Welsh Language

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Welsh language
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ,
ə ɡəmˈrɑːɨɡ]) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the
Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along
the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh
colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).[7] Historically it
has also been known in English as “the British tongue”,[8]
“Cambrian”,[9] “Cambric”[10] and “Cymric”.[11]
The 2011 UK Census counted 3.1 million residents of
Wales. Of these, 73% (2.2 million) reported having no
Welsh language skills. Of the residents of Wales, 25% of
the population is not from the country. Of the residents
of Wales aged three and over, 19% (562,000) reported
being able to speak Welsh, and 77% of these were able
to speak, read, and write the language (making 431,000
– 15% of the total population).[12] This can be compared
with the 2001 Census, in which 20.8% of the population
(582,000) reported being able to speak Welsh.[13] In surveys carried out between 2004 and 2006, 57% (315,000)
of Welsh speakers described themselves as fluent in the
written language.[14]

This tattered Welsh Bible of 1620, in Llanwnda church, is said
to have been rescued from the hands of French invaders in 1797.

by the Old Welsh period, considered to stretch from the
beginning of the 9th century to the 12th century.[19] The
Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from
A greeting in Welsh is one of 55 languages included then until the 14th century, when the Modern Welsh peon the Voyager Golden Record chosen to be represen- riod began, which in turn divided into Early and Late
tative of Earth in NASA’s Voyager program launched in Modern Welsh.
1977.[15] The greetings are unique to each language, with The name Welsh originated as an exonym given to its
the Welsh greeting being Iechyd da i chwi yn awr ac yn speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning “foreign speech”
oesoedd, which translates into English as “Good health to (see Walha). The native term for the language is Cymraeg
you now and forever”.[16][17]
and Cymru for “Wales”.
The Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 gave the
Welsh language official status in Wales,[18] making it the
only language that is de jure official in any part of the 1.1 Origins
United Kingdom, English being de facto official.
Welsh evolved from British, the Celtic language spoken
Throughout Wales, roadsigns are bilingual with Welsh
by the ancient Britons. Alternatively classified as Insular
and English (e.g. Chepstow is the English name, also
Celtic or P-Celtic, it probably arrived in Britain during
given as Cas-gwent which is the Welsh name). The lanthe Bronze Age or Iron Age and was probably spoken
guage that appears on the signs first is decided by the local
throughout the island south of the Firth of Forth.[20] Durgovernment.
ing the Early Middle Ages the British language began to
fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, evolving into Welsh and the other Brythonic languages (Breton,
1 History
Cornish, and the extinct Cumbric). It is not clear when
Welsh became distinct.[21]
Main article: History of the Welsh language
Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that the evolution in sylWelsh emerged in the 6th century from Common Brit- labic structure and sound pattern was complete by around
tonic, the common ancestor of Welsh, Breton, Cornish 550, and labeled the period between then and about 800
and the extinct language known as Cumbric.
“Primitive Welsh”.[21] This Primitive Welsh may have
Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with
rather indistinct boundaries: The period immediately following the language’s emergence from Brittonic is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh;[19] this was followed

been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd (“Old
North”), the Brythonic-speaking areas of what is now
northern England and southern Scotland, and therefore
been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson,
1

2

2

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

however, believed that the two varieties were already distinct by that time.[21] The earliest Welsh poetry – that attributed to the Cynfeirdd or “Early Poets” – is generally
considered to date to the Primitive Welsh period. However, much of this poetry was supposedly composed in
the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was originally
composed.[21]

1.2

Old Welsh

Main article: Old Welsh
The next main period, somewhat better attested, is Old
Welsh (Hen Gymraeg, 9th to 11th centuries); poetry from
both Wales and Scotland has been preserved in this form
of the language. As Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of
Great Britain proceeded, the Brythonic speakers in Wales
were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric, and those in the south-west, speaking what
would become Cornish, and so the languages diverged.
Both the Poetry of Aneirin (Canu Aneirin, c. AD 600)
and the Poetry, or Book, of Taliesin (Canu Taliesin) were
in this era.

1.3

Middle Welsh

Main article: Middle Welsh

The 1588 Welsh Bible

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to lated by William Salesbury in 1567 followed by the comthe Welsh of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much plete Bible by William Morgan in 1588.
more remains than for any earlier period. This is the
language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the
Mabinogion, although the tales themselves are certainly
2 Geographic distribution
much older. It is also the language of the existing Welsh
law manuscripts. Middle Welsh is reasonably intelligible,
albeit with some work, to a modern-day Welsh speaker. Welsh has been spoken continuously in Wales throughout
recorded history, but by 1911 it had become a minority
The famous cleric Gerald of Wales tells a story of King language, spoken by 43.5% of the population.[23] While
Henry II of England. During one of the King’s many raids this decline continued over the following decades, the lanin the 12th century, Henry asked an old man of Pencader, guage did not die out. By the start of the twenty-first cenCarmarthenshire, whether he thought the Welsh language tury, numbers had begun to increase again. The 2004
had any chance:
Welsh Language Use Survey showed 21.7% of the population of Wales spoke Welsh,[24] compared with 20.8% in
Never will it be destroyed by the wrath of man,
the 2001 census, and 18.5% in 1991. The 2011 census,
unless the wrath of God be added, nor do I
however, showed a slight decline to 562,000, or 19% of
think that any other nation than this of Wales,
the population.[25] The census also showed a “big drop” in
or any other tongue, whatever may hereafter
the number of speakers in the Welsh-speaking heartlands,
come to pass, shall on the day of the great reckwith the number dropping to under 50% in Ceredigion
oning before the Most High Judge, answer for
and Carmarthenshire for the first time.[26]
this corner of the Earth.[22]
The number of Welsh-speaking people in the rest of
Britain has not yet been compiled for statistical purposes.
In 1993, the Welsh-language television channel S4C pub1.4 Welsh Bible
lished the results of a survey into the numbers of peoThe Bible translations into Welsh helped to maintain the ple who spoke or understood Welsh, which estimated that
use of Welsh in daily life. The New Testament was trans- there were around 133,000 Welsh-speaking people living

3
north-west and extreme south-west Powys, although firstlanguage and other fluent speakers can be found throughout Wales.

3 Current status
3.1 Official status

The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census who said they
could speak Welsh.

in England, about 50,000 of them in the Greater London Trilingual (Spanish, Welsh and English) sign in Argentina
area.[27] The Welsh Language Board, on the basis of an
analysis of the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study, estimated there were 110,000 Welsh-speaking
people in England, and another thousand in Scotland and
Northern Ireland.[28]
Welsh-speaking communities persisted well on into
the modern period across the border with England.
Archenfield was still Welsh enough in the time of
Elizabeth I for the Bishop of Hereford to be made responsible, together with the four Welsh bishops, for the
translation of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer
into Welsh. Welsh was still commonly spoken here in the
first half of the nineteenth century, and churchwardens’
notices were put up in both Welsh and English until about
1860.[29]
Historically, large numbers of Welsh people spoke only
Welsh.[30] Over the course of the twentieth century this
monolingual population “all but disappeared”, but a small
percentage remained at the time of the 1981 census.[31]
Most Welsh-speaking people in Wales also speak English
(while in Chubut Province, Argentina, most speakers can
speak Spanish – see Y Wladfa). However, many Welshspeaking people are more comfortable expressing themselves in Welsh than in English. A speaker’s choice of
language can vary according to the subject domain and
the social context, even within a single discourse (known
in linguistics as code-switching).
Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the
north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, Conwy,
Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych), Anglesey (Ynys Môn), Carmarthenshire (Sir Gâr), north Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), Ceredigion, parts of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), and

Bilingual road markings near Cardiff Airport. In Welsh-speaking
areas, the Welsh signage appears first.

Although Welsh is a minority language, support for it
grew during the second half of the 20th century, along
with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru from 1925 and Cymdeithas yr
Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society) from 1962.
The Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of
Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages be treated equally in the public sector, as far as is
reasonable and practicable. Each public body is required
to prepare for approval a Welsh Language Scheme, which
indicates its commitment to the equality of treatment

4

3 CURRENT STATUS

principle. This is sent out in draft form for public consultation for a three-month period, whereupon comments on
it may be incorporated into a final version. It requires the
final approval of the now defunct Welsh Language Board
(Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg). Thereafter, the public body
is charged with implementing and fulfilling its obligations
under the Welsh Language Scheme. The list of other
public bodies which have to prepare Schemes could be
added to by initially the Secretary of State for Wales, from
1993–1997, by way of Statutory Instrument. Subsequent
to the forming of the National Assembly for Wales in
1997, the Government Minister responsible for the Welsh
language can and has passed Statutory Instruments naming public bodies who have to prepare Schemes. Neither
1993 Act nor secondary legislation made under it cover
the private sector, although some organisations, notably
banks and some railway companies, provide some of their
literature through the medium of Welsh.

of the Welsh language; which creates a strong advocate
for Welsh speakers and will improve the quality and quantity of services available through the medium of Welsh. I
believe that everyone who wants to access services in the
Welsh language should be able to do so, and that is what
this government has worked towards. This legislation is
an important and historic step forward for the language,
its speakers and for the nation.”[35] The measure was not
welcomed warmly by all supporters; Bethan Williams,
chairperson of language campaign group Cymdeithas yr
Iaith Gymraeg, gave a mixed response to the move, saying, “Through this measure we have won official status for
the language and that has been warmly welcomed. But
there was a core principle missing in the law passed by
the Assembly before Christmas. It doesn't give language
rights to the people of Wales in every aspect of their lives.
Despite that, an amendment to that effect was supported
by 18 Assembly Members from three different parties,
[36]
On 7 December 2010, the Welsh Assembly unanimously and that was a significant step forward.”
approved a set of measures to develop the use of the On 5 October 2011, Meri Huws, Chair of the Welsh
Welsh language within Wales.[32][33] On 9 February 2011, Language Board was appointed the new Welsh Language
this measure received Royal Approval and was passed, Commissioner.[37] In a statement released by her, she
thus making the Welsh language an officially recognised said that she was “delighted” to have been appointed to
language within Wales.[34] The Measure:
the “hugely important role”, adding, “I look forward to
working with the Welsh Government and organisations
in Wales in developing the new system of standards. I
• confirms the official status of the Welsh language;
will look to build on the good work that has been done by
• creates a new system of placing duties on bodies to the Welsh Language Board and others to strengthen the
provide services through the medium of Welsh;
Welsh language and ensure that it continues to thrive.”
First Minister Carwyn Jones said that Meri will act as a
• creates a Welsh Language Commissioner with
champion for the Welsh language, though some had constrong enforcement powers to protect the rights of
cerns over her appointment; Plaid Cymru spokeswoman
Welsh-speaking people to access services through
Bethan Jenkins said, “I have concerns about the transition
the medium of Welsh;
from Meri Huws’s role from the Welsh Language Board
to the language commissioner, and I will be asking the
• establishes a Welsh Language Tribunal;
Welsh government how this will be successfully managed.
• gives individuals and bodies the right to appeal de- We must be sure that there is no conflict of interest, and
cisions made in relation to the provision of services that the Welsh Language Commissioner can demonstrate
through the medium of Welsh
how she will offer the required fresh approach to this new
• creates a Welsh Language Partnership Council to role.” She started her role as the Welsh Language Comadvise Government on its strategy in relation to the missioner on 1 April 2012.
Welsh language;
• allows for an official investigation by the Welsh
Language Commissioner of instances where there
is an attempt to interfere with the freedom of
Welsh-speaking people to use the language with one
another.[35]
With the passing of this measure, public bodies and some
private companies will be required to provide services
in it, though it remains to be seen which companies will
have to comply. The Minister for Heritage, Alun Ffred
Jones, said, “The Welsh language is a source of great
pride for the people of Wales, whether they speak it or
not, and I am delighted that this Measure has now become law. I am very proud to have steered legislation
through the Assembly which confirms the official status

Local councils and the National Assembly for Wales use
Welsh, to varying degrees, issuing their literature and
publicity in Welsh versions (e.g. letters to parents from
schools, library information, and council information)
and most road signs in Wales are in English and Welsh,
including the Welsh placenames. However, some references to destinations in England are still given in English
only, even where there are long-established Welsh names
(e.g. London: Llundain; The [English] Midlands: Canolbarth Lloegr).
Since 2000, the teaching of Welsh has been compulsory
in all schools in Wales up to age 16, and that has had a
major effect in stabilising and to some extent reversing
the decline in the language. It means, for example, that
even the children of non-Welsh-speaking parents from
elsewhere in the UK grow up with a knowledge of or com-

3.2

Welsh in education

5

plete fluency in the language.

to have both an understanding of life in the UK and sufeither the Welsh language, English
Although most road signs throughout Wales are bilingual, ficient knowledge of
[42]
or
Scottish
Gaelic.
the wording on currency is in English only. The one exception is the legend on Welsh pound coins dated 1985,
1990 and 1995 (which are legal tender in all parts of the 3.2 Welsh in education
UK): Pleidiol wyf i'm gwlad, which means “True am I
to my country”) and derives from the national anthem of Main article: Welsh medium education
Wales, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau. The new British coinage The decade around 1840 was a period of great social upfrom 2008 will not bear any Welsh language at all, despite
being designed by a resident of North Wales and being
minted at the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, South Wales. Although many shops employ bilingual signage, Welsh still
rarely appears on product packaging or instructions.
The UK government has ratified the European Charter for
Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Welsh.[38]

Children at a Welsh language school in Wales, 2008

heaval in Wales, manifested in the Chartist movement. In
1839, 20,000 people marched on Newport, resulting in a
riot when 20 people were killed by soldiers defending the
Westgate Hotel, and the Rebecca Riots where tollbooths
on turnpikes were systematically destroyed.
This unrest brought the state of education in Wales to
the attention of the English establishment since social reformers of the time considered education as a means of
dealing with social ills. The Times newspaper was promiBilingual road sign near Wrexham Central station.
nent among those who considered that the lack of educaThe language has greatly increased its prominence since tion of the Welsh people was the root cause of most of
the creation of the television channel S4C in Novem- the problems.
ber 1982, which until digital switchover in 2010 broad- In July 1846, three commissioners, R.R.W. Lingen, Jelcast 70% of Channel 4’s programming along with a ma- lynger C. Symons and H.R. Vaughan Johnson, were apjority of Welsh language shows[39] during peak viewing pointed to inquire into the state of education in Wales; the
hours. The all-Welsh-language digital station S4C DigiCommissioners were all Anglicans and were presumed
dol is available throughout Europe on satellite and on- to be unsympathetic to the non-conformist majority in
line throughout the UK. Since the digital switchover was
Wales. The Commissioners presented their report to the
completed in South Wales on 31 March 2010, S4C Digi- Government on 1 July 1847 in three large blue-bound
dol became the main broadcasting channel and fully in
volumes. This report quickly became known as Brad y
Welsh. The main evening television news provided by Llyfrau Gleision (The Treachery of the Blue Books)[43]
the BBC in Welsh is available for download.[40] There is
since, apart from documenting the state of education in
also a Welsh-language radio station, BBC Radio Cymru, Wales, the Commissioners were also free with their comwhich was launched in 1977.
ments disparaging the language, non-conformity, and the
There is, however, no daily newspaper in Welsh, the
only Welsh-language national newspaper Y Cymro (“The
Welshman”) being published once a week. A daily newspaper called Y Byd (“The World”) was scheduled to be
launched on 3 March 2008, but was scrapped,[41] owing to poor sales of subscriptions and the Welsh Government deeming the publication not to meet the criteria necessary for the kind of public funding it needed to
be rescued. There is, however a Welsh-language online
news service which publishes online news stories in Welsh
called Golwg360.

morals of the Welsh people in general. An immediate
effect of the report was for a belief to take root in the
minds of ordinary people that the only way for Welsh
people to get on in the world was through the medium
of English, and an inferiority complex developed about
the Welsh language whose effects have not yet been completely eradicated. The historian Professor Kenneth O.
Morgan referred to the significance of the report and its
consequences as “the Glencoe and the Amritsar of Welsh
history”.[44]

In the later 19th century virtually all teaching in the
Persons applying for naturalisation in the UK are required schools of Wales was in English, even in areas where

6

3 CURRENT STATUS

Sign promoting the learning of Welsh
Welsh language as the medium of instruction

riculum. Welsh is also taught in adult education classes.
The Welsh Government has recently set up six centres
the pupils barely understood English. Some schools used of excellence in the teaching of Welsh for Adults, with
the Welsh Not, a piece of wood, often bearing the let- centres in North Wales (learncymraeg.org), Mid Wales,
ters “WN”, which was hung around the neck of any pupil South West, Glamorgan, Gwent. and Cardiff.
caught speaking Welsh. The pupil could pass it on to any
schoolmate heard speaking Welsh, with the pupil wearing The ability to speak Welsh or to have Welsh as a qualichoices in Wales,
it at the end of the day being given a beating. One of the fication is desirable for certain career[48]
such
as
teaching
or
customer
service.
All universities
most famous Welsh-born pioneers of higher education in
in
Wales
teach
courses
in
Welsh.
Aberystwyth,
Cardiff,
Wales was Sir Hugh Owen. He made great progress in the
Bangor,
and
Swansea
have
all
had
chairs
in
Welsh
since
cause of education and more especially, the University
their
virtual
establishment,
and
all
their
schools
of
Welsh
College of Wales at Aberystwyth, of which he was chief
founder. He has been credited with the Welsh Interme- are successful centres for the study of the Welsh landiate Education Act 1889, following which several new guage and its literature, offering a BA in Welsh as well as
Welsh schools were built. The first was completed in post-graduate courses. Following a commitment made in
the One Wales coalition government between Labour and
1894 and named Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen.
Plaid Cymru, the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol (Welsh
Towards the beginning of the 20th century this policy Language National College) was established. The purslowly began to change, partly owing to the efforts of pose of the federal structured college, spread out between
Owen Morgan Edwards when he became chief inspector all the universities of Wales, is to provide and also adof schools for Wales in 1907.
vance Welsh medium courses and Welsh medium scholThe Aberystwyth Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg arship and research in Welsh universities. Over the next
Aberystwyth) was founded in 1939 by Sir Ifan ap Owen few years, it is expected that there will be at least 100 lecEdwards, the son of O.M. Edwards, as the first Welsh turers who teach through the medium of Welsh in subPrimary School. The headteacher was Norah Isaac. jects ranging from law, modern languages, social sciYsgol Gymraeg is still a very successful school, and now ences, and also other sciences such as biological sciences.
there are Welsh language primary schools all over the There is also a Welsh-medium academic journal called
country. Ysgol Glan Clwyd was established in Rhyl in Gwerddon, which is a platform for academic research in
1955 as the first Welsh language school to teach at the Welsh and is published quarterly. There have been calls
for more teaching of Welsh in English-medium schools.
secondary level.
Welsh is now widely used in education, with 20%
of all pupils in Wales being taught at Welsh-medium
schools.[45] Under the National Curriculum, it is compulsory that all students should study Welsh up to the age
of 16, either as a first language or a second language.[46]
Some students choose to continue with their studies
through the medium of Welsh for the completion of their
A-levels as well as during their college years. All local
education authorities in Wales have schools providing
bilingual or Welsh-medium education.[47] The remainder study Welsh as a second language in English-medium
schools. Specialist teachers of Welsh called Athrawon
Bro support the teaching of Welsh in the National Cur-

3.3 Welsh in information technology
Further information: List of Celtic-language media
As with many of the world’s languages, the Welsh language has seen an increased use and presence on the
internet, ranging from formal lists of terminology in
a variety of fields[49] to Welsh language interfaces for
Windows 7, Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, Microsoft
Office, LibreOffice, OpenOffice.org, Mozilla Firefox and
a variety of Linux distributions, and on-line services to

7
blogs kept in Welsh.[50] A variety of websites are also
available in Welsh: the social networking site Facebook
has offered a Welsh version since 2009, and Wikipedia
since July 2003.[51]

3.4

Mobile phone technology

In 2006 the Welsh Language Board launched a free software pack which enabled the use of SMS predictive text
in Welsh.[52] At the National Eisteddfod of Wales 2009,
a further announcement was made by the Welsh Language Board that the mobile phone company Samsung
was to work with the network provider Orange to provide the first mobile phone in the Welsh language,[53]
with the interface and the T9 dictionary on the Samsung
S5600 available in the Welsh language. The model, available with the Welsh language interface, has been available since 1 September 2009, with plans to introduce it
on other networks.[54]
On Android devices, user-created keyboards can be
used.[55] iOS devices have fully supported the Welsh language since the release of iOS 8 in September 2014.
Users can switch their device to Welsh to access apps
that are available in Welsh. Date and time on iOS is
also localized, as shown by the built-in Calendar application, as well as certain third party apps that have been
localized.[56]

3.5

Welsh in warfare

Secure communications are often difficult to achieve in
wartime. Cryptography can be used to protect messages,
but codes can be broken. Therefore, lesser-known languages are sometimes encoded, so that even if the code
is broken, the message is still in a language few people
know. For example, Navajo code talkers were used by
the United States military during World War II. Similarly, the Royal Welch Fusiliers, a Welsh regiment serving in Bosnia, used Welsh for emergency communications
that needed to be secure.[57] Welsh was not used in the
Falklands War because of the Welsh-speaking Argentine
population in Patagonia.

3.6

Use of Welsh at the European Union

Welsh, the language of Wales.” He described the breakthrough as “more than [merely] symbolic” saying “Welsh
might be one of the oldest languages to be used in the
UK, but it remains one of the most vibrant. Our literature, our arts, our festivals, our great tradition of song all
find expression through our language. And this is a powerful demonstration of how our culture, the very essence
of who we are, is expressed through language.”[58]

4 Vocabulary
Welsh vocabulary draws mainly from original Brittonic
words (wy “egg”, carreg “stone”), with some loans from
Latin (ffenestr “window” < Latin fenestra, gwin “wine” <
Latin vinum), and English (silff “shelf”, giat “gate”).

5 Phonology
Main article: Welsh phonology
The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of
sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically
rare in European languages, specifically the voiceless
alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ], voiceless nasal stops [m̥ ], [n̥ ],
and [ŋ̊ ], and voiceless rhotic [r̥]. Stress usually falls on
the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, while the
word-final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than
the stressed syllable.

6 Orthography
Main article: Welsh orthography
Welsh is written in a Latin alphabet traditionally consisting of 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs treated as
single letters for collation:
a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n,
o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y

In contrast to English practice, “w” and “y” are considered
In November 2008, the Welsh language was used at a vowel letters in Welsh along with “a”, “e”, “i”, “o” and “u”.
meeting of the European Union’s Council of Ministers The letter “j” is used in many everyday words borrowed
for the first time. The Heritage Minister Alun Ffred Jones from English, like jam, jôc “joke” and garej “garage”.
addressed his audience in Welsh and his words were in- The letters “k”, “q”, “v”, “x”, and “z” are used in some
terpreted into the EU’s 23 official languages. The offi- technical terms, like kilogram, volt and zero, but in all
cial use of the language followed years of campaigning. cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters:
Jones said “In the UK we have one of the world’s major cilogram, folt and sero.[59] The letter “k” was in common
languages, English, as the mother tongue of many. But use until the sixteenth century, but was dropped at the
there is a diversity of languages within our islands. I am time of the publication of the New Testament in Welsh,
proud to be speaking to you in one of the oldest of these, as William Salesbury explained: “C for K, because the

8

8

COUNTING SYSTEM

printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth”. This es i or Mi wnes i fynd. Mi is an example of a preverbal
change was not popular at the time.[60]
particle; such particles are common in Welsh.
The most common diacritic is the circumflex, which disambiguates long vowels, most often in the case of homographs, where the vowel is short in one word and long in
the other: e.g. man “place” vs mân “fine”, “small”.

Welsh lacks separate pronouns for constructing subordinate clauses; instead, special verb forms or relative pronouns which appear identical to some preverbal particles
are used.

7

7.3 Other features of Welsh grammar

7.1

Grammar
Morphology

7.3.1 Possessives as direct objects of verbnouns

The Welsh for “I like Rhodri” is Dw i'n hoffi Rhodri (word
Main articles: Colloquial Welsh morphology and Literary for word, “am I in [the] liking [of] Rhodri”), where RhoWelsh morphology
dri is in a possessive relationship with hoffi. With personal pronouns, the possessive form of the personal proWelsh morphology has much in common with that of the noun is used, as in “I like him": Dw i'n ei hoffi – literally,
other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use “am I in his liking” – “I like you" is Dw i'n dy hoffi (“am
of initial consonant mutations, and the use of so-called I in your liking”).
"conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with the
personal pronouns that are their object). Welsh nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and 7.3.2 Pronoun doubling
feminine, but are not inflected for case. Welsh has a variety of different endings to indicate the plural, and two In colloquial Welsh, possessive pronouns—whether used
endings to indicate the singular of some nouns. In spoken to mean “my”, “your”, etc., or to indicate the direct obWelsh, verb inflection is indicated primarily by the use of ject of a verbnoun—are commonly reinforced by the use
auxiliary verbs, rather than by the inflection of the main of the corresponding personal pronoun after the noun
verb. In literary Welsh, on the other hand, inflection of or verbnoun: ei dŷ e “his house” (literally “his house of
the main verb is usual.
him"), Dw i'n dy hoffi di “I like you” (“I am [engaged in
the action of] your liking of you"), etc. It should be noted
that this “reinforcement” (or, simply, “redoubling”) adds
7.2 Syntax
no emphasis in the colloquial register. While the possessive pronoun alone may be used (as is especially common
Main article: Welsh syntax
in more formal registers, as shown above), it is considered
incorrect to use only the personal pronoun; such usage is
The canonical word order in Welsh is verb–subject– nevertheless sometimes heard in very colloquial speech,
mainly among young speakers: Ble 'dyn ni'n mynd? Tŷ
object.
ti neu dŷ fi? (“Where are we going? Your house or my
Colloquial Welsh inclines very strongly towards the use of house?").
auxiliaries with its verbs. The present tense is constructed
with bod (“to be”) as an auxiliary verb, with the main verb
appearing as a verbnoun (used in a way loosely equivalent
8 Counting system
to an infinitive) after the particle yn:
Mae Siân yn mynd i Lanelli

Main article: Welsh numerals

Siân is going to Llanelli.
Here mae is the third-person present form of bod, and
mynd is the verbnoun meaning “to go”. The imperfect is
constructed in a similar manner, as are the periphrastic
forms of the future and conditional tenses.
In the preterite, future, and conditional tenses, there are
inflected forms of all verbs (which are invariably used
in the written language). However, it is more common
nowadays in speech to use the verbnoun together with the
inflected form of gwneud (“to do”), so “I went” can be Mi

The traditional counting system used by the Welsh language is vigesimal, which is to say it is based on twenties, as in standard French numbers 70 (soixante-dix, literally “sixty-ten”) to 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, literally
“four twenties nineteen”). Welsh numbers from 11 to 14
are "x on ten”, 16 to 19 are "x on fifteen” (though 18 is
deunaw, “two nines”); numbers from 21 to 39 are “1–19
on twenty”, 40 is “two twenties”, 60 is “three twenties”,
etc. This form continues to be used, especially by older
people, and it is obligatory in certain circumstances (such
as telling the time).[61]

9
There is also a decimal counting system, which has become relatively widely used, though less so in giving the
time, ages, and dates (it features no ordinal numbers).
This system is in especially common use in schools due
to its simplicity, and in Patagonian Welsh. Whereas 39
in the vigesimal system would be pedwar ar bymtheg ar
hugain (“four on fifteen on twenty”), in the decimal system it would be tri deg naw (“three tens nine”).

like /i/, although exceptions include the pronunciation of
sut “how” as [ʃʊd] in the south (compared with northern
[sɨt]).
In the 1970s, there was an attempt to standardise the language by teaching 'Cymraeg Byw' - a colloquially-based
generic form of Welsh.[65] But the attempt largely failed
because it did not encompass the regional differences
used by native speakers of Welsh.

Although there is only one word for “one” (un), it triggers
the soft mutation (treiglad meddal) of feminine nouns,
other than those beginning with “ll” and “rh”. There
are separate masculine and feminine forms of the num- 10 Registers
bers “two” (dau and dwy), “three” (tri and tair) and
“four” (pedwar and pedair), which must agree with the Modern Welsh can be considered to fall broadly into two
grammatical gender of the objects being counted.
main registers—Colloquial Welsh (Cymraeg llafar) and
Literary Welsh (Cymraeg llenyddol). The grammar described on this page is that of Colloquial Welsh, which is
used in most speech and informal writing. Literary Welsh
9 Dialects
is closer to the form of Welsh standardised by the 1588
translation of the Bible and is found in official documents
There is no standard or definitive form of the Welsh lan- and other formal registers, including much literature. As
guage. Although Northern and Southern Welsh are the a standardised form, literary Welsh shows little if any of
two commonly supposed main dialects, in reality addi- the dialectal variation found in colloquial Welsh. Some
tional significant variations exist between areas. The differences include:
perhaps more useful traditional classification is of four Amongst the characteristics of the literary, as against the
main dialects - Y Wyndodeg, the language of Gwynedd; spoken, language are a higher dependence on inflected
Y Bowyseg, the language of Powys; Y Ddyfedeg, the verb forms, different usage of some of the tenses, less
language of Dyfed; and Y Wenhwyseg, the language frequent use of pronouns (since the information is usually
of Gwent and Morgannwg.[62] Fine-grained classifica- conveyed in the verb/preposition inflections) and a much
tions exist beyond those four: the book Cymraeg, Cym- lesser tendency to substitute English loanwords for native
râg, Cymrêg: Cyflwyno'r Tafodieithoedd (“Welsh, Welsh, Welsh words. In addition, more archaic pronouns and
Welsh: Introducing the Dialects”)[63] about Welsh di- forms of mutation may be observed in Literary Welsh.
alects was accompanied by a cassette containing recordings of fourteen different speakers demonstrating aspects
of different area dialects. The book also refers to the
10.1 Examples of sentences in literary and
earlier Linguistic Geography of Wales[64] as describing
colloquial Welsh
six different regions which could be identified as having
words specific to those regions.
In fact, the differences between dialects of modern spoAnother dialect is Patagonian Welsh, which has devel- ken Welsh pale into insignificance compared to the difoped since the start of Y Wladfa (the Welsh settlement ference between some forms of the spoken language and
in Argentina) in 1865; it includes Spanish loanwords and the most formal constructions of the literary. The latterms for local features, but a survey in the 1970s showed ter is considerably more conservative and is the language
that the language in Patagonia is consistent throughout the used in Welsh translations of the Bible, amongst other
lower Chubut valley and in the Andes.
things (although the 2004 Beibl Cymraeg Newydd – New
The differences in dialect are marked in pronunciation Welsh Bible – is significantly less formal than the traand vocabulary but also in minor points of grammar. For ditional 1588 Bible). Gareth King, author of a popular
example: consider the question “Do you want a cuppa [a Welsh grammar, observes that “The difference between
cup of tea]?" In Gwynedd this would typically be Dach these two is much greater than between the virtually idenchi isio panad? while in Glamorgan one would be more tical colloquial and literary forms of English”.[67] A gramlikely to hear Ych chi'n moyn dishgled? (though in other mar of Literary Welsh can be found in A Grammar of
parts of the South one would not be surprised to hear Ych Welsh (1980) by Stephen J. Williams[68] or more comchi isie paned? as well, among other possibilities). An pletely in Gramadeg y Gymraeg (1996) by Peter Wynn
example of a pronunciation difference between Northern Thomas.[69] (No comprehensive grammar of formal literand Southern Welsh is the tendency in southern dialects ary Welsh exists in English.) An English-language guide
to palatalise the letter “s”, e.g. mis (month), would tend to Welsh colloquial forms and register and dialect difto be pronounced [miːs] in the north, and [miːʃ] in the ferences is “Dweud Eich Dweud” (2001, 2013) by Ceri
south. This normally occurs next to a high front vowel Williams.[70]

10

12 NOTES

The labels colloquial and literary are in fact convenient
approximations: literary constructions occur in formal
writing and speech, while the majority of Welsh writing found on the Internet or in magazines is closer to
colloquial usage. This has also become more common
in artistic literature, as in English.

[7] “Taking Tea and Tortes With the Welsh In Distant Argentina”. The New York Times. 3 April 2005. Retrieved
6 April 2010.

11

[9] Nolan, Edward Henry. Great Britain As It Is (1859). p.47

See also

• Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters
• English and Welsh
• Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion
• Languages in the United Kingdom

[8] Roberts, Peter (1998), “Wales and the British Inheritance”, in Bradshaw, Brendan; Roberts, Peter, British
Consciousness and Identity: The Making of Britain, 15331707, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 24

[10] Jackson,John. Chronological Antiquities (1752). p.143
[11] D. Walter Thomas, Edward Hughes. The Cymric language
(1879)
[12] “Office for National Statistics 2012 report”. Ons.gov.uk.
2012-12-11. Retrieved 2014-02-27.

• List of Welsh-language media

[13] Census 2001, Report on the Welsh language (PDF)

• List of Welsh films

[14] The Welsh Language Surveys of 2004-06 (PDF)

• List of Welsh-language authors

[15] “Greetings to the Universe in 55 Different Languages”.
NASA. Retrieved 2009-05-10.

• List of Welsh-language poets (6th century to c.
1600)
• List of Welsh people
• List of Welsh principal areas by percentage Welsh
language
• Welsh literature
• Welsh Language Board
• Dal Ati
• Welsh placenames
• Welsh Tract
• Welsh (surname)

[16] “Welsh greetings”. NASA. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
[17] Walesonline.co.uk The Welsh message hurtling through
space
[18] “Welsh Language Measure receives Royal Assent”. Welsh
Assembly Government. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
[19] Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 1757.
[20] Koch, pp. 291–292.
[21] Koch, p. 1757.
[22] BBC.
[23] “The Industrial Revolution”. Wales History. BBC. Retrieved 30 December 2011.

12

Notes

[1] “Office for National Statistics 2014”. Ons.gov.uk. 201412-11. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
[2] The Welsh Language Use Surveys of 2004-06 (PDF)
[3] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
“Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - United Kingdom : Welsh”. UNHCR.
Retrieved 2010-05-23.
[4] “Wales and Argentina”. Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
[5] “Welsh Language Commissioner”. Wales.gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
[6] Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel,
Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). “Welsh”.
Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

[24] “2004 Welsh Language Use Survey: the report” (PDF).
Retrieved 5 June 2012.
[25] “2011 Census: Key Statistics for Wales, March 2011”.
ONS. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
[26] “2011 Census: Number of Welsh speakers falling”. BBC.
Retrieved 12 December 2012.
[27] “Nigel Callaghan (1993). ''More Welsh Speakers than
Previously Believed'' (on-line). Accessed 21 March
2010”. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
[28] “Estimation of the number of Welsh speakers in England”
(PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-27.
[29] Transactions Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club, 1887,
page 173
[30] Janet Davies, University of Wales Press, Bath (1993). The
Welsh Language, page 34

11

[31] Williams, Colin H. (1990), “The Anglicisation of Wales”,
in Coupland, Nikolas, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters,
pp. 38–41
[32]
[33] 'Historic' assembly vote for new Welsh language law, BBC
News Online, 7 December 2010
[34] Proposed Welsh Language (Wales) Measure Accessed: 13
February 2011]

[56] “Free Welsh Localization for iOS Developers”. Applingua. 2015-03-06. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
[57] Heath, Tony (1996-08-26). “Welsh speak up for their ancient tongue”. The Independent. p. 6.
[58] David Williamson. “Walesonline.co.uk”.
line.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-23.

Waleson-

[59] Thomas, Peter Wynn (1996) Gramadeg y Gymraeg.
Cardiff: University of Wales Press: 757.
[60] English and Welsh, an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien

[35] Welsh Government | Welsh Measure received Royal Assent Accessed: 13 February 2011]
[36] Royal Assent for official status of Welsh language - Wales
News - News - WalesOnline Accessed: 13 February 2011]
[37] BBC News - Language board chief Meri Huws is Welsh
commissioner (accessed 5 October 2011)
[38] “List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148”.
Conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 2010-05-23.

[62] “Index to Welsh dialects”. Kimkat.org. 2006-04-20. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
[63] Thomas, B. and Thomas, P. W. Cymraeg, Cymrâg, Cymrêg: Cyflwyno'r Tafodieithoedd, published by Gwasg Taf,
ISBN 0-948469-14-5. Out of print
[64] Thomas, A. R. 1973 Linguistic Geography of Wales

[39] Welsh language provision at S4C Analogue

[65] “Teach Yourself Welsh”. Cymdeithas Madog. 15 March
2000. Retrieved 25 March 2014.

[40] BBC website (Real Media).
[41] Daily Welsh newspaper abandoned, BBC News Online, 15
February 2008
[42] “UK Border Agency, ''Knowledge of language and life in
the UK''". Ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-0227.
[43] 'Treacherous’ Blue Books online
[44] John Davies, Hanes Cymru (1993) (also in English translation as A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, ISBN 0-14014581-8)
[45] “Local UK languages 'taking off'", BBC News Online
[46] “Citizens Advice Bureau Adevice Guide”.
viceguide.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-27.

[61] King, G. Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar,
published by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09269-8 p. 114

Ad-

[47] Welsh medium or bilingual provision, Welsh Language
Board
[48] More information can be found at Welsh for Adults.org
[49] The Welsh National Database of Standardised Terminology was released in March 2006.
[50] Selections of Welsh-language blogs are listed on the sites
Y Rhithfro and Blogiadur.

[66] Klingebiel, Kathryn. 234 Welsh Verbs: Standard Literary
Forms. Belmont, Massachusetts: Ford & Bailie. p. 223.
ISBN 0-926689-04-5.
[67] King, G. Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar,
published by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09269-8 p3
[68] Williams, SJ (1980) “A Welsh Grammar”, University of
Wales Press, Cardiff, ISBN 0-7083-0735-3
[69] Thomas PW (1996), “Gramadeg y Gymraeg”, Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, Caerdydd, ISBN 978-0-7083-1345-9
[70] Jones, C (2001, 2013), “Dweud Eich Dweud”, Gwasg
Gomer, Llandysul, ISBN 978-1-84851-748-6

13 References
• J.W. Aitchison and H. Carter. Language, Economy
and Society. The changing fortunes of the Welsh
Language in the Twentieth Century. Cardiff. University of Wales Press. 2000.
• J.W. Aitchison and H. Carter. Spreading the Word.
The Welsh Language 2001. Y Lolfa. 2004

[51] Welsh Wikipedia on Wikipedia.org
[52] “Celular News webpage”. Cellular-news.com. 2006-0811. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
[53] World’s first Welsh language mobile phone launched (publish date: 25 August 2009)
[54] “BBC”. BBC News. 2009-08-04. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
[55] “LiterIM external keyboard for Android”. Troi.org. Retrieved 2014-02-27.

14 External links
• Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011: available
in Welsh and English.
• Welsh Language Commissioner
• Welsh language at Omniglot

12
• BBC Cymru, The history of the Welsh language
Statistical data
• Jones, H. (2011). A statistical overview of the Welsh
language. Welsh Language Board. (Accessed 19
April 2013)
• Welsh Language Board: The Vitality of Welsh: A
Statistical Balance Sheet, August 2010
• Link for Welsh language statistics from the Welsh
Assembly Government (accessed 10 January 2009)
• Example knowledge of Welsh (KS25) data
(Newport) from the Office for National Statistics
Dictionaries
• Welsh Phrasebook at Wikivoyage
• Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: University of Wales
Dictionary of the Welsh Language, a historical dictionary of Welsh (with a second edition in progress,
including an embryonic on-line version)
• Welsh Lexicon, an online Welsh-English and
English-Welsh resource
Conversational groups
• Mwydro Ynfyd Dedwydd Conversational Society
• Cymdeithas y Dysgwyr Conversational Society
Courses
• Say Something in Welsh, an online beginning Welsh
language course
• Learning resources on the BBC website (includes
several beginner’s courses and a Colloquial Welsh
grammar guide)
• Welsh Grammar (Lessons in Welsh with audio)
• A grammar of the Welsh language (by Thomas Rowland, 1853) (Literary Welsh)
• A guide to Welsh (by Thomas Jones, 1900): Part 1,
Part 2 (Literary Welsh)

14

EXTERNAL LINKS

13

15
15.1

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
Text

• Welsh language Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language?oldid=673474239 Contributors: Damian Yerrick, Carey Evans,
Vicki Rosenzweig, Robert Merkel, Zundark, Magnus~enwiki, Ffaker, Andre Engels, XJaM, PierreAbbat, Deb, SimonP, Heron, Fonzy,
Olivier, Leandrod, JohnOwens, Llywrch, DopefishJustin, Dante Alighieri, MartinHarper, Gabbe, Jketola, Menchi, Ixfd64, Zanimum,
Sannse, Arpingstone, Mkweise, Ams80, Ahoerstemeier, Jimfbleak, Arwel Parry, Angela, Julesd, Andres, Kaihsu, Ruhrjung, Tobias Conradi, Trainspotter~enwiki, Lfh, Dysprosia, Daniel Quinlan, Hywel, Tpbradbury, Morwen, Lewisdg2000, Traroth, Nickshanks, Joy, Rls,
Optim, Secretlondon, Jerzy, Denelson83, Donarreiskoffer, Robbot, Dale Arnett, Astronautics~enwiki, Owain, Asta2500, Naddy, Merovingian, Pingveno, JB82, Saforrest, Wereon, BovineBeast, Cutler, Rik G., Alan Liefting, Decumanus, Jacoplane, Marnanel, Seabhcan, Ferkelparade, Marcika, Everyking, Indygwyn, Gareth Wyn, AlistairMcMillan, ArinArin, Darrien, Pne, Bobblewik, Tagishsimon, AlanCox,
Telsa, Ilikeverin, 159753, Beland, Joeblakesley, McDonald1985, OverlordQ, Evertype, AlexanderWinston, Mzajac, OwenBlacker, Grinner, Vbs, Zfr, Defenestrate, Sam Hocevar, Gurkha, Mschlindwein, Picapica, Demiurge, Kjspahis, Kate, Mike Rosoft, Jayjg, An Siarach,
A-giau, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, AxSkov, Cnyborg, YUL89YYZ, Moochocoogle, LindsayH, Quiensabe, Dbachmann, Martpol,
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Sagitario, Scott Gall, Alai, Forteblast, TShilo12, Nuker~enwiki, AlexTiefling, Feezo, Bobrayner, Thryduulf, Angr, Vashti, Woohookitty,
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Jake Wartenberg, Amire80, The wub, Dave63, Cassowary, Fish and karate, Wobble, Titoxd, Miskin, JonnyR, Salim, MacRusgail, Hottentot, HaroldRex, RexNL, Mark J, Pricey3000, Chobot, DTOx, Digitalme, Gwernol, UkPaolo, JPD, YurikBot, RobotE, JWB, Hairy
Dude, Reidca, RussBot, Jtkiefer, Anonymous editor, Witan, Pigman, DanMS, Gaius Cornelius, Pseudomonas, Terra Green, Daniel563,
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and Anonymous: 702

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15

15.2

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Images

• File:1588_First_Welsh_Bible.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/1588_First_Welsh_Bible.jpg License: CC0 Contributors:
This digital image can be seen in its original context here
Original artist: William Morgan (1545-1604)
• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
• File:Cyhoeddi_grant_i_dotCYM_gan_Ieuan_Wyn_Jones,_2008.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/
2e/Cyhoeddi_grant_i_dotCYM_gan_Ieuan_Wyn_Jones%2C_2008.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
Stefanik
• File:Defnyddiwch_eich_Cymraeg_-_Use_your_Welsh_-_geograph.org.uk_-_488577.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/6/61/Defnyddiwch_eich_Cymraeg_-_Use_your_Welsh_-_geograph.org.uk_-_488577.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0
Contributors: From geograph.org.uk Original artist: Alan Fryer
• File:Estación_Gaiman_(2).JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Estaci%C3%B3n_Gaiman_%282%
29.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Gastón Cuello
• File:Flag_of_Argentina.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Based on: http://manuelbelgrano.gov.ar/bandera/creacion-de-la-bandera-nacional/ Original artist: (Vector graphics by
Dbenbenn)
• File:Flag_of_Wales_2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Flag_of_Wales_2.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Open Clipart Library Original artist: Unknown
Vector graphics by Tobias Jakobs
• File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Map_of_Celtic_Nations.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Map_of_Celtic_Nations.svg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Sound-icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Sound-icon.svg License:
Derivative work from Silsor's versio Original artist: Crystal SVG icon set

LGPL Contributors:

• File:Still_surviving..._-_geograph.org.uk_-_406078.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Still_
surviving..._-_geograph.org.uk_-_406078.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: From geograph.org.uk Original artist: ceridwen
• File:Wales.cardiff.slow.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Wales.cardiff.slow.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Wales.cardiff.slow.arp.750pix.jpg Original artist: Adrian Pingstone
• File:Welsh_language.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Welsh_language.ogg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors:
• Derivative of Welsh language Original artist: Speaker: Arwel_Parry
Authors of the article
• File:Welsh_singe_in_Wrexham_1.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Welsh_singe_in_Wrexham_1.
png License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia Original artist: Snow storm in Eastern Asia at en.wikipedia
• File:Welsh_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Welsh_speakers_in_
the_2011_census.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: SkateTier
• File:Welshclass.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Welshclass.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Neddy1234
• File:Wikibooks-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.
• File:Wikidata-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Planemad
• File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/80/Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: File:Wikipedia-logo.svg as of 2010-05-14T23:16:42 Original artist: version 1 by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); Wikimedia.
• File:Wikisource-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau
• File:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Snorky
• File:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AleXXw
• File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs),
based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber

15.3

Content license

• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

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