a bio diesel fuel. The vendors then sell it to many hospitals etc. the hospitals that follow waste management buy this bio diesel fuel. They use this to treat their hospital waste as it cannot be disposed haphazardly. They use this  bio diesel fuel in incerinators incerinators to treat the the bio medical w waste. aste.






Vasundhara or earth is the only planet in our solar system which can support life

so it is very important to save it from various waste hazards.  

Thus, waste management is of great concern to mankind as it affects the entire

 planet and all its living living creatures. Increasing Increasing amounts of wastes gen generated erated everyday is  becoming a major problem problem particularly in ur urban ban cities around the globe.  

With the rapid growth of population, there has been a substantial increase in the

generation of solid waste resulting into the contamination of air, water and land resources. Human activities create waste, and it is the way these wastes are handled, stored, collected and disposed of that pose risks to the environment and to public health.   Thus, it is rightly said that God Gives Enough to Satisfy Every Man’s Need but not

Every Man’s Greed. End Waste Before It Ends Your Life.


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